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20090916 Communication

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20090916 Communication

  1. 1. WELCOME
  3. 3. One Day Seminar on Communication & Interpersonal Skills Presentation For Nagarjuna Fertilizers & Chemicals Ltd. Hyderabad Prof. V. Viswanadham WELCOME TO THE HEAD, HEART & HANDS OF NAGARJUNA
  4. 4. COMMUNICATION Importance, Basic Principles, Process, Types, Channels, etc. [ in the organizational context ] Compiled and presented by: Prof. V. Viswanadham
  5. 5. Ability to communicate effectively makes all the difference
  6. 6. Need for Communication • Very strong in Human beings • Considered as a basic need, as in the case of eating, sleeping, etc. • Established as both a social & individual need
  7. 7. Intended message is frequently mis-communicated, misunderstood, mis-quoted or even missed altogether because of ineffective interpersonal communication skills.
  8. 8. Communication helps : people reach some understanding of each other, learn to like each other, influence one another, build trust, and learn more about themselves and how people perceive them.
  9. 9. People who communicate effectively know how to interact with others flexibly, skillfully, and responsibly, but without sacrificing their own needs and integrity.
  10. 10. Communication plays a very significant part in human life. In today’s team-oriented workplace , the development of effective communication skills and good interpersonal communication skills constitute important keys to success. To build the competence and commitment of employees, a manager has to … … … ?
  11. 11. Uniqueness of Organisational Communication <ul><li>In an organisation, </li></ul><ul><li>groups, </li></ul><ul><li>departments, </li></ul><ul><li>branches and </li></ul><ul><li>services, </li></ul><ul><li>tend to develop </li></ul><ul><li> philosophies, </li></ul><ul><li>strategies, </li></ul><ul><li>tactics, and </li></ul><ul><li>views of their own </li></ul><ul><li>which promote, </li></ul><ul><li>sustain and </li></ul><ul><li>protect </li></ul><ul><li>their own special interests. </li></ul><ul><li>At times, these different things </li></ul><ul><li>may sub-optimise the organisational goals </li></ul><ul><li>thus creating conflict situations </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Benefits of improving communication skills </li></ul><ul><li>Understand better what others are saying. </li></ul><ul><li>Better understand how to get your own message across. </li></ul><ul><li>Enhance relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>Increase productivity. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce stress. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Importance Of Communication <ul><li>Organizational / Functional: greater information access and awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Improves coordination: reduces logical gaps </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages cooperation: helps bring everyone in the mainstream </li></ul><ul><li>Gives a direction: to tasks and activities </li></ul><ul><li>Morale and empowerment </li></ul><ul><li>Decision making aid </li></ul><ul><li>Speeds up the organizational processes </li></ul><ul><li>Better focus on customer requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Generates a greater sense of organizational commitment and involvement </li></ul><ul><li>A problem solving tool: by clarity, preciseness and feedback </li></ul>
  14. 14. What needs to be communicated Information/data + Attitudes Values Moods Emotions
  15. 15. Communication is a two-way process of giving and receiving information through one or more number of channels.
  16. 16. Basic Principles of Communication
  17. 17. Communication <ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><li>is the process of sending and receiving messages </li></ul>
  18. 18. What is Communication ? <ul><li>Communication is an exchange of information </li></ul><ul><li>from the sender to the receiver </li></ul><ul><li>with the message being understood </li></ul><ul><li>as intended by the sender </li></ul>Idea Decode Idea Listens Reads Observes Speaks Writes Acts Draws Words Actions Pictures Numbers Encode Symbols The receiver Sender
  20. 20. COMMUNICATION PROCESS SOURCE ENCODING MESSAGE DECODING RECEIVER FEEDBACK Ideas, Info, Intentions and Purpose Necessity of using words, symbols or forms in a precise manner Its final shape and form depends on the channel selected and the speed Interpreting message in terms of background experience and expectation Understood and acted in the light of it
  21. 21. To act as a speaker, writer, listener or reader, the learner must be able to act out a sequence of skilled actions. To speak , the learner must be able to : Plan and organize a message (cognitive skills); Formulate a linguistic utterance (linguistic skills); Articulate the utterance (phonetic skills); To write , the learner must be able to : Organize and formulate the message (cognitive and linguistic skills); Hand-write or type the text (manual skills) COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE PROCESSES
  22. 22. To listen , the learner must be able to : Perceive the utterance (auditory phonetic skills); Identify the linguistic message (linguistic skills); Understand the message (semantic skills); Interpret the message (cognitive skills); To read , the reader must be able to : Perceive the written text (visual skills); Recognize the script (orthographic skills); Identify the message (cognitive skills). Understand the message (semantic skills); Interpret the message (cognitive skills).
  23. 23. Flow of communication <ul><li>At the workplace </li></ul><ul><li>Upward From subordinates to superior </li></ul><ul><li>Downward </li></ul><ul><li>From superiors to the subordinates </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral </li></ul><ul><li>From one employee to another </li></ul>
  24. 24. Types of communication Formal Informal
  25. 25. COMMUNICATION NETWORKS <ul><li>Formal communication network : </li></ul><ul><li> follows the hierarchical structure </li></ul><ul><li> of the organization, </li></ul><ul><li> or the &quot;chain of command.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Informal communication network: </li></ul><ul><li>i nvolves communication </li></ul><ul><li>that follows the &quot;grapevine.&quot; </li></ul>
  26. 26. Formal Communication Workers H E A D Managers Managers Workers Workers Efforts at coordination Information Instructions and directives Workers
  27. 27. DIRECTION OF COMMUNICATION FLOW <ul><li>Downward communication </li></ul><ul><li>flows from upper management down </li></ul><ul><li>to the employees at lower ranks. </li></ul><ul><li>Job instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Ideology </li></ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Upward communication </li></ul><ul><li>is initiated by those at the lower levels of the organization </li></ul><ul><li>positive </li></ul><ul><li>timely </li></ul><ul><li>support current policy </li></ul>
  28. 28. CHANNELS OF COMMUNICATION Face to Face Interactive TV - high speed connections (two way) Video-Voice / Data Channel (one way) Telephone E-mail Personal written correspondence Formal written message Public speaking Data Reports Broadcast e- mails / reports
  30. 30. Whether one is speaking informally to a colleague, addressing formally a conference or meeting, writing a newsletter article or Preparing a formal report, the following 11 basic principles apply:
  31. 31. <ul><li>Know your audience. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Know your purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Know your topic. </li></ul>
  32. 32. 4. Anticipate objections. 5. Present a rounded picture. 6. Achieve credibility with your audience.
  33. 33. 7. Follow through on what you say. 8. Communicate a little at a time. 9. Present information in several ways.
  34. 34. <ul><li>Use multiple </li></ul><ul><li>communication techniques. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a practical, useful way </li></ul><ul><li>to get feedback. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Misconceptions of Communication
  36. 36. Communication is complex. When listening to, or reading someone else's message, we often F I L T E R what's being said through a screen of our own opinions. One of the major barriers to communication is our own ideas and opinions. What are Communication Misconceptions ?
  37. 37. What are Communication Misconceptions ? WORDS HAVE MEANING, BUT MEANINGS ARE NOT IN WORDS. Your perception about the world is not the same as mine. Our experiences may give different colors and hues, life and meanings to words. And because your perception determines the meanings you attribute to words, in communication, the message SENT is not necessarily the message RECEIVED. And for your listeners, real communication is the communication they received.
  38. 38. What are Communication Misconceptions ? WORDS HAVE MEANING, BUT MEANINGS ARE NOT IN WORDS. Your perception about the world is not the same as mine. Our experiences may give different colors and hues, life and meanings to words. And because your perception determines the meanings you attribute to words, in communication, the message SENT is not necessarily the message RECEIVED. And for your listeners, real communication is the communication they received.
  39. 39. MORE COMMUNICATION IS NOT ALWAYS BETTER. Too much talking is, many a time, counter-productive. How much talking ? The decision is contextual. Study the audience . Let not the audience got bored, irritated, and come to the conclusion that – the speaker does not know how to manage his time, the content of his message, and himself. Sometimes, it is much better to stop talking. What are Communication Misconceptions ?
  40. 40. NO SINGLE PERSON OR EVENT CAUSES ANOTHER REACTION. Earlier events, their impact and intensity, earlier experience, may be with other persons, and of course, earlier experience, with the same person – all combined together is likely to cause the REACTION What are Communication Misconceptions ?
  41. 41. What are Communication Misconceptions ? COMMUNICATION CAN SOLVE ALL PROBLEMS. Communication, no doubt helps in solving problems. However, it is best to bear in mind that communication will not solve all problems. Problems of people are not only caused by miscommunication.
  42. 42. Communication is Transactional Each person is both sending and receiving simultaneously. Parties communicating have an impact on each other
  43. 43. Communication is a Process Changes in events and relationships are part of a continuous flow. Every communication experience is the result of the accumulation of experiences preceding the present one. Every new experience affects the future ones.
  44. 44. 1. You have the right to be treated with respect. 1. You have the responsiblity to treat others with respect. Communication Rights and Responsibilities
  45. 45. 2. You have the right to have and express your own opinions 2. You have the responsibility to listen to the opinions of others. Communication Rights and Responsibilities
  46. 46. 3. You have the right to ask for what you need and want in order to be effective 3. You have the responsibility to acknowledge and address the needs of others. Communication Rights and Responsibilities
  47. 47. Workplace Communications 5 types of communication relationships: Collaborative, Negotiative, Competitive, Conflictive and Non-recognition.
  48. 48. Non-Verbal Communication: People send messages to each other without talking. They communicate through facial expressions, head positions, arm and hand movements, body posture, positioning of legs & feet, and the way people use “space”
  49. 49. Body Language <ul><li>Interpreting body language is vital </li></ul><ul><li>in any communication process </li></ul><ul><li>Observe the body movements and postures </li></ul><ul><li>Match the other person’s body language, </li></ul><ul><li>if appropriate and if required. </li></ul>
  50. 50. <ul><li>Two basic groups of body language </li></ul><ul><li>OPEN/CLOSED and </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FORWARD/BACK </li></ul></ul></ul>
  51. 51. RESPONSIVE ENGAGED leaning forward open body open arms open hands EAGER (sprint position) open legs feet under chair on toes leaning forward READY TO AGREE closes papers pen down hands flat on table REFLECTIVE LISTENING head tilted lots of eye contact nodding high blink rate EVALUATING sucks glasses/ pencil strokes chin looks up and right legs crossed in 4 pos. (ankle on knee) ATTENTIVE (standing) arms behind back smile open feet FUGITIVE BORED staring into space slumped posture doodling foot tapping LET ME GO feet towards door looking around buttoning jacket REJECTION sitting/moving back arms folded legs crossed 11 pos (thigh on knee) head down frown DEFENSIVE (standing) feet pointing in hands clenched COMBATIVE LET ME SPEAK finger tapping foot tapping staring AGGRESSIVE leaning forwards finger pointing fists clenched DEFIANT (standing) hands on hips frown LYING touches face hand over mouth pulls ear eyes down glances at you shifts in seat looks down and to left
  52. 52. Being aware of non-verbal communication, one can interpret the signals of others, or send signals to others. Awareness of non-verbal communication helps people: • Project an image of confidence and knowledge. • Demonstrate power or influence • Express sincerity, interest and cooperativeness. • Create trust. • Recognize personal tension in self and others. • Identify discrepancies between what people are saying and what they are actually thinking. • Change behavior and environment to encourage productive discussion.
  53. 53. Intrapersonal Communication: When people talk to themselves, communication takes place within the brain. Individual reflection, contemplation, meditation are examples of Intrapersonal Communication. It embraces their thoughts, experiences and perceptions during a communication event. Behavior responses on all other levels of communication essentially begin on intrapersonal level.
  54. 54. Interpersonal Communication: This type of communication can occur in both a one-on-one and a group setting. This also means being able to handle different people in different situations and making people feel at ease. Gestures such as eye contact, body movement, and hand gestures are also part of interpersonal communication.
  55. 55. Interpersonal Communication: … contd. The most common functions of interpersonal communication are listening, talking and conflict resolution. Types of interpersonal communication vary from verbal to non-verbal and from situation to situation.
  56. 56. Communication styles
  57. 57. Communication Styles Every time a manager speaks, s/he chooses and uses one of four basic communication styles: Passive Aggressive, Passive-aggressive and Assertive.
  58. 58. 1.Passive Style : Passive communication is based on compliance and hopes to avoid confrontation at all costs. In this mode, people do not talk much, question even less, and actually do very little. They usually have a low sense of self-esteem, and have a difficult time recognizing their own needs and knowing how to meet them more appropriately. They internalize discomfort rather than risk, upsetting others. This style tends to result in a lose-win situation, and results in feelings of victimization, resentment, and a loss of a sense of control.
  59. 59. 2. Aggressive Style : Aggressive communication always involves manipulation. Managers adopting the aggressive style create a win-lose situation. They use intimidation and control to get their needs met, and they are disrespectful and hurtful to others in communications. They have the underlying beliefs that power and control are the only way to get needs met. They operate from a real sense of inadequacy and may have a lack of empathy for others.
  60. 60. 3. Passive-aggressive Style : A combination of styles, passive-aggressive avoids direct confrontation (passive), but attempts to get even through manipulation (aggressive). The passive-aggressive people incorporate elements of both the styles. They try to use procrastination, forgetfulness, and intentional inefficiency rather than being direct aggressive in their communications with others. This style of communication often leads to office politics and rumour-mongering.
  61. 61. 4. Assertive Style : The most effective and healthiest form of communication is the assertive style. It’s how people naturally express themselves when their self-esteem is intact, giving them the confidence to communicate without games and manipulation. The assertive people are direct with the goal of creating a win-win situation. They operate from the belief that each person is responsible for solving his or her own problems, and neither party in communication has to justify themselves to each other. They take responsibility for their own decisions and actions.
  62. 62. FOUR APPROACHES TO SPEAKING <ul><li>MY WAY OR THE HIGHWAY: THE AGGRESSIVE APPROACH </li></ul><ul><li>“ You must…” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Because I said so” </li></ul><ul><li>“ You always/never….” </li></ul><ul><li>There is nothing subtle to the aggressive approach. </li></ul><ul><li>The following are the common behaviours : </li></ul><ul><li>Blaming, accusing </li></ul><ul><li>Intimidating body language </li></ul><ul><li>Demanding, ordering </li></ul><ul><li>Raised voice </li></ul><ul><li>Harsh, personal language </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal browbeating </li></ul>
  63. 63. <ul><li>2. THE APPEASING WAY: THE NON ASSERTIVE APPROACH </li></ul><ul><li>“ Uh…if that’s the way you want to do it...um, that’s fine with me.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I don’t know if I could do that.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I’ll talk to him soon about that problem; I’ve been really busy.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I am sorry to ask you.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I hate to bother you.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ May be that’s a good idea” </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviours: </li></ul><ul><li>Soft voice </li></ul><ul><li>Overly agreeable, no point of view expressed </li></ul><ul><li>Avoidance </li></ul><ul><li>Withdrawn body language </li></ul><ul><li>Sounding unsure </li></ul><ul><li>Beating around the bush </li></ul><ul><li>Sounding hopeless and helpless </li></ul>
  64. 64. <ul><li>3 . SUBTLE BUT AGGRAVATING: </li></ul><ul><li>THE PASSIVE - AGGRESSIVE APPROACH </li></ul><ul><li>“ I knew that wouldn’t work.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ If that’s the way you want it…..” </li></ul><ul><li>“ How could you even think of that?” </li></ul><ul><li>“ When was the last time you helped me?” </li></ul><ul><li>“ The problem with Joe is….” </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviours: </li></ul><ul><li>Appears to agree but really does not agree </li></ul><ul><li>Tells others but not the source of concern </li></ul><ul><li>Makes subtle digs and sarcastic remarks </li></ul><ul><li>Keeps score and sets conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Nonverbal message contradicts the verbal massage </li></ul><ul><li>Holds back expressing concern or providing assistance </li></ul><ul><li>Criticizes after the fact </li></ul>
  65. 65. <ul><li>4 . STRAIGHT AND POSITIVE: </li></ul><ul><li>THE ASSERTIVE APPROACH </li></ul><ul><li>“ Yes that was my mistake.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ As I understand your point…..” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Let me explain why I disagree with that point.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Let’s define the issue and then explore some options to help resolve it.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Please hear me and then work with me to resolve my concern.” </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviours: </li></ul><ul><li>Takes responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Listens actively </li></ul><ul><li>Takes initiative </li></ul><ul><li>Speaks up, is direct and constructive </li></ul><ul><li>Shows sincerity </li></ul><ul><li>Is solution focused </li></ul><ul><li>Assumes confident voice and body language </li></ul><ul><li>Addresses concerns directly to the source </li></ul><ul><li>Requests needs </li></ul>
  66. 66. Understanding the four basic types of communication will help managers learn how to react most effectively when confronted with a difficult person. They always have a choice as to which communication style to use. If they are serious about taking control of their life, they should practice being more assertive. It will help them diffuse anger, reduce guilt and build relationships - both personally and professionally.
  67. 67. STRATEGIES FOR DEVELOPING ASSERTIVE COMMUNICATION • Watch your body posture – practice using an open, assertive body language and voice. • Think before you speak. Take a few seconds to make sure you are conveying the right message, and in the way you want to convey it. • Don’t apologize if it’s not warranted. • Remember it is ok to say “no”. • Remember everyone is entitled to an opinion, and don’t try to convince others beyond a limit.
  68. 68. 3. Reading: Good reading habits and strategies help managers handle their tasks more efficiently. six reading strategies for optimal results: • Knowing what is needed to be known, and reading appropriately • Knowing how deeply to read the document: skimming, scanning or studying • Using active reading techniques to pick out key points and keeping the mind focused on the material • Using the table of contents for reading magazines and newspapers, and clipping useful articles • Understanding how to extract information from different article types • Creating a table of contents for reviewing material
  69. 69. Barriers and Roadblocks of Communication
  70. 70. Barriers to communication INITIATION OF MESSAGE Different personalities of sender and receiver Different perceptions of sender and receiver Receiver evaluates credibility of sender Words have different meaning Receiver hears what he wants to hear Code not understood Noise Distorted message
  71. 71. Common Roadblocks to Communication Communication roadblocks are an inevitable aspect of every workplace. These roadblocks distort the normal flow of communication. Managers should realize the importance of understanding the interpersonal communication process at the workplace, focusing on:
  72. 72. Communication Roadblocks • The way minds work • Sender’s behavior • Receiver’s behavior
  73. 73. The way minds work <ul><li>Perceptions of the reality </li></ul><ul><li>Prejudices </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptions of the relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Gender differences </li></ul>
  74. 74. Sender’s behavior <ul><li>Inability to choose the right word </li></ul><ul><li>Different words may mean different things </li></ul><ul><li>to different people </li></ul><ul><li>3. Hiding Thoughts and Feelings </li></ul><ul><li>4. The Sender may be blind to others’ emotions </li></ul><ul><li>or blinded by them </li></ul>
  75. 75. Receiver’s behavior <ul><li>Hearing through own filters </li></ul><ul><li>Receivers are easily distracted – </li></ul><ul><li>- lower levels of ability to concentrate </li></ul><ul><li>3. Reactions that block communication </li></ul><ul><li>4. Offering solutions by interrupting </li></ul><ul><li>5. Avoiding others’ concerns </li></ul>
  76. 76. How to overcome Communication Roadblocks ? • Effective Listening • Reading body language • Effective Speaking • Skill Training
  77. 77. The Process of Listening
  78. 78. Types of Listening <ul><li>Active vs. Passive </li></ul><ul><li>Positive vs. Negative </li></ul><ul><li>What Kind is it? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appreciative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empathic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discriminative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analytical </li></ul></ul>
  79. 79. Effective Listening Behaviors that support effective listening Behaviors that hinder effective listening
  80. 80. Effective Listening Behaviors that support effective listening • Maintaining relaxed body posture • Leaning slightly forward if sitting • Facing person squarely at eye level • Maintaining an open posture • Maintaining appropriate distance • Offering simple acknowledgements • Reflecting meaning (paraphrase) • Reflecting emotions • Using eye contact • Providing non-distracting environment
  81. 81. Effective Listening Behaviors that hinder effective listening • Acting distracted • Telling your own story without acknowledging theirs first • No response • Invalidating response, put downs • Interrupting • Criticizing • Judging • Diagnosing • Giving advice/solutions • Changing the subject • Reassuring without acknowledgment
  82. 82. <ul><li>Listening </li></ul><ul><li>Since people have two ears and only one mouth, listening might be the most important communication skill. Unfortunately few people are good listeners. Listening is more than merely hearing with our ears. Listening is a combination of what another person says and involvement with the other person who is talking. </li></ul><ul><li>Active listening is a way of listening and responding to another person that improves mutual understanding, overcoming communication roadblocks. There are five levels of active listening: </li></ul><ul><li>Basic Acknowledgments </li></ul><ul><li>(2) Questions </li></ul><ul><li>(3) Paraphrasing </li></ul><ul><li>(4) Mirroring feelings </li></ul><ul><li>(5) Reflecting meanings </li></ul>
  83. 83. <ul><li>Listening </li></ul><ul><li>Basic Acknowledgments: </li></ul><ul><li>Basic acknowledgements include </li></ul><ul><li>verbal, </li></ul><ul><li>visual – nonverbal signs and </li></ul><ul><li>vocal sounds </li></ul><ul><li>that let the speaker know </li></ul><ul><li>how the audience is listening with interest and respect, such as: </li></ul><ul><li>head-nodding, </li></ul><ul><li>leaning forward or backward, </li></ul><ul><li>making eye contacts, </li></ul><ul><li>“ uh-huh”, “oh really”, “no-kidding”, ‘tell me more”, “I hear you”, “so..”, “I see”, “yes”. </li></ul>
  84. 84. <ul><li>Listening </li></ul><ul><li>(2) Questions: </li></ul><ul><li>The idea of asking questions may seem contradictory to the idea of listening. But, </li></ul><ul><li>an active listener is asking questions in order to show the speaker his/ her interest </li></ul><ul><li>(a) in what is being said </li></ul><ul><li>(b) in knowing more to gain a better understanding of the speaker’s point of view. </li></ul><ul><li>Open-ended questions are preferable to close-ended questions, because they are providing opportunities for the speaker to open up, to explore his/ her thoughts and feelings. </li></ul><ul><li>It is also important to ask one question at a time. </li></ul>
  85. 85. <ul><li>Listening </li></ul><ul><li>(3) Paraphrasing: </li></ul><ul><li>Paraphrasing focuses </li></ul><ul><li>on the speaker’s content, and </li></ul><ul><li>summarizing what was said </li></ul><ul><li>in order to clarify and confirm correct understanding. </li></ul><ul><li>The steps of the paraphrasing process are: </li></ul><ul><li>(a) Let the speaker finish what he/she wanted to say. </li></ul><ul><li>(b) Restate with your own words what you think the speaker has said </li></ul><ul><li>(c) If the speaker confirms your understanding continue the conversation </li></ul><ul><li>(d) If the speaker indicates you misunderstood ask the speaker to repeat. “I do not understand. Could you please say it again?” </li></ul>
  86. 86. <ul><li>Listening </li></ul><ul><li>(4) Mirroring feelings </li></ul><ul><li>Mirroring involves reflecting back to the speaker the emotions s/he is communicating. Do not miss the emotional dimension of a conversation, by focusing exclusively on the content. Encourage the speaker to disclose feelings – may be joy, sorrow, frustration, anger or grief. The reflection of feelings will help the speaker understand his/ her own emotions and move toward a solution of the problem. </li></ul><ul><li>In order to understand and mirror feelings: </li></ul><ul><li>(a) Observe the feeling words the speaker uses. </li></ul><ul><li>(b) The speaker may not use feeling words at all because suppression of feelings is so widespread in our culture. Then, focus on the content and ask yourself: If I were having that experience, if I were saying and doing those things what would I be feeling? </li></ul><ul><li>(c) Observe the body language, facial expressions, the tone of the voice, gestures and posture. </li></ul>
  87. 87. <ul><li>Listening </li></ul><ul><li>(5) Reflecting meanings </li></ul><ul><li>Once a person knows how to reflect feeling and content separately it is relatively easy to put the two together into a reflection of meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>It would be useful to use the formula: </li></ul><ul><li>“ You feel (insert the feeling word) </li></ul><ul><li>because (insert the event or other content </li></ul><ul><li>associated with the feeling)” </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Summative Reflections </li></ul><ul><li>A summative reflection is a brief restatement of the main themes and feelings the speaker expressed over a longer period of discussions. </li></ul><ul><li>A good summarization may help the speaker have a greater coherence, a better understanding of the situation and draw conclusions. </li></ul>
  88. 88. 2. Body Language – Reading the Body Language Non-verbal communication, i.e. body language, has been a means of interpersonal communication and was used long before language appeared. In a message , words are effective carriers of factual information. The content of the conversation can be important. But when emotions are engaged they should receive primary attention and they are mostly conveyed by non-verbal elements. Understanding the body language is one of the most important skills for effective communication. In order to do it:
  89. 89. Focus attention on the important clues: Facial expression – especially eyes Vocal expression Tone of the voice gives information about speaker’s feelings, anger, boredom, depression, enthusiasm or disbelief Posture and gestures – movements of the head, legs, and hands reveal the levels of self-esteem and inner energy Clothing and environment style give clues about personal characteristics Body Language – Reading the Body Language
  90. 90. Note discrepancies When there is a discrepancy between words and body language, both messages are important. Search for the meanings – the contradictions Be aware of own feelings and bodily reactions Non-verbal communications can by-pass the conscious mind and trigger responses. By becoming aware of what one’s body is experiencing one becomes more sensitive to what other people are feeling. Body Language – Reading the Body Language
  91. 91. Reflect the feelings back to the sender Read non-verbal signs in the context . Sometimes, body language is very clear and unambiguous, but at other times it can be difficult to decipher. But mastering the art and science of decoding the non-verbal signs can improve communication dramatically and overcome many obstacles. Body Language – Reading the Body Language
  92. 92. 3. Speaking When sending a message as speakers, people should: • Know what they mean and express it clearly, with respect and sensitivity. • Check or build the common understanding of the words they use, because words can have different meanings for different people, especially if coming from different cultures and educational backgrounds • Use de-escalatory language, resist the temptation to make personal attacks and accuse, by replacing accusatory “you” statements with less provocative “I” statements. Body Language – Reading the Body Language
  93. 93. 4. Skill Training Skill-building training can improve communication abilities. Reading Books and/or attending training programmes, will surely improve your understanding and knowledge of the main concepts. Higher levels of communication effectiveness can be reached only through intensive and well-designed training programs. More importantly, continuous and committed practice on the part of the individual is particularly necessary for skill development.
  94. 94. Improving Communication Skills
  95. 95. IT ISN’T JUST WHAT YOU SAY BUT HOW YOU SAY IT <ul><li>What you say is important, </li></ul><ul><li>but how you say it often carries more weight </li></ul><ul><li>Most people haven’t been taught how to truly listen; </li></ul><ul><li>therefore, you can’t count on them to listen fully and effectively when you speak to them </li></ul><ul><li>Make steady eye contact </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain eye contact </li></ul><ul><li>Look in the right places </li></ul><ul><li>Posture </li></ul><ul><li>Facial expressions - tells all or nothing at all </li></ul><ul><li>Gestures - use in unison with your speech </li></ul><ul><li>Project your voice - vary speed and pitch </li></ul><ul><li>Show inflection in your voice </li></ul><ul><li>Display sincerity in your tone </li></ul><ul><li>Enunciate your words clearly </li></ul><ul><li>Insert pauses occasionally in your message </li></ul><ul><li>Match your pace with your listener’s pace of speaking </li></ul>
  96. 96. <ul><li>AVOID: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Displaying threatening gestures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Showing no gestures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exhibiting distracting habits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sounding uncertain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Being too soft spoken </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speaking too slowly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mumbling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Being too loud </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dropping voice at the end of the sentence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sounding monotonous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Putting people down with your tone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Having harshness in your tone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speaking too fast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using excessive filler sounds. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sugarcoating </li></ul></ul>Staring and glaring Looking away and all round Darting glances Blinking excessively Focusing on one person, not everyone Glazing over Invading space Hovering over the listener Looking blank Looking stern Folding your arms
  97. 97. Arena Blind Spot Facade Unknown Known to self Unknown to self Feed Back Known to Others Unknown to Others E X P O S U R E Communication – Johari Window Model
  98. 98. Additional slides on Improving effective listening skills
  99. 99. Ten Commandments of Effective Listening <ul><li>1. Stop talking! </li></ul><ul><li>You cannot listen when you are talking. You will only be thinking about what you are going to say next instead of paying attention to what the other person is trying to say. </li></ul><ul><li>Consciously focus your attention on the speaker. </li></ul>
  100. 100. <ul><li>2. Put the speaker at ease: </li></ul><ul><li>Relax, smile, look at the speaker and help that person feel free to talk. </li></ul><ul><li>Look and act interested. </li></ul><ul><li>Remove distractions: </li></ul><ul><li>close the door; </li></ul><ul><li>stop what you are doing, and pay attention. </li></ul>
  101. 101. <ul><li>3. Pay attention </li></ul><ul><li>to the nonverbal language of </li></ul><ul><li>physical gestures, facial expressions, tone of voice, and body posture. </li></ul><ul><li>[ An authority on nonverbal language says that 55 percent of the message meaning is nonverbal, 38 percent is indicated by tone of voice, and only 7 percent is conveyed by the words used in a spoken message. ] </li></ul><ul><li>Few people know how to listen to the eyes; what a tapping foot means; a furrowed brow; clenched fist; the biting of nails. These often reveal the key feelings behind the words. </li></ul>
  102. 102. <ul><li>4.Listen for what is not said also. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask questions to clarify the meaning of words and the feelings involved, or ask the speaker to enlarge on the statement. </li></ul><ul><li>People often find it difficult to speak up about matters or experiences that are very important or highly emotional for them. Listen for how the speaker presents the message. What people hesitate to say is often the most critical point. </li></ul>
  103. 103. <ul><li>5.Know exactly what the other person is saying. </li></ul><ul><li>Reflect back what the other person has said in a &quot;shared meaning&quot; experience so that you can completely understand the meaning and content of the message before you reply to it. </li></ul><ul><li>A good listener does not assume they understand the other person. You, as the listener, should not express your views until you have summarized the speaker's message to his satisfaction. </li></ul>
  104. 104. <ul><li>6.Be aware of &quot;tune out&quot; words. </li></ul><ul><li>These are words which appear in the media that strike an emotional chord in the listener and interferes with attentive listening (e.g. abortion, nuclear war, communism, homosexuality). </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid arguing mentally. Listen to understand, not to oppose. </li></ul>
  105. 105. <ul><li>7.Concentrate on &quot;hidden&quot; emotional meanings. </li></ul><ul><li>What are the real feelings behind the words? What is the tone of voice saying? </li></ul><ul><li>What does the emphasis on certain words mean? </li></ul><ul><li>Notice how the meaning of the following question is changed when you change the emphasis from one word to the next. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What do you want? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What do you want? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What do you want? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What do you want? </li></ul></ul>
  106. 106. <ul><li>8.Be patient. </li></ul><ul><li>Don't interrupt the speaker. </li></ul><ul><li>This is disrespectful and suggests you want to talk instead of listen. </li></ul><ul><li>Allow plenty of time for the speaker to convey ideas and meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>Be courteous and give the speaker adequate time to present the full message. </li></ul>
  107. 107. <ul><li>9.Hold your temper! </li></ul><ul><li>Try to keep your own emotions from interfering with your listening efficiency. </li></ul><ul><li>When emotions are high, there is a tendency to tune out the speaker, become defensive, or want to give advice. </li></ul><ul><li>You don't have to agree to be a good listener. </li></ul><ul><li>Don't argue! Even if you win, you lose. </li></ul>
  108. 108. <ul><li>10.Empathize with the speaker. </li></ul><ul><li>Try to &quot;walk in the other's moccasins&quot; so you can feel what that person is feeling and understand the point of view the speaker is trying to convey. </li></ul>
  109. 109. Conclusion <ul><li>&quot;What is so important about listening? I listen!&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Sure you do. But how? How adept are you, for example, in getting people to come right out and really talk to you? </li></ul><ul><li>Before you can get the most out of a listening situation, others must first believe that you really want to listen. They must feel that when they tell you something, it will be received by you in the proper spirit. </li></ul><ul><li>Learn to listen beyond the words, with your heart as well as your ears. </li></ul><ul><li>Observe the signs of the inner feelings such as voice quality, facial expressions, body posture and motions, etc. These actions are revealing, and sometimes may have an opposite meaning from the spoken word. </li></ul><ul><li>A friend put it this way: &quot;You listened as if you wanted to hear what I was going to say, as if it was really important to you. And that makes me feel good!&quot; </li></ul>
  110. 110. Communication Ethics <ul><li>If knowledge is power, - implying that information is knowledge, and if we have information, then we must respect and handle our communication with restraint. </li></ul><ul><li>Key Points: </li></ul><ul><li>maintain confidentiality - </li></ul><ul><li>Confidential information is trust reposed </li></ul><ul><li>- not trust betrayed </li></ul><ul><li>Certain information is `need to know’ - the job demands it, certain information is `desire to know’ - it may help in my job, and certain information is `desirable to know’, it may increase my power, fame and status. </li></ul>
  111. 111. … . Communication Ethics <ul><li>Ownership of information - Permission of the owner is a must before using it. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of information vs. use of information - having information does not mean you can use it. </li></ul><ul><li>Communication must flow through a proper channel - cutting across channels causes heartburns, hurt and misunderstandings </li></ul><ul><li>Timing and place - be careful and be sensitive to it. </li></ul><ul><li>Gossiping - is like `stabbing in the back’ </li></ul>
  112. 112. WITH GRATEFUL THANKS to many authors, writers, teachers & good friends whose combined contribution inspired me in compiling this presentation
  113. 113. In case YOU liked this speech and presentation ~ for listening to more speeches and for viewing more presentations, Please Visit: Visit: http:// www.archive.org and Search for Prof. V. Viswanadham
  114. 114. In case YOU liked this presentation ~ for viewing more presentations, On various topics, Please Visit: Please visit : www.scribd.com and search for Viswam.vangapally4581 Or, www.slideshare.net/viswanadham In case YOU want to give some feedback / contact me : [email_address] Prof. V. Viswanadham ~ [040 – 2722 3383 A BIG THANK YOU FOR YOUR PATIENT LISTENING