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Sculpture: Types and Means of Production

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A brief overview of the different types of sculpture and methods for creating sculptural work.

Publicada em: Arte e fotografia
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Sculpture: Types and Means of Production

  1. 1. Sculpture • Sculpture is a three-dimensional form constructed to represent a natural or imaginary shape. A sculptor is a person obsessed with the form and shape of things, and it’s not just the shape of one thing, but the shape of anything and everything: the hard, tense strength, although delicate form of a bone; the strong, solid fleshiness of a beech tree trunk. –Henry Moore
  2. 2. Types of Sculpture Installation/Site Specific Full Round- Sculpture that exists in three- dimensional space. To see all parts of the work you need to walk around it. Relief – Sculpture that protrudes from a flat surface. The entire sculpture can be seen from the front. A sculpture that transforms an entire space into a work of art or wouldn’t exist without the space it occupies. You need to walk through the piece to experience it.
  3. 3. Free-Standing or Full-Round • It inhabits three-dimensional space in the same way that living things do. • Sculpture in the round cannot be appreciated from only a single viewpoint but must be circled and explored.
  4. 4. Relief Sculpture • A relief sculpture protrudes out of a flat surface, and it’s projection into three- dimensional space is relatively shallow. • The back of the relief sculpture is not meant to be seen; the entire design can be understood from a frontal view.
  5. 5. Bas Relief- (Also referred to as low relief.) Characterized by figures that are only slightly raised from the surface of the background. Sunken Relief: (Also known as incised or intaglio relief.) Relief that is created by having an image carved down below the surface of the sculpture. Types of Relief High Relief: The figures in the sculpture are dramatically raised from the background. They are sometimes nearly sculpted in the round.
  6. 6. Installation /Site Specific Art Sculptural artwork that transforms an entire space into a work of art, is constructed using materials found on site or is reliant on it’s location for meaning. The location is part of the artwork. Installations Earthworks/Land art: Installations made from natural materials or using the earth as part of the artwork. Usually created outdoors as temporary pieces, but are sometimes monumental and semi-permanent.
  7. 7. Methods of Execution 1. Subtractive Process– A process where material is cut or carved away to create a work of art. 2. Additive Process– Any method where materials are combined instead of removed to create a work of art. 3. Manipulation/ modeling – shaping or modeling material with tools or hands. 4. Casting – material that is cast from one state to another 5. Construction/ Fabrication – Elements of the sculpture are adhered to each other in some way to create the finished product. 6. Assemblage – Combining found objects to create a completed work of art.
  8. 8. CARVING Carving is the process of creating a sculpture by cutting, chipping away from or otherwise removing material from a solid mass using a chisel or other carving tool. Because material is taken away from the mass, carving is known as a subtractive process for creating sculpture. The most common materials used in carving sculptures are stone and wood. In fact, most sculptures throughout history were made using this method.
  9. 9. Modeling is a process in which the artist uses a soft, pliable material such as wax, clay, or plaster that is gradually built up and shaped until the desired form is attained. Unlike carving, modeling is an additive method, as the sculptor is continually adding material to the form. Modeling The material may be constructed atop some sort of metal frame or skeleton known as an armature to lend support to the soft material, so it will be able to maintain its shape.
  10. 10. CASTING Casting is the process of filling a mold with a liquid material or applying a pliable material to a form and allowing it to harden. In either case, when the material hardens, the resulting form is a cast.
  11. 11. LOST WAX CASTING or CIRE-PERDUE A casting process in which the mold is formed around a wax model which is then melted to leave desired spaces in the mold. This process produces a one-time use mold, or waste mold, and is often used to produce small sculptures or jewelry.
  12. 12. Additive processes where existing materials are attached together in some fashion to create a sculpture. This method of production can be used to describe the use of a number of different materials and processes including but not limited to: weaving, welding, woodworking, blacksmithing, or assemblage. CONSTRUCTION/FABRICATION
  13. 13. Assemblage Assembling found objects in unique ways to create a sculpture. Joseph Cornell Louise Nevelson Subodh Gupta A found object is anything used in a work of art that is recognizable as an object that existed before the sculpture. Examples include trash or wood scraps.
  14. 14. Kinetic: Any work of art with moving parts. A Few Common Subcategories in Sculpture Ephemeral: Artwork that is intentionally temporary. Interactive: A work of art that people interact with or change. Public: Artwork that is designed for a public space.