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Team building

  1. Team Building: A LeadershipTeam Building: A Leadership StrategyStrategy
  2. ““Individual commitment to a groupIndividual commitment to a group effort is what makes a teameffort is what makes a team work…”work…” Vince LombardiVince Lombardi
  3. Teams vs. Groups What are the differences between teams & groups?
  4. Team Building Twelve tips for successful team building: 1. Clear expectations 2. Context 3. Commitment 4. Competence 5. Charter 6. Control 7. Collaboration 8. Communication 9. Creative Innovation 10. Consequences 11. Coordination 12. Cultural Change
  5. Principles of Teamwork  Benefits of Teamwork  Characteristics of the Best Team Leaders  Characteristics of Great Team Members  Characteristics of Effective Teams
  6. What are the Benefits of Teamwork? • How can it aid in decision making? • How does it affect communication? • What are the benefits to members? • What are the benefits to organizations?
  7. Characteristics of the Best Team Leaders • What skills do they have? • What traits do they exhibit? • How do they communicate? • What motivates them?
  8. Characteristics of Great Team Members • What makes individual members a valuable part of the team? • How do they communicate? • How do they participate? • What’s their attitude? • What’s their motivation?
  9. Characteristics of Effective Teams • What is the atmosphere like? • How does the work get done? • What is communication like? • How are decisions made? • Where is the focus?
  10. Qualities of a Team • Members care for one another • Members know what is important • Members communicate with one another • Members grow together • There is a team fit
  11. Qualities of a Team… • Members place individual rights beneath the best interest of the team • Each team member plays a special role • Team has enough members to share the work • Members know exactly where the team stands • Members are willing to pay the price
  12. “Achieving a common purpose through collaboration with others is a unique work experience. Individuals working effectively together for a common purpose create a force: a power to perform.” Defining Team Work
  13. Team-building Basics • What is team-building? • About teams • About team ability • Why do it? • Teams are here to stay • The more team able, the better the library
  14. Team-building Basics…Team-building Basics…  How to do it?How to do it?  Know the teamKnow the team  Know what the team mustKnow what the team must dodo  Condition the team for theCondition the team for the workwork
  15. What It Means to beWhat It Means to be Team AbleTeam Able  Team Members Should...Team Members Should...  Work well with othersWork well with others  On a level playing fieldOn a level playing field  Contribute knowledge and expertiseContribute knowledge and expertise  The right amountThe right amount  Be patient with the processBe patient with the process  Ccompassionate, good humorCcompassionate, good humor
  16. When Is A Group A Team?When Is A Group A Team?  Common purpose:Common purpose: a visiona vision  StructureStructure  Enables team to performEnables team to perform effectivelyeffectively  Uses the talents of all itsUses the talents of all its membersmembers  Finishes the game togetherFinishes the game together
  17. How To Build a Team?How To Build a Team?  Know the individualsKnow the individuals  Skills and abilitiesSkills and abilities  Strengths, weaknesses, blind spotsStrengths, weaknesses, blind spots  Know what the team needs to doKnow what the team needs to do  Match talents to team purposeMatch talents to team purpose  Try it; course correctTry it; course correct  Condition the team for the workCondition the team for the work  Coach individuals and the teamCoach individuals and the team  Monitor team conditionsMonitor team conditions
  18. Nurturing Team AbilityNurturing Team Ability  Believe in the teamBelieve in the team  Be honest with the teamBe honest with the team  Be who you are equally toBe who you are equally to everyoneeveryone  Inspire the teamInspire the team
  19. Basic Team-building SkillsBasic Team-building Skills  Develop a realisticDevelop a realistic assignmentassignment  Match up team talentMatch up team talent  Provide effective leadershipProvide effective leadership  Secure adequate resourcesSecure adequate resources  Coach individuals and theCoach individuals and the teamteam
  20. Summing Up Team-buildingSumming Up Team-building  Team ability = apex of performanceTeam ability = apex of performance  Teams exist for a purposeTeams exist for a purpose  Teams end but team ability carries onTeams end but team ability carries on
  21. The 2X2: A MultipurposeThe 2X2: A Multipurpose ToolTool  2 X 22 X 2  Johari windowJohari window  Social sciencesSocial sciences  ApplicationsApplications  CoachingCoaching  Team-buildingTeam-building  OtherOther
  22. Two-By-Two For Sam’sTwo-By-Two For Sam’s Work UnitWork Unit
  23. Summing Up Excellence inSumming Up Excellence in Supervision...Supervision...  Provide a vision and clarify expectationsProvide a vision and clarify expectations  Reinforce beneficial behaviorsReinforce beneficial behaviors  Confront inappropriate behaviorsConfront inappropriate behaviors  Interact purposefully, consistently, andInteract purposefully, consistently, and predictablypredictably  Integrate coaching and team-buildingIntegrate coaching and team-building
  24. How do Teams Work Best? • Teams succeed when members have: • Commitment to common objectives; • Defined roles and responsibilities; • Effective decision systems, communication and work procedures; and, • Good personal relationships.
  25. Stages in Team Building FormingForming StormingStorming NormingNorming PerformingPerforming
  26. FORMING • Team Building • Define team • Determine individual roles • Develop trust and communication • Develop norms • Task • Define problem and strategy • Identify information needed
  27. Team Roles - Leader • Encourage and maintain open communication. • Help the team develop and follow team norms. • Help the team focus on the task. • Deal constructively with conflict.
  28. Team Roles - Recorder • Keep a record of team meetings. • Maintain a record of team assignments • Maintain a record of the team's work.
  29. Team Roles – PR Person • Contact resource people outside of the team. • Correspond with the team's mentor. • Work to maintain good communication among team members.
  30. Team Norms • How do we support each other? • What do we do when we have problems? • What are my responsibilities to the team?
  31. STORMING • During the Storming stage team members: • Realize that the task is more difficult than they imagined; • Have fluctuations in attitude about chances of success; • May be resistant to the task & • Have poor collaboration.
  32. Storming Diagnosis • Do we have common goals and objectives? • Do we agree on roles and responsibilities? • Do our task, communication, and decision systems work? • Do we have adequate interpersonal skills?
  33. Negotiating Conflict  Separate problem issues fromSeparate problem issues from people issues.people issues.  Be soft on people, hard onBe soft on people, hard on problem.problem.  Look for underlying needs,Look for underlying needs, goals of each party rather thangoals of each party rather than specific solutions.specific solutions.
  34. Addressing the ProblemAddressing the Problem  State your views in clear non-judgmentalState your views in clear non-judgmental language.language.  Clarify the core issues.Clarify the core issues.  Listen carefully to each person’s point of view.Listen carefully to each person’s point of view.  Check understanding by restating the coreCheck understanding by restating the core issues.issues.
  35. NORMINGNORMING  During this stage members accept:During this stage members accept:  Their team;Their team;  Team rules and procedures;Team rules and procedures;  Their roles in the team &Their roles in the team &  The individuality of fellow members.The individuality of fellow members.  Team members realize that they are notTeam members realize that they are not going to crash-and-burn and start helpinggoing to crash-and-burn and start helping each other.each other.
  36. BehaviorsBehaviors  Competitive relationships become moreCompetitive relationships become more cooperative.cooperative.  There is a willingness to confront issuesThere is a willingness to confront issues and solve problems.and solve problems.  Teams develop the ability to express criticismTeams develop the ability to express criticism constructively.constructively.  There is a sense of team spirit.There is a sense of team spirit.
  37. Giving ConstructiveGiving Constructive FeedbackFeedback  Be descriptive.Be descriptive.  Don't use labels.Don't use labels.  Don’t exaggerate.Don’t exaggerate.  Don’t be judgmental.Don’t be judgmental.  Speak for yourself.Speak for yourself.
  38.  Use “I” messages.Use “I” messages.  Restrict your feedback to things you know forRestrict your feedback to things you know for certain.certain.  Help people hear and accept your complimentsHelp people hear and accept your compliments when giving positive feedback.when giving positive feedback. Giving ConstructiveGiving Constructive FeedbackFeedback
  39. Receiving FeedbackReceiving Feedback  Listen carefully.Listen carefully.  Ask questions for clarity.Ask questions for clarity.  Acknowledge the feedback.Acknowledge the feedback.  Acknowledge the valid points.Acknowledge the valid points.  Take time to sort out what youTake time to sort out what you heard.heard.
  40. PERFORMINGPERFORMING Team members have:Team members have:  Gained insight into personal and teamGained insight into personal and team processes;processes;  A better understanding of each other’sA better understanding of each other’s strengths and weaknesses;strengths and weaknesses;  Gained the ability to prevent or workGained the ability to prevent or work through group conflict and resolvethrough group conflict and resolve differences; and,differences; and,  Developed a close attachment to the team.Developed a close attachment to the team.
  41. Recipe for Successful TeamRecipe for Successful Team  Commitment to shared goalsCommitment to shared goals and objectivesand objectives  Clearly define roles andClearly define roles and responsibilitiesresponsibilities  Use best skills of eachUse best skills of each  Allows each to develop inAllows each to develop in all areasall areas
  42. Recipe for Successful TeamRecipe for Successful Team  Effective systems and processesEffective systems and processes  Clear communicationClear communication  Beneficial team behaviors; well-definedBeneficial team behaviors; well-defined decision procedures and ground rulesdecision procedures and ground rules  Balanced participationBalanced participation  Awareness of the group processAwareness of the group process  Good personal relationshipsGood personal relationships
  43. Team Building:Team Building: An IntroductionAn Introduction  Leadership style thatLeadership style that promotes team building ispromotes team building is positively associated withpositively associated with  ProductivityProductivity  ProfitabilityProfitability
  44. Team Building:Team Building: An Introduction…An Introduction…  Teamwork is often associatedTeamwork is often associated withwith  Reduced turnoverReduced turnover  Cost reductionCost reduction  Large production increasesLarge production increases  Gains in qualityGains in quality  Improved customer serviceImproved customer service
  45. Team Building:Team Building: An Introduction…An Introduction…  TeamworkTeamwork  Job gets done efficientlyJob gets done efficiently and harmoniouslyand harmoniously  Fewer interpersonalFewer interpersonal relations problemsrelations problems  Positive effect on thePositive effect on the physical and psychologicalphysical and psychological well-being of employeeswell-being of employees  Higher levels of jobHigher levels of job satisfaction and less stresssatisfaction and less stress
  46. Team Building:Team Building: An IntroductionAn Introduction  Synergy is another positiveSynergy is another positive outcome of teamworkoutcome of teamwork  The interaction of two orThe interaction of two or more parts to producemore parts to produce greater results than the sumgreater results than the sum of the parts takenof the parts taken individuallyindividually  Especially important whenEspecially important when organizations value creativityorganizations value creativity
  47. Teamwork Doesn’tTeamwork Doesn’t Come NaturallyCome Naturally  The concept of teamwork hasThe concept of teamwork has been around a long timebeen around a long time  Many organizations work hardMany organizations work hard to get all employees to pullto get all employees to pull together as a teamtogether as a team  Most jobs today requireMost jobs today require ongoing interaction betweenongoing interaction between coworkers and managerscoworkers and managers
  48. Teamwork Doesn’tTeamwork Doesn’t Come Naturally…Come Naturally…  Need commitment andNeed commitment and cooperation of every employeecooperation of every employee  Requires meaningful employeeRequires meaningful employee participation in planning,participation in planning, solving problems, andsolving problems, and developing ways to improvedeveloping ways to improve
  49. Teamwork Doesn’tTeamwork Doesn’t Come Naturally…Come Naturally…  BarriersBarriers  Some value individualism over teamworkSome value individualism over teamwork  Conflict can cause a breakdown inConflict can cause a breakdown in relationshipsrelationships  Heavy workloads and long hours lead toHeavy workloads and long hours lead to weary employeesweary employees  Teamwork flourishes under strong leadershipTeamwork flourishes under strong leadership
  50. Teamwork:Teamwork: The Employee’s RoleThe Employee’s Role  Most valued employees areMost valued employees are willing to assume leadershipwilling to assume leadership roles and responsibilitiesroles and responsibilities  Each team member shouldEach team member should  Assume an active part inAssume an active part in helping the work unithelping the work unit achieve its missionachieve its mission  Be a team builderBe a team builder
  51. Employees as LeadersEmployees as Leaders  Effective leaders are helpingEffective leaders are helping work team members developwork team members develop leadership skillsleadership skills  The team’s success does notThe team’s success does not always ride on one personalways ride on one person  Merit in establishing diversityMerit in establishing diversity of leadership within workof leadership within work groupgroup
  52. Valued Team MembersValued Team Members  Every employee has potentialEvery employee has potential to be a leaderto be a leader  Success often depends on yourSuccess often depends on your ability to be an effective teamability to be an effective team membermember
  53. Becoming aBecoming a Valued Team MemberValued Team Member  Avoid any action that mightAvoid any action that might sabotage the teamsabotage the team  Keep in mind that effectiveKeep in mind that effective team membership depends onteam membership depends on honest, open communicationhonest, open communication  Do not feel the need toDo not feel the need to submerge your own strongsubmerge your own strong believes, creative solutions,believes, creative solutions, and ideasand ideas
  54. SummarySummary  Teamwork ensures that a jobTeamwork ensures that a job gets done and that it gets donegets done and that it gets done efficientlyefficiently  Teamwork can mean theTeamwork can mean the difference between a profitabledifference between a profitable and unprofitable organizationand unprofitable organization  Team-building leadership styleTeam-building leadership style is suited to today’s employeesis suited to today’s employees
  55. Summary…Summary…  Many companies are formingMany companies are forming specific types of teamsspecific types of teams  Self-directedSelf-directed  Cross-functionalCross-functional  Two ways to learn about teamsTwo ways to learn about teams  Leaders who promoteLeaders who promote teamworkteamwork  Scholars who discuss itScholars who discuss it
  56. Summary…Summary…  Effective teamwork is informalEffective teamwork is informal and relaxedand relaxed  People arePeople are  InvolvedInvolved  InterestedInterested  Eager to participate in work-Eager to participate in work- related problemsrelated problems  Goals and objectives are clearlyGoals and objectives are clearly understoodunderstood
  57. Summary…Summary…  Two dimensions ofTwo dimensions of supervisory leadershipsupervisory leadership  ConsiderationConsideration  StructureStructure  Additional qualities ofAdditional qualities of effective managerseffective managers  CharacterCharacter  Emotional intelligenceEmotional intelligence
  58. Summary…Summary…  Consideration reflects theConsideration reflects the maintenance of employeemaintenance of employee relationshipsrelationships  Structure reflects directionStructure reflects direction through planning, goal setting,through planning, goal setting, communication, scheduling,communication, scheduling, and evaluatingand evaluating
  59. Summary…Summary…  Effective work groupEffective work group members should assumemembers should assume leadership rolesleadership roles  Each helps the group achieveEach helps the group achieve its missionits mission
  60. Summary…Summary…  Employees are in a uniqueEmployees are in a unique position to give guidance andposition to give guidance and support to their supervisorsupport to their supervisor  Bosses need assistance andBosses need assistance and support to achieve successsupport to achieve success
  61. Summary…Summary…  Learn to understand your bossLearn to understand your boss  Assess your strengthsAssess your strengths  Identify personalIdentify personal characteristics that mightcharacteristics that might impede or facilitate a workingimpede or facilitate a working relationshiprelationship  Be frank and candidBe frank and candid  Sometimes you need toSometimes you need to disagree with your bossdisagree with your boss

Notas do Editor

  1. I will start this with a story: Shakleton Expedition
  2. will illustrate with examples
  3. According to Bob Mendonsa and Associates’ web page http://www. on Team building : Team Building is a process and not an event. Team Building is about both willingness and ability. Sometimes teams problems occur because team members lack important skills. Sometimes there are trust issues. Team Building must address individual and group issues. People do not “disappear” when they choose to belong to a group. Any team building effort must address the strengths and development needs of individual team members that impact the group as a whole. Of course the corollary is true and groups or teams fail when they: Think differently Have poor leadership Have communications difficulties Have competition between members
  4. As the team matures, members gradually learn to cope with each other and the pressures that they face. As a result, the team goes through the fairly predictable stages noted on the slide.
  5. To help the students adapt to their team, it might be wise to have them to simple activities to build trust and establish communication between the members. However, in the context of the computational science project many of the forming actions are undertaken as the team determines what their project topic will be and narrows the focus to reach their project goal. Teachers can help students as they "form" their teams by making sure that they understand the process they will go through to get their topic. You may want to include some activities to illustrate trust and/or communication skills in a team.
  6. This is probably the most difficult stage for the team. They may be floundering trying to find a project topic that is narrow enough to study or a mentor to help them. They begin to realize that this project is different than other ones that they have done in the past. Teachers can help students through this stage by encouraging members to use their individual skills and assume more responsibilities. Understanding how personality types interact can ease some of the tensions in the storming stage.
  7. As a teacher, you can help your students when they are in the “storming” stage, by focusing their attention on the questions above. The students may want to answer the first question both in general terms and more specifically, in conjunction with their project goals.
  8. See The Team Book by Peter R. Scholtes, Brian L. Joiner and Barbara Streibel for more background on the various ways people or teams deal with conflict . Avoiding Conflict – you must avoid both the issues likely to lead to conflict and the people with whom you are likely to conflict with Smooth the conflict – minimizing conflict so that group relationships aren’t strained. Forcing the conflict – attempts to overpower others and force them to accept your position. Compromising – tries to get others to give up some of what they want in exchange for giving up some of what you want. Sounds good, but this can be lose-lose strategy because no one achieves their goals. Underlying assumption: everyone should accept less than they want because that is the best that they can hope for. (Should be tried after problem solving hasn’t worked) Problem Solving – Win-win approach. Personal goals and group relationships are highly valued. Purpose to find a path forward that meets everyone’s goals and preserves group relationships. Continued on next slide
  9. Problem solving includes strategies aimed at taking diverse viewpoints into account, clarifying the issues, clearing the air constructively and enabling everyone to move forward together. You can clarify core issues by sorting out areas of agreement from areas of disagreement When listening to each person’s point of view – Accept that they believe/want this even if you don’t!! Look for the reasons (maybe something would be good for both)
  10. During this stage, team members begin to work out their differences and now have more time and energy to spend on their work. Thus they are able to start making significant progress. In the context of the computational science project, the students have probably found a mentor who is helping them and have narrowed their project focus.
  11. During this stage, you should encourage team members to: do detailed planning develop criteria for completion of goals build on positive norms and change unhealthy norms encourage continued team spirit Now that the team is working well, it is important for team members to learn to communicate with each other including how to constructively criticize when necessary.
  12. Be descriptive -- relate what you saw or heard the other person do. Give specific recent examples Don’t use labels -- Be specific and unambiguous. Don’t use words like immature, unprofessional, irresponsible which are labels attached to behavior. For example, say “ You missed the deadline we had agreed to meet rather than, “You’re being irresponsible and I want to know what you are going to do about it. Don’t exaggerate. Be exact. To say, “You’re always late for deadlines” is probably untrue and unfair. It invites the receiver to argue with exaggeration rather than respond to real issue Don’t be judgmental. Don’t use words like good, better, bad, worst or should which place you in the role of controlling parent. This invites the receiver to respond as a child. Speak for yourself. Don’t refer to absent, anonymous people. Avoid references like “A lot of people here don’t like it when you…” Encourage others to speak for themselves
  13. Talk first about yourself, not about the other person. Use a statement with with “I” as the subject not “you”. People are more likely to remain open to your message when an “I” statement is used. Phrase the issue as a statement, not a question. “I” statements allows the receiver to see what effect the behavior had on you. Restrict your feedback. Don’t present your opinions as facts. Help people hear and receive positive feedback. Many people fell awkward when told good things about themselves. It may be important to reinforce the positive feedback and help the person hear it, acknowledge it and accept it.
  14. Listen carefully. Don’t interrupt. Don’t discourage the feedback-giver. Ask questions for clarity. You have the right to receive clear feedback. Ask for specific examples. Acknowledge the feedback. Paraphrase the message in your own words to let the person know what you have heard and understood what was said. Acknowledge the valid points. Agree with what is true. Agree with what is possible. Acknowledge the other person’s point of view and try to understand their reaction. Agreeing with what’s true or possible doesn’t mean you agree to change your behavior or mean agreeing with any value judgment about you. You can agree that your reports are late with out thereby agreeing that your are irresponsible Take time to sort out what you heard. You may need time for sorting out or checking with others before responding to feedback. It is reasonable to ask the feedback-giver for time to think about what was said and how you feel about it. Don’t use this time as an excuse to avoid the issue.
  15. During the performing stage, the team is now an effective and cohesive unit. As a team, the emphasize quality work; utilize each member’s talents; meet deadlines; and continue to work on team commitment. Examples of the results of good team work can be seen on the Video tapes and CDs from the National Expos. The presentation itself is an example of team work. The duration and intensity of these stages vary from team to team. Sometimes Stage 4 is achieved in a meeting or two; other times it takes months. Understanding the stages of growth will keep you from overreacting to normal problems and setting unrealistic expectations. Don’t panic. With patience and effort the assembly of independent individuals will grow into a team.
  16. To summarize, even though these points are addressing teams in the workplace, they are applicable in the classroom setting. They can also form part of the rubric to evaluate the team’s performance. Clarity in team goals: has a clear vision and can progress steadily toward its goals. A work plan: helps team determine what advice, assistance, and other resources they need from teachers, mentors or research Clearly defined role: Uses each member’s talents and involves everyone in team activities so no one feels left out.
  17. Clear communication: Speak with clarity and be succinct. Listen actively; explore rather than debate each speaker’s ideas. Avoid interrupting. Beneficial team behaviors: Should encourage all members to use the skills and practices that make discussions and meetings more effective; suggest procedures for meeting goals, clarify or elaborate on ideas; keep the discussion from digressing Well-defined decision procedures: discuss how decisions will be made; use data as a basis of decisions; explore important issues by polling Balanced participation: Everyone should participate in discussions and decisions, share commitment to the project’s success and contribute their talents Established ground rules: Establish ground rules for what will and will not be tolerated in the team Awareness of group process: Be sensitive to nonverbal communication; be aware of the group process and how the team works together Use the scientific approach: Of course this is the underlying assumption in a project development, but in team building it helps members avoid team problems and disagreements. Opinions must be supported by data