1. Dispositional Theory
Another well-known job satisfaction theory is the Dispositional Theory Template:JacksonApril
2007. It is a very general theory that suggests that people have innate dispositions that cause
them to have tendencies toward a certain level of satisfaction, regardless of one’s job. This
approach became a notable explanation of job satisfaction in light of evidence that job
satisfaction tends to be stable over time and across careers and jobs. Research also indicates that
identical twins have similar levels of job satisfaction.
A significant model that narrowed the scope of the Dispositional Theory was the Core Self-
evaluations Model, proposed by Timothy A. Judge in 1998. Judge argued that there are four Core
Self-evaluations that determine one’s disposition towards job satisfaction: self-esteem, general
self-efficacy, locus of control, and neuroticism. This model states that higher levels of self-
esteem (the value one places on his/her self) and general self-efficacy (the belief in one’s own
competence) lead to higher work satisfaction. Having an internal locus of control (believing one
has control over herhis own life, as opposed to outside forces having control) leads to higher job
satisfaction. Finally, lower levels of neuroticism lead to higher job satisfaction.
 Two-Factor Theory (Motivator-Hygiene Theory)
Frederick Herzberg’s Two factor theory (also known as Motivator Hygiene Theory) attempts to
explain satisfaction and motivation in the workplace This theory states that satisfaction and
dissatisfaction are driven by different factors – motivation and hygiene factors, respectively. An
employee’s motivation to work is continually related to job satisfaction of a subordinate.
Motivation can be seen as an inner force that drives individuals to attain personal and
organizational goals (Hoskinson, Porter, & Wrench, p. 133). Motivating factors are those aspects
of the job that make people want to perform, and provide people with satisfaction, for example
achievement in work, recognition, promotion opportunities. These motivating factors are
considered to be intrinsic to the job, or the work carried out. Hygiene factors include aspects of
the working environment such as pay, company policies, supervisory practices, and other
While Hertzberg's model has stimulated much research, researchers have been unable to reliably
empirically prove the model, with Hackman & Oldham suggesting that Hertzberg's original
formulation of the model may have been a methodological artifact. Furthermore, the theory
does not consider individual differences, conversely predicting all employees will react in an
identical manner to changes in motivating/hygiene factors. Finally, the model has been
criticised in that it does not specify how motivating/hygiene factors are to be measured.
According to Maslow, a person’s needs are the main motivator that drives a human. He categorized the
needs of a person into 5 levels. They are physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, esteem needs
and self- actualisation needs respectively.( in ascending order) As the needs on lower levels fulfilled, the
upper level needs act as motivator and the person would like to satisfy the upper level needs.(Hassan
Physiological needs: It is the lowest level among 5 levels. These are needs which must be satisfied in
2. order to survive such as food, air, water etc. This only represents the basic needs of people for survival.
But for any organisations including my company, the physiological needs of the staff is adequate salary
and work conditions. So, in order to satisfy my employees’ needs, I will pay them salaries. Besides, I will
create good working conditions for them such as providing adequate lighting, up to date computers and
equipments, comfortable chairs, enough ventilation and providing a leisure room for them to relax
during lunch time.( Hassan Ali,2005 & Davidson et al 2005 p.306) They will feel comfortable about the
environment of workplace and can concentrate on their work.
Safety needs: People will have safety needs upon the satisfaction of physiological needs. Safety needs
means the “…desire for protection from physical danger, economic security…”(Dixon 1997, p.74) The
safety needs for employees are paying salaries on time; never owe their salaries for one day. Also, I will
provide health cover and insurance to my staff such as sick pay and retirement funds. Besides, I will
make them to feel secured by setting up trust between me and my employees. Trust can be set up by
signing work contract to protect them. In addition, I have a great faith in my employees’ ability; I believe
that they can handle their job well. By adopting these policies, they will feel secured in the organisation
and no worries at all. They can concentrate on their work and perform the best.
Social needs: The third level is social needs. It can be defined as “the need to be a group or to be
accepted by peers”(Dixon 1997p.74) I will divide my staff into teams and require them to work in teams,
try to cooperate with their group members. Besides, I will hold some informal gathering and training
camps during weekends which aim to help establishing friendships among peers. By allowing “social
interaction, employees may feel like a part of a team.”(Davidson et al 2005 p.307)
Esteem needs: Upon satisfaction of social needs, employees may want to pursue esteem needs
according to Maslow. Esteem needs “…include self-esteem and for the esteem of others…”(Dixon
1997,p.74) Self esteem means self confidence, self respect while esteem for others is the respect to
other people.( Davidson et al 2005 p.307) If the performance of a worker is highly rated, employees can
gain respect from the manager and being rewarded or promoted. After promotion, employees will be
proud of themselves who can gain self-respect and self confidence. Employees may think that there is
an opportunity to promote if they work hard. Rewards including promotion can be motivator.(Copper
speaking cited in Taylor,2006 p.8) Besides, I will say thank you when they finish their work. They may
think that manager respect and appreciate their hardworking. As a result, morale will be boosted.
Self- actualisation needs: This is the highest level. “These involve realising one’s potential for continued
growth and individual development”(Davidson et al 2005 p.307).This level are varied among individuals.
Self-actualization needs “creating challenging tasks that are stimulating.” (Hassan Ali,2005, P.1) I will
give my employees a chance to create a task and involved in decision making. Letting my employee
involved creating new sales strategies and making decision can help them to feel they are a part of the
organisation.They will think that they are in a crucial status in the company. They won’t let the
organisation being collapsed. As a result, productivity can be improved.
3. Recognition. Individuals at all levels of the organization want to be recognized for their
achievements on the job. Their successes don't have to be monumental before they deserve
recognition, but your praise should be sincere. If you notice employees doing something well,
take the time to acknowledge their good work immediately. Publicly thank them for handling a
situation particularly well. Write them a kind note of praise. Or give them a bonus, if appropriate.
You may even want to establish a formal recognition program, such as “employee of the month.”
Responsibility. Employees will be more motivated to do their jobs well if they have ownership of
their work. This requires giving employees enough freedom and power to carry out their tasks so
that they feel they “own” the result. As individuals mature in their jobs, provide opportunities for
added responsibility. Be careful, however, that you do not simply add more work. Instead, find
ways to add challenging and meaningful work, perhaps giving the employee greater freedom and
authority as well.
Salary. The old adage “you get what you pay for” tends to be true when it comes to staff members.
Salary is not a motivator for employees, but they do want to be paid fairly. If individuals believe they are
not compensated well, they will be unhappy working for you. Consult salary surveys or even your local
help-wanted ads to see whether the salaries and benefits you're offering are comparable to those of
other offices in your area. In addition, make sure you have clear policies related to salaries, raises and
Do individuals perceive that they have ownership of their work?
Do you give them sufficient freedom and authority?
Do you provide opportunities for added responsibility (not simply adding more tasks)?
Do you recognize individuals for their major accomplishments on the job?
Do you recognize individuals' small victories
Do you give employees recognition in a timely, meaningful way?
Does the practice have a formal program (such as “employee of the month”) for recognizing staff
members' achievements on the job?