1. Life Span Development One to Fifteen Months
2. Learning Objectives
3. The growth and development of a child during the first year of life is dramatic.
4. Growth During the First Year
5. Average Lengths and Weights0-12 months
1. LEARNING OBJECTIVE
Students will understand how a baby develops
physically in the first year. Also identify what influences
development and care that babies need in the first year of
2. THE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF A CHILD DURING
THE FIRST YEAR OF LIFE IS DRAMATIC.
WHAT CHANGES ARE OBVIOUS FROM THESE PHOTOS?
3. GROWTH DURING THE FIRST YEAR
From birth to age one, babies typically triple their
birth weight and increase their length by 50%.
Doctors judge this by using growth charts: shows
the average weight and height of girls and boys at
Doctors are more concerned that a baby is steadily
growing, versus meeting a certain weight or height at a
One of the best signs of good health.
Initially a newborn loses about 10% of their weight,
however after that they begin to gain rapidly.
Weight should triple by the end of year one.
One-year-olds usually weigh 20-22 lbs.
Boys usually weigh more than girls.
Bone growth is rapid during the first year.
The average newborn is 20 inches. A year later,
they are about 30 inches.
Not all babies grow at the same rate and boys are
usually slightly longer than girls.
Heredity plays a bigger part in height than weight.
7. BODY SHAPE
Babies change from holding their extremities close
to their bodies and in a curled up position to
stretching out. Legs and feet straighten out.
They look chubby by 3 months, but will lose some
of this as they become more active.
When babies begin to practice standing, they lean
forward slightly and have a protruding belly.
8. GROWTH AND STABILITY
Neurons - Basic unit of nervous system; receive
and transmit messages
Dendrites – receive messages
Axons – transmit messages
Neurotransmitters – chemical messengers
Myelin – insulation of axon; enables efficient rapid
transmission of messages
Myelination is part of the maturation process
Interconnections among neurons form:
10. GROWTH AND STABILITY:
NERVOUS SYSTEM AND BRAIN GROWTH
◦ Infants are born with between 100 and 200 billion neurons
◦ Most neurons have relatively few connections to other neurons
◦ As you grow the neurons form new connections.
◦ Stronger connections equal more skill at a particular activity.
◦ After birth, neurons increase in size
◦ Pruning Down: Severing of unnecessary/unused connections.
◦ Born with many more neurons than you will need.
12. DEVELOPMENT OF THE BRAIN
Brain: Command center of developing organism
Structures of the Brain
◦ Medulla: control of vital functions (heartbeat & respiration)
◦ Cerebellum: control of balance and equilibrium
◦ Cerebrum: depth of human learning, thought, memory,
Cerebral Cortex: upper layer of the brain (wrinkled surface
of the cerebrum)
14. GROWTH AND STABILITY:
Brain will begin to become more differentiated and specialized.
Certain functions are located more in one hemisphere than the other.
Becomes more pronounced during the preschool years.
◦ Processes information sequentially.
One piece of information at a time.
◦ Processes information holistically
15. SHAKEN BABY SYNDROME
syndrome: a condition
that occurs when
shakes a baby, usually in
an effort to make them
Can lead to serious brain
damage, cerebral palsy,
neck or spine injuries, or
16. SHAKEN BABY SYNDROME
What to do if you are
close to the breaking
Put the baby down and go
to another room to calm
Ask a friend or relative to
care for the baby for a
Talk to someone.
Call a parenting hotline.
17. CHARACTERISTIC INJURIES OF SHAKEN BABY
Subdural hemorrhages (bleeding in the brain)
Retinal hemorrhages (bleeding in the retina)
Damage to the spinal cord and neck
Fractures of the ribs and bones
Shaken baby syndrome often causes irreversible damage.
In the worst cases, children die due to their injuries.
18. CHILDREN WHO SURVIVE MAY HAVE:
partial or total blindness
speech and learning difficulties
problems with memory and attention
severe mental retardation
19. PRIMARY BEHAVIOR STATES
State - refers to degree of awareness infants display to both internal
and external stimulation.
Wakeful states - infants may be:
◦ alert and attentive
Sleep states include:
◦ Quiet sleep (infants’ eyes are closed and respiration is slow and
◦ Active sleep (infants eyes are closed, but move intermittently,
respiration is uneven, they may smile, frown, suck, sob, sigh etc).
Transition states between sleep and wakefulness and between sleep
In the months following birth, the active sleep state accounts for about
½ of infants’ total sleep
This gradually declines and by 6 months, only about 1/3.
Different states produce different brain wave patterns, which can be
measured by an electroencephalogram (EEG)
Newborns have highly irregular brain wave patterns, although they
start to become more regular by approximately 3 months old
20. ENSURING ADEQUATE SLEEP
Choose a safe bed
No fluffy blankets,
pillows, or stuffed
Place baby face up
Don’t allow baby to
sleep in bed with
22. FEEDING BABIES
birth to 6 months-breast milk or formula
6 months-solid foods can be introduced
12 months-most calories should come from solid
foods, still drinking breast milk or milk.
Babies will eat through the night-about every 3
hours. When a baby weighs about 12 lbs., they no
longer need a late-night feeding, as their stomachs
are big enough to get them through the night.
23. BABY’S HEALTH
Teething: the process
of the teeth pushing
their way through the
When teeth start to
appear, they should be
cleaned with a moist
24. MOTOR DEVELOPMENT IN INFANCY
Reflexes – unlearned, organized, involuntary responses that occur
automatically in the presence of certain stimuli.
Most infant reflexes have survival value, or evolved because they
had survival value at some point in history.
Some reflexes remain throughout the lifespan, others disappear.
Reflexes serve as good diagnostic tools for pediatricians because
they appear and disappear according to a timetable.
26. INFANT REFLEXES
Asymmetric Tonic Neck
Place an infant on their back
Baby’s head turns to one side, the limbs on the face side
extend while the limbs on the opposite side flex (fencer
Disappears at 2 months
27. LANDMARKS OF PHYSICAL ACHIEVEMENT:
GROSS AND FINE MOTOR SKILLS
Fine Motor Skills
Skills involving small muscles used in manipulation
Development of Hand Control
At birth: grasping is reflexive
3 months: grasping becomes voluntary
Ulnar Grasp: 4 fingers and palm
9 to 12 months
Pincer grasp: use of oppositional thumb
28. LOCOMOTION: USE OF GROSS MOTOR
Movement from one place to another
Requires gross motor skills
Skills using large muscles involved in locomotion
Predictable sequence of activities
Roll over − Crawl − Walk
Sit up − Stand − Run
Timing of milestones varies among infants
Normal “range” versus exact age
30. DEVELOPMENT OF THE SENSES
Sensation and Perception
Sensation: stimulation of sensory organs & transmission to brain
Perception: organization of sensations
I. Development of Vision
Visual Acuity and Peripheral Vision
◦ Neonates are nearsighted and have poor peripheral vision
◦ Visual acuity improves at 6 months are reaches adult levels by 3 – 5 yrs.
◦ Peripheral vision reaches adult levels by 6 months
◦ At 2 months, show preference for human faces (especially attractive)
◦ By 3 – 5 months: differentiated reactions to emotional faces
◦ Respond to depth cues by 6 – 8 months (coincides with crawling)
32. DEVELOPMENT DURING THE FIRST YEAR
How far can an infant see?
At birth: 7-10 inches
1 month: 3 feet
6 months: eyesight is almost fully
developed, clarity and sharpness
close to an adult
Babies first see the world two-
dimensionally, but by the second
month, the infant develops depth
perception: the ability to perceive
objects that are three-dimensional.
How would this change affect how
they interact with the world?
33. DEVELOPMENT OF THE SENSES
II. Auditory Perception
The ability to hear begins prenatally
Infants can differentiate changes in melodies
and sounds (skill required to learn language)
Can differentiate their mother’s voice from
Infants are more sensitive than adults to high
and low frequencies, but not to the middle
34. DEVELOPMENT OF THE SENSES
III. Smell and Taste
Infants react to unpleasant smells and tastes from birth
Newborns can detect their mother’s scent (if breastfed)
Infants have an innate sweet tooth (they will suck harder on a
bottle with milk that is sweetened)
35. DEVELOPMENT OF THE SENSES
IV. Sensitivity to Pain and Touch
Infants are born with the capacity to feel pain
Some of the basic reflexes require tough (e.g. rooting)
Children gain information regarding the world around them by
touching (e.g. babies 6 months old put everything in their mouth)
36. JEAN PIAGET’S APPROACH TO COGNITIVE
Cognitive development - an orderly sequence of stages.
Focus is on the change in understanding that occurs as a
child moves through each stage.
◦ Four stages of cognitive development
37. THE SENSORIMOTOR STAGE
Sensorimotor Stage ( 0 to 2 years)
Developments demonstrated by sensory and motor activity.
Infants progress from responding to reflexes to goal oriented behavior.
Mental representations and problem solving
6 Stages of Sensorimotor Development
Stage 1: Simple Reflexes (0 – 1 mo)
Assimilation of new objects into reflexive responses.
Accommodation can serve to modify inborn reflexes through experience.
Stage 2: Primary Circular Reactions (1 – 4 mo)
Coordination of certain sensory and motor schemes.
Repeat stimuli that first occurred by chance.
The focus is on infants own body.
Goal directed behavior begins to emerge
Transition from “look and see” to “look in order to see”
38. THE SENSORIMOTOR STAGE
Stage 3: Secondary Circular Reactions (4 – 8 mo)
Repeated actions meant to bring about a desirable
consequence on the outside world.
Infant begins to act on the world (“rattles” or shakes a rattle).
Shift in focus and initial cognitive awareness of external
Stage 4: Coordination of Secondary Schemes (8 – 12 mo)
Coordination of secondary schemes to achieve certain goals.
Emergence of mental representations – object permanence
Recognition that objects continue to exist even when they are not
First six months
Out of sight, out of mind
By 8 – 12 months
Will begin to look for objects that have been hidden.
Gain ability to imitate actions of others
39. DEVELOPMENT OF OBJECT PERMANENCE
Stage 5: Tertiary Circular Reactions (12 – 18 mo)
Purposeful adaptations of established schemes to specific
Overt trial and error in problem solving.
Experimental quality to behavior (child conducting “miniature
Stage 6: New Means Through Mental Combinations (18 –
The capacity for mental representation, or symbolic thought.
A mental representation is an internal image of a past
event or object.
Mental trial and error in problem solving.
Child gains the ability to pretend and to imitate someone who
is not currently present
40. INFORMATION PROCESSING / INTELLIGENCE
◦ How children take in, use and store information
◦ Development is dependent on memory
◦ Three basic aspects of memory: encoding, storage and retrieval
Encoding – the process by which information is initially recorded in a form
usable to memory
Storage – placement of material into memory
Retrieval – the process by which information is located and brought into
◦ Infantile amnesia – the lack of memory for experiences that occurred prior to 3
years of age
◦ Individual differences in cognitive development can be measured.
◦ Bayley Scales of Infant Development (evaluates infants development from 2-
Behavioral Rating Scale
◦ Measurement of infant’s intelligence is difficult and unreliable – association
between most measures of infancy and adult intelligence is minimal.
◦ Can detect sensory and neurological problems and handicaps
42. THE ROOTS OF LANGUAGE
Language is the systematic, meaningful
arrangement of symbols which provides the basis
Language includes several formal characteristics:
◦ Phonology – the basic sounds of language (phonemes)
that can be combined to form words or sentences.
Ex: “a” in “mat” and “mate” are two different phonemes
English language - 40 phonemes to make up the entire language
◦ Morphemes – the smallest language unit that has
“s” for plural or “-ed” for past tense
◦ Semantics – rules that govern the meaning of words and
43. LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
Language Development in Infancy
◦ Infants display prelinguistic communication through sounds, facial
expressions, gestures and other nonlinguistic means
◦ Pre-linguistic vocalizations (babbling)
◦ Babbling – making speech-like, but meaningless sounds
◦ Starts at 2-3 months of age and continues until about 1 year
◦ Even deaf children “babble” – infants exposed to sign language will
“babble” with their hands (vocal babbling and hand “babbling” activate
similar areas of the brain – Broca’s Area)
Development of Vocabulary
◦ Receptive vocabulary grows faster than expressive vocabulary.
Understand many more words than they can produce
◦ First words are generally spoken between 10-14 months of age
◦ First words are typically holophrases, one-word utterances that stand for
an entire phrase
“ma” might mean “Where’s Mommy”, “get me out of my crib Mommy”
or “Mommy, give me back the remote!!”
44. LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
By 15 months of age, the average child has a vocabulary of 15
◦ Using words too broadly, generalizing their meaning
◦ Ex: “doggie” for dogs, cats, rabbits, squirrels, etc (anything
with fur and four legs)
◦ Using words too restrictively
◦ “blankie” describes baby’s blanket, but refuses to call other