Fire is a good friend of man if and when properly utilized but it will turn into a man-made hazard
when neglected. Fire is a rapid oxidation of matter accompanied by heat or flame. Many People are
injured and die because of fires, which there are some Instances that it could be prevented. There are
also losses of Property because there is no time to neither gather valuables nor make a phone call,
since fire spreads in seconds and a residence can be engulfed in flames in just five minutes.
Consequences in fire bring strong impacts to the victims.
It is important to understand the basic characteristics of fire for self protection. Poisonous gases
produced by fire make a victim disoriented and drowsy. Heat and smoke from fires are more
dangerous than the flames itself. Inhaling the super-heat air can sear the lungs and the victim may fall
into a slumber sleep instead of being awakened by a fire. The leading cause of deaths due to fire,
according to surveys, is through asphyxiation, exceeding burns by a ratio of three-to-one.
Nature of Fire
Fire may be produced if the three conditions or elements are present, namely:
Fuel is an essential substance that burned on any
matter capable of burning. Heat is a form of
energy capable of raising temperature. Hence, the
fuel must be heated to its kindling temperature.
There should be the presence of sufficient oxygen
which comes from the surrounding air.
The general classifications of fuel are:
1. Class A - There are the ordinary combustible materials which are mostly solid.
2. Class B- These are the kinds of fuel which are in liquid or gas state (LPG, oil and other petroleum
3. Class C- These are electrically energized fuel (flat iron, electric fan, etc.)
4. Class D - Metallic fire (potassium, magnesium and other combustible metals).
Heat comes from the fuel itself which is called spontaneous combustion. This contains
hydrocarbon (CH2) which comes from plants and animals. Vapor is considered hydrocarbon which
ignites when mixed with oxygen in air. No fuel will burn unless it is in vapor state.
Heat is a form of energy which is produced through the movement of molecules by friction.
General Categories of Energy (Heat)
There are 5 General Categories of energy (heat) such as:
1. Chemical Energy - It is the heat which results from chemical reaction.
- heat of decomposition
- heat of solution
2. Electrical Energy - It is the heat from electricity.
- resistance heating
- short circuiting
- electric heating
3. Mechanical Energy - It is the heat resulting from
4. Solar Energy - It is the energy derived from the sun. It confines the distribution of radiated even rays from the sun in one
5. Nuclear Energy - It is the heat resulting from breaking or combining atom
- Heat of fission - separating or breaking of atom
- Heat of fusion - combining atom together
Stages of Fire
1. Incipient stage - There is no visible smoke or flame.
2. Smoldering stage - There is smoke but no flame.
3.Flame stage - There is an actual fire and heat builds up in the
4. Heat stage - There is uncontrolled spread of super heated
Most Common Sources of Fire
3. Kitchen grease
4. Flammable chemicals
5. Electrical short circuits
6. Debris burning in forest and neglected camp
7. Overheated electrical appliances
How to Eliminate Industrial Fires
1. Rigidly enforce smoking restriction
2. Oxygen should not be stored in the same area as flammable gases
or near any readily combustible materials. Storage area should be
made up of concrete or non-combustible building materials.
1. The stove should not be left when cooking.
2. Heat producing appliances should be kept clean. Old food particles and greasy
build-up can ignite.
3. After cooking, always turn off the stove.
4. Don't let the stove get red hot.
5. Never let your pressure cooker boil dry.
6. Don't let a pot holder get near a hot burner since it is a fire hazard.
7. Octopus connections should be avoided.
8. Appliance precautions and instructions should be read and followed.
9. Appliances should be given plenty of air space to prevent over heating.
10. Electrical cords should not be trailed across the floor or under rugs.
1. Camp fires should be extinguished before leaving.
2. Smoking in the forest should be avoided as it might set fire on dry leaves and
Classes of Fire and How they are Extinguished
1. Class "A" - Materials: wood, cloth, paper, trash, plastic and upholstery. Use water to extinguish
class A fires, soda acid or foam extinguishers.
2. Class "B" - Fires occurs out of flammable liquids and Bases such as gasoline, oil, grease, paints,
kerosene, solvents, etc.
Use dry powder foam, vaporizing liquid or carbon dioxide extinguishers for Class "B" Fires.
Don't use water on class B fires - it will speedily spread the fire.
3. Class "C" Fires - This kind of fire originates from energized electrical equipment, fuse boxes,
wirings and appliances.
Using water should be avoided as it may cause shock or fatal electrocution.
4. Class "D" Fires-Combustible metals are the sources of Class "D" fires such as magnesium,
potassium and sodium and other materials.
FIRE SUPPRESSION AND CONTROL
Different Types of Portable Fire Extinguishers
1. Water pump/tank extinguisher (Class A fire only)
2. Pressurized water extinguisher (Class A fire only)
3. AFFF - Aqueous Film Forming: Foam (Class A and B fire only
4. C02- Carbon dioxide fire extinguisher (Class Band C fire only)
5. Dry Chemical Fire Extinguisher (Class A, B and C)
6. HCF - Hydrocarbon flour methane
7. Dry powder extinguisher (Class D fire only)! - it can be scooped or pressurized
Factors to be considered in the Selection of
Portable Fire Extinguishers
1. S-Severity of the fire
2. H- Hazards
3. A - Atmospheric condition
4. P- Personnel Available
5. E- Ease in handling
Procedures in Operating Fire Extinguisher
1. P-Pull the pin, making sure that
the seal is broken
2. A-Aim the nozzle after removing
it from the clip
3. S-Squeeze the trigger
4. S-Sway nozzle towards the base
of the fire
TIPS ON WHAT TO DO IN CASE OF FIRE
1. Smoke alarms should be installed. Smoke alarms that function well decreased
your chances of dying in fire by half.
2. Place smoke alarms on every level of your residence hey Should be place on ide
the bedrooms our (4) to twelve (12) Inches from the ceiling or high on the wall at the
top de nor stairways, or at the bot on of enclosed stairs and near (but not in) the
3. Smoke alarms should be tested and cleaned once a month and replace batteries
at least once a year. They should be replaced once every 10 years.
4. Candles and Lamps should not be set too close to curtains
1. Leave immediately the building. Never try to fight unless it is only contained In small area.
2. If your clothes catch on fire, stop, drop and roll until the fire ceased. Running only funneled and
spread flames easily.
3. When going through an area which has a thick smoke, wet a towel and cover your nose then crawl
on the floor going to your exit. There is a little amount of smoke and heated poisonous gas on the
floor since they tend to rise.
4. If the door feels hot, do not open. Escape through a window .If you cannot escape alert fire fighters
of your presence by hanging a white or light colored sheet outside the window.
5. If the door is cool, open slowly and ensure fire and/or smoke is not blocking your escape route.
Shut the door immediately if your escape route is blocked by using an alternate way such as the
6. As you escape, immediately close the doors to delay the spread of the fire.
7. Once you are safely out, stay out.
8. Do not return to the building or your home. If there are still people trapped in the building, call for
the fire department to rescue them.
Escaping the Fire
1. Review and practice escaping from each room with your family.
2. Be sure that windows are not nailed or painted shut. See to it that security
gratings on windows have a fire safety opening feature so they can be easily opened
from the inside.
3. If your residence has several floors or levels, you have to consider escape
ladders. Be sure also that burglar bars and other antitheft mechanisms that block
outside entry are easily opened from the inside.
4. Family members should be made to understand that they have to stay low to the
floor (where the air is safer in a fire) when escaping from a fire.
5. Clean the storage areas and throw all the trash such as old news. papers and
1. Avoid flammable liquids indoors such as gasoline, benzine, etc.
2. Flammable liquids should be stored in approved containers.
3. Avoid smoking near flammable liquids.
4. After using materials soaked in flammable liquids, burn it separately.
5. Chimneys should be insulated and placed spark arresters on top.
They should be at least three (3) feet higher than a roof.Hanging
branches above and around the chimney should be removed.
1. Be careful when using alternative heating sources.
2. The legality of using kerosene heaters in your community should be checked with
your local fire department. Kerosene heaters should be placed outside.
3. Heaters should be placed at least three (3) feet away from flammable materials.
4. Follow manufacturer's instructions in using type of fuel designated for your unit.
5. Ashes should be stored in a metal container outside and away from your residence.
6. Flames should be kept open away from walls, furniture, drapery, and flammable
7. Place a screen in front of the fireplace.
8. Heating units should be inspected and cleaned annually by a certified specialists.
Matches and Smoking
1. Keep matches and lighters away from children.
2. Avoid smoking in bed or when drowsy or medicated. Smokers
should use deep and sturdy ashtrays, cigarette and cigar butts
should be doused or soaked in water before disposal.
3. Do not throw cigar and cigarette butts into waste basket.
1. Be sure the electrical wiring in your homes are installed properly and regularly
checked by a competent electrician.
2. Extension cords should be inspected for frayed or exposed wires or loose plugs.
3. Outlets should have cover plates and be sure there is no exposed wiring.
4. See to it that wiring does not run under rugs, over nails, or across high-traffic
5. Do not leave your electric iron with the current on.
6. During brownout/blackout, cut off all electrical connections or to be safe, pull down
the main switch.
7. Extension cords or outlets should not be overloaded. Get a UL-approved unit with
built-in circuit breakers to prevent sparks and short circuits if you need to plug in two
or three appliances.
8. Be sure that insulation does not touch bare electrical wiring.
Other Important Information
1. Your door should be closed when sleeping.
2. A-B-C-type fire extinguishers should be installed in your
homes and family members should be taught how to use them.
3. Installing an automatic fire sprinkler in your home should be
4. Request from your local fire department to inspect your home
for fire safety and prevention.
AFTER FIRE - SEARCH AND RESCUE OPERATION
Scene Management/Scene Size-Up
Conduct initial evaluation of the scene to become effective, immediately determine the scene
safety, identify possible hazards, and determine the nature of the problem and the number of
patients or casualty.
First Aid in Search and Rescue
The rescue workers are the first persons in contact with both surface and trapped casualties,
hence it is very essential for them to know the importance of first aid. This is given to casualties to
preserve their lives and prevent more injury. Its application will help in the fast recovery as well.
Hereunder are the things to be done by the first aider:
1. Immediately diagnose what is wrong with the patient or victim
2. . Immediate and appropriate treatment should be given.
3. Stay with the casualty until they are transferred to a more advanced medical aid.
Causes of Burns
1. Hot liquids
3. Hot objects (metals and plastics)
4. Concentrated acids and alkali
5. Radiation flashes
6. High voltage electricity
Once it is safe, remove patient from source of burns and do the
1. Extinguish and remove smoldering clothes.
2. Keep away the patient away from electrical source.
3. Immediately wash-off chemicals with large amount on.
4. Remove objects that may cause additional burns.
1. Oxygen should be provided to all burn patients.
2. Transport to hospital if the patient is in respiratory distress.
3. Direct pressure bandage should be applied to control hemorrhage.
4. Shock and hypotension should be treated.
Initial Patient Assessment
In order to perform rapid assessment of the scene, the first
aider has the added responsibility to determine:
1. Environment danger.
2. Number of patient to be treated.
3. Mechanism of injury.
4. Additional sources required.
5. Problems of immediate extrication or patient access.
What the First Aider Must Do:
1. Just be calm and immediately take charge.
2. Ensure safety of the casualty.
3. Guard against further injury.
4. Give the casualties' confidence by giving them
assurance, talking and listening to them.
Essential Things to Remember
1.Position the patient correctly by maintaining open airway.
2.Artificial ventilation should be applied if casualty is not breathing.
3.Immediately control bleeding.
5.Fractures and dislocations must be immobilized.
6.The casualty must be placed in correct position and most comfortable
position consistent with the requirements of the treatment.
7.The casualty should be relieved of anxiety and confidence should be
8.The casualty should be relieved of pain and discomfort.
9.Gently handle the casualty.
10.Protect the casualty from cold and heat.
How to Cover Burns with Dry Dressings or Sheets
1. Moist dressings should be applied.
2. If the patient is to be brought to the hospital, don't
3. Ice should not be applied, break blisters.
4. Be careful in separating burned fingers or toes.
5. Cover your eyes if they are involved