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Projec report on training and development project from reliance money
SHERWOOD COLLEGE OF PROFESSIONAL
A SUMMER TRANING REPORT
“TRAINING AND DEVLOPMENT”
SUBMITTED IN THE PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE DEGREE OF
BACHELOR’S OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF:Mr Saurabh Rawat
SUBMITTED BY:YASH AGARWAL
ROLL NO:- 11072101059
I take the opportunity to express our gratitude to all the concerned people who
have directly or indirectly contributed towards completion of this project.
I extend my sincere gratitude towards Reliance Money for providing the
opportunity and resources to work on this project.
I am extremely grateful to Mrs. Nafisa Sheikh, my mentor in Reliance for
her guidance and invaluable advice during the projects. Also to my guide, Mr.
Puneet Goyal whose insight encouraged me to go beyond the scope of the
project and this broadened me learning on this project.
I also want to show my gratitude to Dr. Surya Ramdas whose insight helped me
to complete this project.
(BBA Vth SEM)
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Summer training is the most vital part of an BBA course, both as a link between
theory and actual industrial practices as well as an opportunity for hands on
experience in corporate environment. I therefore, consider myself fortunate to
receive the training in an esteemed organization viz. Reliance Money. Yet
the opportunity could not have been utilized without the guidance and support
of many individuals who although held varied positions, but were equally
instrument for although completion of my summer training.
Mr. Saurabh Rawat and also thanks to all my faculty members and
my Parents and friends. However, I accept the sole responsibility errors of
omission and would be extremely grateful to readers of this project report if
they bring such mistake to my notice.
(BBA Vth SEM)
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Every organization needs to have well trained and experienced people to
perform the activities that have to be done. If current or potential job occupants
can meet this requirement, training is not important. When this not the case, it is
necessary to raise the skill levels and increase the versatility and adaptability of
It is being increasing common for individual to change careers several
times during their working lives. The probability of any young person learning
a job to day and having those skills go basically unchanged during the forty or
so years if his career is extremely unlikely, may be even impossible. In a rapid
changing society employee training is not only an activity that is desirable but
also an activity that an organization must commit resources to if it is to maintain
a viable and knowledgeable work force.
The entire project talks about the training and development in theoretical
as well as new concepts, which are in trend now.
Here we have discussed what would be the input of training if we ever go
for and how can it be good to any organization in reaping the benefits from the
money invested in terms like (ROI) i.e. return on investment. What are the ways
we can identify the training need of any employee and how to know what kind
of training he can go for? Training being covered in different aspect likes
integrating it with organizational culture. The best and latest available trends in
training method, the benefits which we can derive out of it. How the evaluation
should be done and how effective is the training all together.
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Training and Development
Learning and Training
Analysis & Interpretation
Conclusion & Suggestion
Page | 5
Reliance Anil Dhirubhai Ambani Group
The Reliance – Anil Dhirubhai Ambani Group is among India’s top three private sector
business houses on all major financial parameters, with a group market capitalization of Rs
200,000 crore (US$ 50 billion), and net worth to the tune of Rs 58,000 crore (US$ 13 Billion)
Across different companies, the group has a customer base of over 150 million, the
largest in India, and a shareholder base of over 12 million, among the largest in the World.
Through its products and services, the Reliance - ADA Group touches the life of 1 in 8
Indians every single day. It has a business presence that extends to over 5000 towns and
Cities in India, and served by 12,000 distribution outlets, 500,000 business partners and
30,000 strong motivated workforce.The interests of the Group range from communications
(Reliance Communications) and Financial services (Reliance Capital Ltd), to generation,
transmission and distribution of
Power (Reliance Energy), infrastructure, media and
Introduction to Reliance Money
Reliance Money provides investors with the facility of anytime-anywhere online
trading in all major asset classes, namely:
Equities, Equities and Commodity derivatives
IPOs, Mutual Funds
Life and General Insurance products
Foreign exchange derivatives
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Money transfer, Money changing,
Precious metal retailing
Wealth Management products
Network of kiosks have been set up across the country to facilitate the above trading
Reliance Money provides entire commodity related services such as broking
distribution and warehouse receipt financing
Expanded its presence to 20,000 touch points. It has 10,000 outlets across 5,000
towns and cities across India.
Currently 2200+ employees across 162 locations spread across the country.
The Corporate Office at Worli, Mumbai has approx 350 people belonging to these
Acquired 2.5 million customers
Accounts for daily traded volumes of over Rs 2,000 crore ( US$ 454 million ), or 3-4
% of the average daily volume of transactions logged on the stock exchanges
Among the Top 3 private sector companies in financial services sector
Moved into International arena- West Asia, South East Asia, Africa and Europe.
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SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study covers in depth, the various training practices, modules, formats being
followed and is limited to the company Reliance Money and its employees. The different
training programmes incorporated/facilitated in Reliance Money through its faculties, outside
agencies or professional groups. It also judges the enhancement of the knowledge & skills of
employees and feedback on its effectiveness.
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The broad objective of the study of training policies in Reliance Money is to study the impact
of training on the overall skill development of workers. The specific objectives of the study
1. To examine the effectiveness of training in overall development of skills of
2. To examine the impact of training on the workers.
3. To study the changes in behavioral pattern due to training.
4. To measure the differential change in output due to training
To compare the cost effectiveness in implanting training programmes.
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…. is to attract, nurture & retain a team of competitive, growth oriented talent who:-
consistently deliver share-holder returns of 20%+ year-on-year
are responsive to Employee Needs & achieving an employee satisfaction index of
are committed to making Reliance Capital among the top 3 “Best Employers to work
for” in India through Transparent & Robust HR processes.
Our Chairman’s Vision
“We live in a world where the young are reaching higher, dreaming bigger and
Demanding more; a world that is challenging the limits of hope and possibility. Now here is
this more strikingly visible than in India – a country that wakes up every morning a little
younger in age, but infinitely more ambitious in spirit.”
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List of recent achievements•
In two successive joint surveys by The Economic Times’ Brand Equity and
ACNielsen, Reliance was recognized as India’s Most Trusted Mutual Fund.
The company also walked away with seven other scheme prizes – five of them being
outright winners – in the Gulf 2007 Lipper Awards. These included the Fund House
of the Year by Lipper GCC as well as ICRA Online and the Most Improved Fund
House by Asia Asset Management.
It also received the NDTV Business Leadership Award 2007 in the mutual fund
category and runners’ up recognition as the Best Fund House in the Outlook MoneyNDTV Profit Awards.
In addition, the company received the coveted CNBC Web18 Genius of the Web
distinction for the Best Mutual Fund Website in the country. RCAM was awarded the
India Onshore Fund House 2008 instituted by the Asian Investor magazine.
The company also won the India Equities award in the 5-yearPerformance category.
Other achievements• Reliance Money generated revenues of Rs. 35 billion (US$ 767 million) for the year March
31, 2009 as against Rs. 24 billion of the corresponding previous period, an increase of 48%. It
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also achieved a net profit of Rs. 368 million (US$ 8 million) for the same period, as against a
net profit of Rs. 1 million for the corresponding previous period
• Reliance Money is the one of the leading brokerage and distributor of financial products in
India with more than 3 million customers
• Reliance Money has tied up with global partners like Reuters, Vasco, Valcambi,
Webaroo, optionsXpress Holdings, Goldride Securities, World Gold Council, Wincor
Nixdorf and DBS Vickers to facilitate better access to wider world class choices to its
• It is amongst the leading Mutual fund distributors of the country distributing products of 20
AMCs. It is the the largest private sector partner for Western Union Money Transfer in India
• To further improve its position in the money changing and money transfer business,
Reliance Money has acquired a significant share holding in Wall Street Finance Ltd, a
leading provider of money changing and money transfer services in the Country
• Reliance Money has tied up with Kuoni India and plans to retail its forex products/services
through the national network of over 70 Kuoni outlets
• Reliance Money has tied up with India Post and World Gold Council to sell gold coins
through the post office network across the country
• Reliance Money has obtained Category I Merchant Banking License from the Securities and
Exchange Board of India. This new license allows Reliance
Money to provide a wide range of investment banking services such as Issue Management,
Underwriting, Private Equity Advisory/ Syndication and Corporate Finance services in India
• Reliance Money is taking its first steps into the Commodities Exchange business and is in
the process of acquiring a 15 per cent stake in Hong Kong Mercantile Exchange (HKMEx).
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With this holding, Reliance Money becomes the second-largest shareholder in the commodity
exchange and will have a board membership. Reliance Money is the first Indian firm to
acquire a stake in an international exchange
Basic structure of Reliance ADA group
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Reliance Money Lucknow (Branch office)
Staff at Branch LevelAt Reliance Money Lucknow, the following hierarchy exists:•
Three Centre managers.
Eight to ten Business Development Executives under each Centre manager.
Business associates under each Centre Manager their number depending upon the area
allotted to each CM.
Remisars under each centre manager.
Team leader and PFC”s under him for life insurance.
One Customer Support Executive and One Senior Finance executive.
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Reliance Money currently deals in the following financial products:
Online trading refers to buying and selling of the
shares/stocks/contracts/bonds with the use of internet. In this shares are not issued in physical
form rather they are transferred in the dematerialized form in the Demat account directly
There are many broking houses doing business in India and they charge a
brokerage on every transaction made online or offline. (Buying and Selling are treated as
separate transaction). Reliance Money’s advantage over others is that it’s charging the lowest
brokerage in the market which is just 1 paisa on every executive trade irrespective of the
volume traded. Reliance Money, the brokerage and distribution arm of Reliance ADA Group,
aims to tap investors in the smaller towns and cities through a flat fee structure.
The new wonder is Reliance Money's pre-paid card for stock market brokerage. Reliance
Money, the financial services division of Anil Dhirubhai Ambani Group-promoted Reliance
Capital, is bringing to the market pre-paid cards in denominations of Rs500, Rs1,000, Rs.
2500, Rs. 5,000 and Rs.10,000.
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Equity investment generally refers to the buying and holding of shares of stock on a stock
market by individuals and funds in anticipation of income from dividends and capital gain as
the value of the stock rises. It also sometimes refers to the acquisition of equity (ownership)
participation in a private (unlisted) company or a startup (a company being created or newly
A single platform to trade on both the major commodity exchanges i.e. NCDEX and MCX. In
addition In-house research desk shall provide research reports on all major commodities
which shall enable in getting views for trading and diversify client’s holdings. Trade
Execution assistance is also provided to clients.
Offshore investment is the keeping of money in a jurisdiction other than one's country of
residence. Offshore jurisdictions are a commonly accepted solution to reducing excessive tax
burdens levied in most countries to both large and small scale investors alike. The advantage
to this is that such operations are both legal and less costly than the solutions offered in the
investor's country - or "onshore".
How reliance money scored over others?
1.Two way authentication: Reliance offers its customers with a token (an electronic gadget)
that generates a password, which are a third level of security in addition to the customer log in
and a password provided. The password generated by the token is valid only for a period of
20 seconds. If the web page expires, for the fresh login, a new password generated by the
token has to be keyed in by the customer.
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2.Lowest brokerage: Reliance offers the lowest brokerage of 1 paisa which is very less
with respect to the other DPs in the market.
3.User friendly software: The portal offered is very easy to understand and use.
4.Better research and news: Reliance offers news from the DOW JONES and
Seeking to bring share trading closer to consumers just like ATMs, Reliance Capital's stock
brokerage arm Reliance Money launched Internet trading services through web-enabled retail
Reliance Money Provide the kiosks (similar to ATM’s) Facilities, to their customer through
which the customers can trade on available kiosks at the particular Branch of Reliance
Money. The company are going to open these kiosks in the market as the ATM’s of the
Reliance Money share trading account
Reliance Money unlike other brokering houses has introduced a new prepaid system of
brokerage for the share trading in which it provides the lowest form of brokerage charged
from an investor.
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Trading Plans Offered By Reliance Money
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The duration of my project was of two months during these two months I did many things
regarding my project as I was also the part of operations I also understands how the
operations department works at Reliance money. How the shares of the client are kept in
electronic form in the client’s account and how it is dematerialized by operations department
at Reliance money.
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENTIt is a subsystem of an organization. It ensures that randomness is reduced and
learning or behavioral change takes place in structured format.
TRADITIONAL AND MODERN APPROACH OF TRAINING AND
DEVLOPMENTTraditional Approach – Most of the organizations before never used to believe in training.
They were holding the traditional view that managers are born and not made. There were also
some views that training is a very costly affair and not worth. Organizations used to believe
more in executive pinching. But now the scenario seems to be changing.
The modern approach of training and development is that Indian Organizations have realized
the importance of corporate training. Training is now considered as more of retention tool
than a cost. The training system in Indian Industry has been changed to create a smarter
workforce and yield the best results.
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TRAINING DEFINEDIt is a learning process that involves the acquisition of knowledge, sharpening of skills,
concepts, rules, or changing of attitudes and behaviors to enhance the performance of
Training is activity leading to skilled behavior:
• It’s not what you want in life, but it’s knowing how to reach it
• It’s not where you want to go, but it’s knowing how to get there
• It’s not how high you want to rise, but it’s knowing how to take off
• It may not be quite the outcome you were aiming for, but it will be an outcome
• It’s not what you dream of doing, but it’s having the knowledge to do it
• It's not a set of goals, but it’s more like a vision
• It’s not the goal you set, but it’s what you need to achieve it
Training is about knowing where you stand (no matter how good or bad the current
situation looks) at present, and where you will be after some point of time.
Training is about the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSA) through
Importance of Training and Development
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• Optimum Utilization of Human Resources – Training and Development helps in
optimizing the utilization of human resource that further helps the employee to achieve
the organizational goals as well as their individual goals.
• Development of Human Resources – Training and Development helps to provide an
opportunity and broad structure for the development of human resources’ technical and
behavioral skills in an organization. It also helps the employees in attaining personal
• Development of skills of employees – Training and Development helps in increasing
the job knowledge and skills of employees at each level. It helps to expand the horizons
of human intellect and an overall personality of the employees
Productivity – Training and Development helps in increasing the productivity of the
employees that helps the organization further to achieve its long-term goal
• Team spirit – Training and Development helps in inculcating the sense of team work,
team spirit, and inter-team collaborations. It helps in inculcating the zeal to learn within
• Organization Culture – Training and Development helps to develop and improve the
organizational health culture and effectiveness. It helps in creating the learning culture
within the organization.
• Organization Climate – Training and Development helps building the positive
perception and feeling about the organization. The employees get these feelings from
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leaders, subordinates, and peers.
• Quality – Training and Development helps in improving upon the quality of work
• Healthy work-environment – Training and Development helps in creating the healthy
working environment. It helps to build good employee, relationship so that individual
goals aligns with organizational goal.
• Health and Safety – Training and Development helps in improving the health and safety
of the organization thus preventing obsolescence.
• Morale – Training and Development helps in improving the morale of the work force.
• Image – Training and Development helps in creating a better corporate image.
• Profitability – Training and Development leads to improved profitability and more
positive attitudes towards profit orientation.
• Training and Development aids in organizational development i.e. Organization gets
more effective decision making and problem solving. It helps in understanding and
carrying out organizational policies.
• Training and Development helps in developing leadership skills, motivation, loyalty,
better attitudes, and other aspects that successful workers and managers usually display.
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TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT OBJECTIVES
The principal objective of training and development division is to make sure the
availability of a skilled and willing workforce to an organization. In addition to that, there
are four other objectives: Individual, Organizational, Functional, and Societal.
Individual Objectives – help employees in achieving their personal goals, which in turn,
enhances the individual contribution to an organization.
Organizational Objectives – assist the organization with its primary objective by bringing
Functional Objectives – maintain the department’s contribution at a level suitable to the
Societal Objectives – ensure that an organization is ethically and socially responsible to
the needs and challenges of the society.
Importance of Training Objectives
Training objective is one of the most important parts of training program. While some
people think of training objective as a waste of valuable time. The counterargument here
is that resources are always limited and the training objectives actually lead the design of
training. It provides the clear guidelines and develops the training program in less time
because objectives focus specifically on needs. It helps in adhering to a plan. Training
objectives tell the trainee that what is expected out of him at the end of the training
program. Training objectives are of great significance from a number of stakeholder
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Trainer – The training objective is also beneficial to trainer because it helps the trainer to
measure the progress of trainees and make the required adjustments. Also, trainer comes in a
position to establish a relationship between objectives and particular segments of training.
Trainee – The training objective is beneficial to the trainee because it helps in reducing
the anxiety of the trainee up to some extent. Not knowing anything or going to a place which
is unknown creates anxiety that can negatively affect learning. Therefore, it is important to
keep the participants aware of the happenings, rather than keeping it surprise. Secondly, it
helps in increase in concentration, which is the crucial factor to make the training successful.
The objectives create an image of the training program in trainee’s mind that actually helps in
gaining attention. Thirdly, if the goal is set to be challenging and motivating, then the
likelihood of achieving those goals is much higher than the situation in which no goal is
Set. Therefore, training objectives helps in increasing the probability that the participants
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will be successful in training.
Designer – The training objective is beneficial to the training designer because if the
designer is aware what is to be achieved in the end then he’ll buy the training package
according to that only. The training designer would then look for the training methods,
training equipments, and training content accordingly to achieve those objectives.
Furthermore, planning always helps in dealing effectively in an unexpected situation.
Consider an example; the objective of one training program is to deal effectively with
customers to increase the sales. Since the objective is known, the designer will design a
training program that will include ways to improve the interpersonal skills, such as verbal
and non verbal language, dealing in unexpected situation i.e. when there is a defect in a
product or when a customer is angry.
Therefore, without any guidance, the training may not be designed appropriately.
Evaluator – It becomes easy for the training evaluator to measure the progress of the
trainees because the objectives define the expected performance of trainees. Training
objective is an important to tool to judge the performance of participants.
Training and Human Resource ManagementThe HR functioning is changing with time and with this change, the relationship between
the training function and other management activity is also changing. The training and
development activities are now equally important with that of other HR functions. Gone
are the days, when training was considered to be futile, waste of time, resources, and
money. Now-a-days, training is an investment because the departments such as,
marketing & sales, HR, production, finance, etc depends on training for its survival. If
training is not considered as a priority or not seen as a vital part in the organization, then
it is difficult to accept that such a company has effectively carried out HRM. Training
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actually provides the opportunity to raise the profile development activities in the
To increase the commitment level of employees and growth in quality movement
(concepts of HRM), senior management team is now increasing the role of training. Such
concepts of HRM require careful planning as well as greater emphasis on employee
development and long term education.
Training is now the important tool of Human Resource Management to control the
attrition rate because it helps in motivating employees, achieving their professional and
personal goals, increasing the level of job satisfaction, etc. As a result training is given on
a variety of skill development and covers a multitude of courses.
Role of HRD Professionals in TrainingThis is the era of cut-throat competition and with this changing scenario of business; the
role of HR professionals in training has been widened. HR role now is:
1. Active involvement in employee education
2. Rewards for improvement in performance
3. Rewards to be associated with self esteem and self worth
4. Providing pre-employment market oriented skill development education and post
employment support for advanced education and training
5. Flexible access i.e. anytime, anywhere training.
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Models of Training
Training is a sub-system of the organization because the departments such as, marketing
& sales, HR, production, finance, etc depends on training for its survival. Training is a
transforming process that requires some input and in turn it produces output in the form
of knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs).
THE TRAINING SYSTEMA System is a combination of things or parts that must work together to perform a
particular function. An organization is a system and training is a sub system of the
organization. The System Approach views training as a sub system of an organization.
System Approach can be used to examine broad issues like objectives, functions, and
aim. It establishes a logical relationship between the sequential stages in the process of
training need analysis (TNA), formulating, delivering, and evaluating. There are 4
necessary inputs i.e. technology, man, material, time required in every system to produce
products or services. And every system must have some output from these inputs in order
to survive. The output can be tangible or intangible depending upon the organization’s
requirement. A system approach to training is planned creation of training program. This
approach uses step-by-step procedures to solve the problems. Under systematic approach,
training is undertaken on planned basis. Out of this planned effort,
one such basic model of five steps is system model that is explained below.
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Organization are working in open environment i.e. there are some internal and external
forces, that poses threats and opportunities, therefore, trainers need to be aware of these
forces which may impact on the content, form, and conduct of the training efforts.
The internal forces are the various demands of the organization for a better learning
environment; need to be up to date with the latest technologies.
The three model of training are:
1. System Model
2. Instructional System Development Model
3. Transitional model
System Model Training
The system model consists of five phases and should be repeated on a regular basis to
make further improvements. The training should achieve the purpose of helping
employee to perform their work to required standards. The steps involved in System
Model of training are as follows:
1. Analyze and identify the training needs i.e. to analyze the department, job,
2. employees requirement, who needs training, what do they need to learn,
estimating training cost, etc The next step is to develop a performance measure on
the basis of which actual performance would be evaluated.
3. Design and provide training to meet identified needs. This step requires
developing objectives of training, identifying the learning steps, sequencing and
structuring the contents.
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4. Develop- This phase requires listing the activities in the training program that will
assist the participants to learn, selecting delivery method, examining the training
material, validating information to be imparted to make sure it accomplishes all
the goals & objectives.
5. Implementing is the hardest part of the system because one wrong step can lead to
the failure of whole training program.
6. Evaluating each phase so as to make sure it has achieved its aim in terms of
subsequent work performance. Making necessary amendments to any of the
previous stage in order to remedy or improve failure practices.
Instructional System Development Model(ISD)Model
Instructional System Development model was made to answer the training problems.
This model is widely used now-a-days in the organization because it is concerned
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the training need on the job performance.
Training objectives are defined on the basis of job responsibilities and job description
and on the basis of the defined objectives individual progress is measured. This model
also helps in determining and developing the favorable strategies, sequencing the
content, and delivering media for the types of training objectives to be achieve.
The Instructional System Development model comprises of five stages:
1. ANALYSIS – This phase consist of training need assessment, job analysis, and
target audience analysis.
2. PLANNING – This phase consist of setting goal of the learning outcome,
instructional objectives that measures behavior of a participant after the training,
types of training material, media selection, methods of evaluating the trainee,
trainer and the training program, strategies to impart knowledge i.e. selection of
content, sequencing of content, etc.
3. DEVELOPMENT – This phase translates design decisions into training material.
It consists of developing course material for the trainer including handouts,
workbooks, visual aids, demonstration props, etc, course material for the trainee
including handouts of summary.
4. EXECUTION – This phase focuses on logistical arrangements, such as arranging
speakers, equipments, benches, podium, food facilities, cooling, lighting, parking,
and other training accessories.
5. EVALUATION – The purpose of this phase is to make sure that the training
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program has achieved its aim in terms of subsequent work performance. This phase
consists of identifying strengths and weaknesses and making necessary amendments to
any of the previous stage in order to remedy or improve failure practices.
The ISD model is a continuous process that lasts throughout the training program. It
also highlights that feedback is an important phase throughout the entire training
program. In this model, the output of one phase is an input to the next phase.
Transitional model focuses on the organization as a whole. The outer loop describes the
vision, mission and values of the organization on the basis of which training model i.e.
inner loop is executed.
Vision – focuses on the milestones that the organization would like to achieve after the
defined point of time. A vision statement tells that where the organization sees itself few
years down the line. A vision may include setting a role mode, or bringing some internal
transformation, or may be promising to meet some other deadlines
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Mission – explain the reason of organizational existence. It identifies the position in the
community. The reason of developing a mission statement is to motivate, inspire, and
inform the employees regarding the organization. The mission statement tells about the
identity that how the organization would like to be viewed by the customers, employees, and
all other stakeholders.
Values – is the translation of vision and mission into communicable ideals. It reflects the
deeply held values of the organization and is independent of current industry
environment. For example, values may include social responsibility, excellent customer
The mission, vision, and values precede the objective in the inner loop. This model
considers the organization as a whole. The objective is formulated keeping these three
things in mind and then the training model is further implemented.
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LEARNING AND TRAINING
Irrespective of the type or method of training, a trainer has to keep in mind some of the
principles of learning or motivation, which would enhance internationalization of what is
MotivationPage | 35
A trainee needs to have a desire to learn and benefit from the programme. If the is not
interested, or is de-motivated, the learning outcome is going to be insignificant and the
company will have spent its money badly. On the other hand, being too intense about
learning and outcome may result in setting over ambitious goals for the individual.
ReinforcementFollowing on the concept of motivation is that of reinforcement. For learning to take place
and be internalized to the desired extent, a trainee is rewarded or given some encouragement.
This reinforcement, or the acknowledgement that what has been acquired is desirable, can be
either an extrinsic or intrinsic reward-external praise or some tangible reward, or the
individual’s feeling of a sense of progress. Current stress is on positive support and helpful
behavior, even when mistakes are made.
FeedbackDuring the training process, it is useful for the trainee to be told how he is progressing.
Several researchers have confirmed that knowledge of results is an effective motivator.
Constant and periodic feedback has positive effects on the trainee’s learning. Unless the
trainee knows how close his performance comes to the desired standard, he will not have an
opportunity to improve. Feedback therefore provides a basis for correcting oneself.
Secondly, feedback helps to sustain the trainee’s interest in the task, or in each learning that is
taking place, by bringing greater involvement with the learning process. If feedback is to be
meaningful, it should follow a learning segment as quickly as possible.
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Transfer of LearningThe maximum use of training can be made if the trainee is able to transfer his learning to his
actual work role. This is possible if identical elements are incorporated in the training
situation from the job role, either existing or proposed. The more similar the learning
situation is to the job situation, the higher the degree of transfer the trainee can expect, and
hence the grater the relevance of the training programme.
RepetitionRepetition etches a pattern into our memory, e.g., when one studies for an examination, it is
necessary to repeatedly to over ideas so that they can be recalled later.
RelevanceRelevance relates to the meaningful fuse of material, which aids learning, e.g., trainers
usually explain in the overall purpose of a job to trainees before assigning them a particular
There are three basic types of inputs;
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The primary purpose of training is to establishing a sound relationship is at its best
when the workers attitude to the job is right, when the workers knowledge of the job is
adequate, and he has developed the necessary skills.
Training activities in an industrial organization are aimed at making desired
modifications in skills, attitudes and knowledge of employee so that they perform their jobs
most efficiently and effectively.
BEST TIME TO IMPART TRAINING TO EMPLOYEE
1. New Recruits To The CompanyThese have a requirement for induction into the company as a whole in terms of its business
activities and personnel policies and provisions, the terms, conditions and benefits
appropriate to the particular employee, and the career and advancement opportunities
2. Transferees Within The CompanyThese are people who are moved from one job to another, either within the same work area,
i.e. the same department or function, or to dissimilar work under a different management.
Under this heading we are excluding promotions, which take people into entirely new levels
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Although similar to the
transferee in that there is a new job to
learned in new
surroundings, he is dissimilar in that the promotion has brought him to a new level of
supervisory or management responsibility. The change is usually too important and difficult
to make successfully to permit one to assume that the promotes will pick it up as he goes
along and attention has to be paid to training in the tasks and the responsibilities and
personal skills necessary for effective performance.
4. New Plant or EquipmentEven the most experienced operator has everything to learn when a computer and electronic
controls replace the previous manual and electro-mechanical system on the process plant on
which he works. There is no less a training requirement for the supervisors and process
management, as well as for technical service production control and others.
5. New ProceduresMainly for those who work in offices in commercial and administrative functions but also for
those who we workplace is on the shop floor or on process plant on any occasion on which
there is a modification to existing paperwork or procedure for, say the withdrawal of
materials from stores, the control of customer credit the approval of expense claims, there
needs to be instruction on the change in the way of working in many instances, a note
bringing the attention of all concerned the change is assume to be sufficient, but there are
cases, such as when total new systems in corporating IT up dates are installed, when more
thorough training is needed.
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6. New Standards, Rules and PracticesChanges in any one these are likely to be conveyed by printed note or by word of mouth by
the manager to his subordinates, and this can be the most satisfaction way of dealing with the
change from the point of view of getting those affected to understand their new
responsibility. However not all changes under this heading can be left to this sort of handling.
Even the simplest looking instruction may be regarded as undesirable or impracticable by
whoever has to perform it he may not understand the purpose behind the change and lose
confidence in a management which he now believes to be ‘messing about’, or he may
understand the purpose and have a better alternative to offer if it is not too late.
7. New Relationship and AuthoritiesThese can arise, as a result of management decisions, in a number of ways. In examples, the
recognition of the accounts department can result in a realization of responsibilities between
the section leaders of credit control, invoicing and customer records, although there is no
movement of staff between the sections (i.e. no transfers). Although the change in work
content for each clerk and supervisor is defined clearly for each person in the new
procedures, there is nevertheless a need for each person to know where he stands in the new
set up, which is responsible for what, and where to direct problems and enquiries as they arise
in the future.
8. Maintenance of Standards-
We are here concerned with maintenance of standards through training, for it must be
remembered that supervision and inspection and qualify control are continuously responsible
for standards and exercise their own authorities to this end. Although it is generally agreed
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that some retraining from time to time, taking varied forms even for the on group of
employees, does act as both a reminder and a stimulus, there is not much agreement on the
next frequency and form that such retraining should take, of there is as yet little scientific
knowledge on this subject which is of much use in industrial situations.
9. The Maintenance of AdaptabilityAgain, whilst there is little scientific study of the loss of ability to learn new skills in those
cases where people spend a long time without change, and without the need to learn, there is
increasing evidence in current experience to suggest that this is the case in industrial
employment. Add, of course, there is the inference arising from the laboratory experiments of
The Maintenance of Management Skills & Standards -
Skills in supervising, employee appraisal, communications, leadership etc are important in all
companies. Some of these skills are seen to be critical to major developments in company
organization, culture, employee empowerment and so on. Initial training in these skills is not
uncommon in the largest companies on appointment into management and supervision. But
continuous training and performance monitoring is rare, despite the common knowledge that
standards are as varied as human nature.
Retirement and Redundancy-
Employees of any position in the company who are heading towards retirement will benefit
from learning about health, social life, work opportunities money management
etc. Internal or external courses are best attended a year or two before retirement date, in a
few companies a member of Personnel will act as a counselor as required.
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BENEFITS OF TRAINING
Employees and the organization need to realize the importance of contribution and learning
for mutual growth and development. Training is the answer to deal with stagnation stage by
constantly updating it in every field. Other benefits of training include:
Hiring appeal: companies that provide training attract a better quality
Assessing and addressing any performance deficiency.
Enhancing workforce flexibility. Cross-cultural training is essential for
them for better adjustment in the new environment.
Increasing commitment: Training acts as a loyalty booster. Employee
motivation is also enhanced when the employee knows that the organization
would provide them opportunities to increase their skills and knowledge.
It gives the organization a competitive edge by keeping abreast of the latest
changes; it acts as a catalyst for change.
Higher customer satisfaction and lower support cost results through
improved service, increased productivity and greater sufficiency.
Training acts as benchmark for hiring promoting and career planning.
It acts act as a retention tool by motivating employee to the vast
opportunities for growth available in an organization.
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THE EVALUATION OF TRAINING
There are a number of expressions used to describe steps taken by management and by
training offices at the conclusion of training and during the days or weeks afterwards. These
expressions include validation, evaluation, follow-up and
implementation, as well as cost
benefit, which have appeared in more recent years. We are interested in all of these and have
already tackled one of the, implementation, and we start by giving our definitions in order to
establish a clearer picture of what each is, and how they relate to each other.
Evaluation of training, or, indeed of anything, consists simply of putting a value to it. To
evaluate training means undertaking a search for the effect that it has had on the people and
the situations, which it influences, and then trying to measure or estimate whether this is
advantageous or disadvantageous.
We shall see that at the level of pure training there is an evaluation to be made, but that the
principal evaluation is at a higher level in the chain.
First the chain of intentions is clear at the outset
1. The forecourt attendants were to receive training to a defined level of competence.
2. They were then to apply their new capability correctly during the service that they
gave to motorists.
3. The motorists would respond to this with a reaction of pleasure and would tend to use
that particular station rather more, thus increasing the amount of gasoline sold.
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4. The increased sales, and negligible increased costs, would improve the revenue and
A TRAINING TOOL: INSPIRING OTHERS
In the new era new era, challenges for the trainer are to create learning environment. Trainer
needs to innovate new ways design and deliver the training inputs. Wide range of technique
like interactive methods like teaching, experiential learning cases inventories games,
including humour. Where as we have the ancient way of story telling as a powerful tool to
create learning for adult managers of industry. Sharing ones own perception, experience and
ideas learning value can be increased exponentially.
Methods of TrainingThere are various methods of training, which can be divided in to cognitive and
behavioral methods. Trainers need to understand the pros and cons of each method, also
its impact on trainees keeping their background and skills in mind before giving training.
Cognitive methods are more of giving theoretical training to the trainees. The various
methods under Cognitive approach provide the rules for how to do something, written or
verbal information, demonstrate relationships among concepts, etc. These methods are
associated with changes in knowledge and attitude by stimulating learning.
The various methods that come under Cognitive approach are:
LECTURES – A Method of Training
It is one of the oldest methods of training. This method is used to create understanding of
a topic or to influence behavior, attitudes through lecture. A lecture can be in printed or
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oral form. Lecture is telling someone about something. Lecture is given to enhance the
knowledge of listener or to give him the theoretical aspect of a topic. Training is basically
incomplete without lecture. When the trainer begins the training session by telling the
aim, goal, agenda, processes, or methods that will be used in training that means the
trainer is using the lecture method. It is difficult to imagine training without lecture
format. There are some variations in Lecture method. The variation here means that some
forms of lectures are interactive while some are not.
Straight Lecture: Straight lecture method consists of presenting information, which the
trainee attempts to absorb. In this method, the trainer speaks to a group about a topic.
However, it does not involve any kind of interaction between the trainer and the trainees.
A lecture may also take the form of printed text, such as books, notes, etc. The difference
between the straight lecture and the printed material is the trainer’s intonation, control of
speed, body language, and visual image of the trainer. The trainer in case of straight
lecture can decide to vary from the training script, based on the signals from the trainees,
whereas same material in print is restricted to what is printed.
A good lecture consists of introduction of the topic, purpose of the lecture, and priorities
and preferences of the order in which the topic will be covered.
Main Features of Lecture MethodSome of the main features of lecture method are:
Inability to identify and correct misunderstandings
Can be reached large number of people at once
Knowledge building exercise
Less effective because lectures require long periods of trainee inactivity
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Demonstration Training Method
This method is a visual display of how something works or how to do something. As an
example, trainer shows the trainees how to perform or how to do the tasks of the job. In
order to be more effective, demonstration method should be should be accompanied by
the discussion or lecture method.
To carry out an effective demonstration, a trainer first prepares the lesson plan by
breaking the task to be performed into smaller modules, easily learned parts. Then, the
trainer sequentially organizes those modules and prepares an explanation for why that
part is required. While performing the demonstration, trainer:
Demonstrates the task by describing how to do, while doing
Helps the focusing their attention on critical aspects of the task
Tells the trainees what you will be doing so they understand what you will be
Explains why it should be carried out in that way
The difference between the lecture method and the demonstration method is the level of
involvement of the trainee. In the lecture method, the more the trainee is involved.
The financial costs that occur in the demonstration method are as follows:
Cost of training facility for the program
Cost of materials that facilitate training
Food, travel, lodging for the trainees and the trainers
Compensation of time spent in training to trainers and trainees
Cost related to creating content, material
Cost related to the organization of the training
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After completing the demonstration the trainer provide feedback, both positive and or
negative, give the trainee the opportunity to do the task and describe what he is doing and
Discussion Training Method
This method uses a lecturer to provide the learners with context that is supported, elaborated,
explains, or expanded on through interactions both among the trainees and between the
trainer and the trainees. The interaction and the communication between these two make it
much more effective and powerful than the lecture method. If the Discussion method is used
with proper sequence i.e. lectures, followed by discussion and questioning, can achieve
higher level knowledge objectives, such as problem solving and principle learning.
The Discussion method consists a two-way flow of communication i.e. knowledge
inthe form of lecture is communicated to trainees, and then understanding is conveyed
back by trainees to trainer.
Understanding is conveyed in the form of verbal and non-verbal feedback that enables
the trainer to determine whether the material is understood. If yes, then definitely it
would help out the trainees to implement it at their workplaces and if not, the trainer may
need to spend more time on that particular area by presenting the information again in a
Questioning can be done by both ways i.e. the trainees and the trainer. When the
ask questions, they explain their thinking about the content of the lecture. A trainer who
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asks questions stimulates thinking about the content of the lecture. Asking and
responding questions are beneficial to trainees because it enhance understanding and
keep the trainees focused on the content. Besides that, discussions, and interactions allow
the trainee to be actively engaged in the material of the trainer. This activity helps in
Computer-Based Training (CBT)
With the world-wide expansion of companies and changing technologies, the demands
for knowledge and skilled employees have increased more than ever, which in turn, is
putting pressure on HR department to provide training at lower costs. Many organizations
are now implementing CBT as an alternative to classroom based training to accomplish
Some of the benefits of Computer-Based Training are:
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According to a recent survey, about 75% of the organizations are providing training to
employees through Intranet or Internet. Internet is not the method of training, but has
become the technique of delivering training. The growth of electronic technology has
created alternative training delivery systems. CBT does not require face-to-face
interaction with a human trainer. This method is so varied in its applications that it is
difficult to describe in concise terms.
The various methods that come under Cognitive approach are :
INTELLEGENT TUTORIAL SYSTEM(ITS)
PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION (PI)
Behavioral methods are more of giving practical training to the trainees. The various
methods under Behavioral approach allow the trainee to behavior in a real fashion. These
methods are best used for skill development.
The various methods that come under Behavioral approach are:
GAMES AND SIMULATIONS
Both the methods can be used effectively to change attitudes, but through different
Another Method is MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT METHOD –
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Coaching is one of the training methods, which is considered as a corrective method for
inadequate performance. According to a survey conducted by International Coach
Federation (ICF), more than 4,000 companies are using coach for their executives. These
coaches are experts most of the time outside consultants.
A coach is the best training plan for the CEO’s because
It is one-to-one interaction
It can be done at the convenience of CEO
It can be done on phone, meetings, through e-mails, chat
It provides an opportunity to receive feedback from an expert
It helps in identifying weaknesses and focus on the area that needs improvement
This method best suits for the people at the top because if we see on emotional front, when a
person reaches the top, he gets lonely and it becomes difficult to find someone to talk to. It
helps in finding out the executive’s specific developmental needs. The needs can be identified
through 60 degree performance review.
PROCEDURE OF THE COACHINGThe procedure of the coaching is mutually determined by the executive and coach.
Theprocedure is followed by successive counseling and meetings at the executive’s
convenience by the coach.
1. Understand the participant’s job, the knowledge, skills, and attitudes, and
resources required to meet the desired expectation
2. Meet the participant and mutually agree on the objective that has to be achieved
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3. Mutually arrive at a plan and schedule
4. At the job, show the participant how to achieve the objectives, observe the
performance and then provide feedback
5. Repeat step 4 until performance improves.
For the people at middle-level management, coaching is more likely done by the
supervisor; however experts from outside the organization are at times used for upand-coming managers. Again, the personalized approach assists the manger focus on
definite needs and improvement
Mentoring is an ongoing relationship that is developed between a senior and junior
employee. Mentoring provides guidance and clear understanding of how the organization
goes to achieve its vision and mission to the junior employee.
The meetings are not as structured and regular than in coaching. Executive mentoring is
generally done by someone inside the company. The executive can learn a lot from
mentoring. By dealing with diverse mentee’s, the executive is given the chance to grow
professionally by developing management skills and learning how to work with people
with diverse background, culture, and language and personality types.
Executives also have mentors. In cases where the executive is new to the organization, a
senior executive could be assigned as a mentor to assist the new executive settled into his
role. Mentoring is one of the important methods for preparing them to be future
executives. This method allows the mentor to determine what is required to improve
mentee’s performance. Once the mentor identifies the problem, weakness, and the area
that needs to be worked upon, the mentor can advise relevant training. The mentor can
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also provide opportunities to work on special processes and projects that require use of
Some key points on Mentoring
Mentoring focus on attitude development
Conducted for management-level employees
Mentoring is done by someone inside the company
It is one-to-one interaction
It helps in identifying weaknesses and focus on the area that needs improvement
For the executive, job rotation takes on different perspectives. The executive is usually
not simply going to another department. In some vertically integrated organizations, for
example, where the supplier is actually part of same organization or subsidiary, job
rotation might be to the supplier to see how the business operates from the supplier point of
view. Learning how the organization is perceived from the outside broadens the executive’s
on the process of the organization. Or the rotation might be to a foreign office to
provide a global perspective. For managers being developed for executive roles, rotation to
different functions in the company is regular carried out. This approach allows the manger to
operate in diverse roles and understand the different issues that crop up. If someone is to be a
corporate leader, they must have this type of training. A recent study indicated that the single
most significant factor that leads to leader’s achievement was the variety of experiences in
different departments, business units, cities, and countries.
An organized and helpful way to develop talent for the management or executive level
of the organization is job rotation. It is the process of preparing employees at a lower level to
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replace someone at the next higher level. It is generally done for the designations that are
crucial for the effective and efficient functioning of the organization.
Benefits of Job RotationSome of the major benefits of job rotation are:
It provides the employees with opportunities to broaden the horizon of
knowledge, skills, and abilities by working in different departments, business
units, functions, and countries
Identification of Knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) required
It determines the areas where improvement is required
Assessment of the employees who have the potential and caliber for filling the
OFF THE JOB TRAINING
There are many management development techniques that an employee can take in off the
job. The few popular methods are:
STRAIGHT LECTURES/ LECTURES
Training Need Analysis (TNA)
An analysis of training need is an essential requirement to the design of effective
training. The purpose of training need analysis is to determine whether there is a gap
between what is required for effective performance and present level of performance.
Why training need analysis?
Training need analysis is conducted to determine whether resources required are
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available or not. It helps to plan the budget of the company, areas where training is
required, and also highlights the occasions where training might not be appropriate
but requires alternate action.
Corporate need and training need are interdependent because the organization
performance ultimately depends on the performance of its individual employee and
its sub group.
Organizational Level – Training need analysis at organizational level focuses on
strategic planning, business need, and goals. It starts with the assessment of internal
environment of the organization such as, procedures, structures, policies, strengths,
and weaknesses and external environment such as opportunities and threats.
After doing the SWOT analysis, weaknesses can be dealt with the training
interventions, while strengths can further be strengthened with continued training.
Threats can be reduced by identifying the areas where training is required. And,
opportunities can be exploited by balancing it against costs.
For this approach to be successful, the HR department of the company requires to be
involved in strategic planning. In this planning, HR develops strategies to be sure that
the employees in the organization have the required Knowledge, Skills, and
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Attributes (KSAs) based on the future KSAs requirements at each level
Individual Level – Training need analysis at individual level focuses on each and
every individual in the organization. At this level, the organization checks whether an
employee is performing at desired level or the performance is below expectation. If
the difference between the expected performance and actual performance comes out
to be positive, then certainly there is a need of training.
However, individual competence can also be linked to individual need. The methods
that are used to analyze the individual need are:
Appraisal and performance review
Self-assessment or self-appraisal
Operational Level – Training Need analysis at operational level focuses on the work
that is being assigned to the employees. The job analyst gathers the information on
whether the job is clearly understood by an employee or not. He gathers this information
through technical interview, observation, psychological test; questionnaires asking the
closed ended as well as open ended questions, etc. Today, jobs are dynamic and keep
changing over the time. Employees need to prepare for these changes. The job analyst
also gathers information on the tasks needs to be done plus the tasks that will be required
in the future. Based on the information collected, training Need analysis (TNA) is done.
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The design of the training program can be undertaken only when a clear training
objective has been produced. The training objective clears what goal has to be achieved
by the end of training program i.e. what the trainees are expected to be able to do at the
end of their training. Training objectives assist trainers to design the training program.
The trainer – Before starting a training program, a trainer analyzes his technical,
interpersonal, judgmental skills in order to deliver quality content to trainers
The trainees – A good training design requires close scrutiny of the trainees and their
profiles. Age, experience, needs and expectations of the trainees are some of the
important factors that affect training design.
Training climate – A good training climate comprises of ambience, tone, feelings,
positive perception for training program, etc. Therefore, when the climate is favorable
nothing goes wrong but when the climate is unfavorable, almost everything goes wrong.
Trainees’ learning style – the learning style, age, experience, educational
background of trainees must be kept in mind in order to get the right pitch to the design
of the program
Training strategies – Once the training objective has been identified, the trainer
translates it into specific training areas and modules. The trainer prepares the priority list
of about what must be included, what could be included.
Training topics – After formulating a strategy, trainer decides upon the content to be
delivered. Trainers break the content into headings, topics, ad modules. These topics and
modules are then classified into information, knowledge, skills, and attitudes.
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Sequence the contents – Contents are then sequenced in a following manner:
• From simple to complex
• Topics are arranged in terms of their relative importance
• From known to unknown
• From specific to general
• Dependent relationship
Training tactics – Once the objectives and the strategy of the training program
becomes clear, trainer comes in the position to select most appropriate tactics or methods
or techniques. The method selection depends on the following factors:
• Trainees’ background
• Time allocated
• Style preference of trainer
• Level of competence of trainer
• Availability of facilities and resources, etc
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Support facilities – It can be segregated into printed and audio visual. The various
requirements in a training program are white boards, flip charts, markers, etc.
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Constraints – The various constraints that lay in the trainers mind are:
• Accommodation, facilities and their availability
• Furnishings and equipments
• Design of the training, etc
To put training program into effect according to definite plan or procedure is called
training implementation. Training implementation is the hardest part of the system
because one wrong step can lead to the failure of whole training program. Even the best
training program will fail due to one wrong action.
Training implementation can be segregated into:
• Practical administrative arrangements
• Carrying out of the training
Once the staff, course, content, equipments, topics are ready, the training is implemented.
Completing training design does not mean that the work is done because implementation
phase requires continual adjusting, redesigning, and refining. Preparation is the most
important factor to taste the success. Therefore, following are the factors that are kept in
mind while implementing training program:
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The trainer – The trainer need to be prepared mentally before the delivery of content.
Trainer prepares materials and activities well in advance. The trainer also set grounds
before meeting with participants by making sure that he is comfortable with course
content and is flexible in his approach.
Physical set-up – Good physical set up is pre-requisite for effective and successful
training program because it makes the first impression on participants. Classrooms should
not be very small or big but as nearly square as possible. This will bring people together
both physically and psychologically. Also, right amount of space should be allocated to
Establishing rapport with participants – There are various ways by which a trainer can
establish good rapport with trainees by:
• Greeting participants – simple way to ease those initial tense moments
• Encouraging informal conversation
• Remembering their first name
• Pairing up the learners and have them familiarized with one another
• Listening carefully to trainees’ comments and opinions
• Telling the learners by what name the trainer wants to be addressed
• Getting to class before the arrival of learners
• Starting the class promptly at the scheduled time
• Using familiar examples
• Varying his instructional techniques
• Using the alternate approach if one seems to bog down
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Reviewing the agenda – At the beginning of the training program it is very
important to review the program objective. The trainer must tell the participants the goal
of the program, what is expected out of trainers to do at the end of the program, and how
the program will run. The following information needs to be included:
• Kinds of training activities
• Setting group norms
• Housekeeping arrangements
• Flow of the program
• Handling problematic situations
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TYPES OF TRAINING METHODS ADOPTED
BY RELIANCE MONEY
The training methods which are generally used in an organization are classified into two i.e.
1) On the job: On-the-job training places the employees in an actual work situation and
makes them appear to be immediately productive. It is learning by doing. For jobs, that either
are difficult to simulate or can be learn quickly by watching and doing on-the-job training
One of the drawbacks to on-the-job training can be low productivity while the employees
develop their skills. Another drawback can be the errors made by the trainees while they
learn. However, when the damage the trainees can do is minimal, where training facilities and
personnel are limited or costly, and where it is desirable for the workers to learn the job under
normal working conditions, the benefits of on-the-job training frequently offset its
(ii) Job Instruction Training: JIT consists of four basic steps:
(a) Preparing the trainees by telling them about the job and over coming their uncertainties
(b) Presenting the instruction, giving essential information in a clear manner;
(c) Having the trainees try out the job to demonstrate their understanding; and
(d) Placing the workers into the job, on their own, with a designated resource person to call
upon should they need assistance.
2) Off the job: Off-the-job training covers a number of techniques – classroom lectures,
films, demonstrations, case studies and other simulation exercises, and programmed
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instruction. The facilities needed for each of these techniques vary from a small make shift
classroom to an elaborate development center with large lecture halls, supplemented by small
conference rooms with sophisticated audiovisual equipment, two-way mirrors, and all the
(i) Classroom lectures/conferences: The lecture or conference approach is well
adapted to conveying specific information – rules, procedures, or methods. The use of
audiovisuals or demonstrations can often make a formal classroom presentation more
interesting while increasing retention and offering a vehicle for more interesting while
increasing retention and offering a vehicle for clarifying more difficult points. The lecture’s
liabilities include possible lack of feedback and the lack of active involvement by the
(ii) Simulation exercises: Any training activity that explicitly places the trainee in an
artificial environment that closely mirrors actual working conditions can be considered a
simulation. Simulation activities include case exercises, experimental exercises, complex
computer modeling, and vestibule training.
(iii)Vestibule training: In vestibule training, employees learn their jobs on the
equipment they will be using, but the learning is conducted away from the actual work floor.
In the 1980s many large retail chains train cashiers on their new computer cash registers –
which are much more complex because they control inventory and perform other functions in
addition to ringing up orders – in specially created vestibule labs that simulated the actual
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Training, as a process of long tem learning is essentially a developmental tool.. By effectively
utilizing this tool, the organization expects to achieve career objectives.
Contribute towards the career progressions of the employees by importing
knowledge of an additional or reinforcing nature, developing skills and bringing
about desired attitudinal changes among them. This would not merely prove effective
in assisting them to achieve organizational goals but also enable enhancement of their
self esteem and self confidences to face external challenges.
Ours is a changing and dynamic organization which has to pay considerable
emphasis on training and retraining its employees to enable them to be competent,
committed and has the capacity to change according to the external and internal
demands and pressures.
Training of employees is not merely the responsibility of the management or the training cell
alone, but the responsibility of department managers as well. The human resource department
must enable the involvement of the department managers in the process of employee training
ASSESSMENT OF TRAINING NEEDS
There are five steps towards the assessment and analysis of training and development of the
Collection of information through interviewing and discussing with key personnel
both inside and outside the organization or specific departments; observing the work
place, working conditions, processes and outcomes; examining records, other written
information and annual employee appraisal.
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Compare performances of each department and each employee against objectives,
targets and standards set for them and keeping in mind future work requirements in
Identify cause of problems faced by the organization to enable the management to
train the employees in handling the problems as well as solving the problem in a
Segregate identified problems into problems requiring staff development action
such as training and into problems requiring other management actions, so that these
problems are accurately addressed.
Prioritize training actions in accordance to where the training need is more urgent.
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Questionnaire on Study on Effectiveness of Training & Development
An organization has a very close relationship with the trainee and the trainer because it is
the first contact for both.
The demand for the training in the organization increases when the organization wants:
• To hire new people – training as a means of training new recruits
• To Expand – When the company wants to increase its headcount
• To increase certain number of staff (in position) by a certain date
• To enhance the performance of employees
• Organization’s name to be a part of training unit.
Demand for training also increases when there is change in the nature of job, change
in taste of consumer, change in methods of product development, etc. The organization
goes through the following steps for the transfer of training to the field.
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Trainee – Role of Trainee in Transfer of Training
But the problem arises when the organization outsource the training process. In this
situation the organization assumes that the trainer must be aware of the type of training
need s of the participants and their organization and their content will meet those needs.
This leads to failure of the program, which results in collusion. Therefore, it’s a foremost
duty of the organization to make the trainer and their organization aware of their culture,
climate, responsibilities of organization, etc.
The trainee is a major stakeholder in a training program. The whole training program is
developed for the trainees only. Each candidate plays an important role in the transfer of
training because one participant’s attitude regarding the training influence the other
participants and also each participant can assist by advancing the learning process to
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realize the training objectives.
Participant’s willingness to invest in the program is directly proportional to the
benefits of the learning that the trainee could expect. Each participant forms their
own perception towards training. Some perceptions remain the same during the
program, while some faded depending upon the assessment of a program by the
Some personal factors that affect the trainee’s learning are:
• Family Situation
• Personal Problems
• Relation between the training program and personal objective
• Level of self esteem
• Benefits expected from training
• Comfort level with the trainer
• Learning style of trainee
• KSA of trainee
• Previous training experiences
• Desire for professional growth and development
Some environmental factors that affect the trainee’s learning are:
• Relationship with colleagues and subordinates
• Training team
• Trainer team
• Training objective
• Content of training
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• Training design i.e. methods, techniques, and strategies
• Environment in the program
• Composition of training group
• Infrastructure i.e. eating facilities, tea/coffee breaks
No matter how good the training program is, in the end it is the participant only
who decides whether to change his behavior or not. Trainees do not change their
behavior merely because someone tells them to do. They change when they feel
there is a need of it. They do it with their own learning style. The trainer and the
organization can only try to remove the mental blocks of the trainee, rest depends
on trainee itself.
Importance of Trainer, Role of Trainer
The effective transfer of training depends a lot on the trainer because it is the
trainer only who can remove the mental block of trainee, motivate the trainee to
learn, delete the negative perception of the trainee regarding the training. Besides
all that, a lot depends on personality of trainer also.
The major competencies that are required to be present in a trainer are:
• Presentation Skills
• Business Skills i.e. budgeting, time management, negotiation, etc.
• Content Development i.e. material production, graphics, layouts, etc
• Self development i.e. interpersonal skills, good listening skills, flexible,
Trainer’s Skills- The skills that need to be present in a trainer are:
• Training Design
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• Evaluating the training program
• Training need analysis
• Worksheet design
• Exercises design
ROLE OF TRAINER
Facilitation Of Training
Facilitation of Transfer of Training through Focus on Trainee and Organization :
Focus on Trainee
Focus on Organization Intervention
Focus on Trainee
Training is successful not only with good training design and training objectives
but also with the readiness and willingness of the trainees. For the training to be
successful, three things are required,
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2. Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes (KSAs)
3. Expectations towards Training
Expected Performance is directly proportional to the multiplication of motivation,
required KSAs, and expectations towards training i.e.
Motivation – If the trainee is not motivated to learn, no learning is likely to
occur no matter how good the training methods are, or how talented the trainees
are. Therefore, it is important to intervene before training and provide them the
information about the learning outcome that they can expect and how the learning
outcome will help in achieving the objectives. This increases the motivation to
learn and to be successful in training.
Expectations – Positive expectations matter a lot in a training program. If the
trainee perceives the training as waste of time, and waste of resources, no learning
is likely to occur. No learning is possible with negative perception. On the other
hand, if the trainee believes and expects that the training would help him to
improve upon his professional skills and would further help him in achieving his
personal goals, the probability of training to meet the objective increases.
Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes (KSAs) – It is important that the selected
trainees should have the right KSAs for the training because even if the methods
and contents of the training is good but the candidates do not have the right KSAs,
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the training program will fail. Also the training methods would not be effective if
the candidates are lacking the desired skills. Therefore, proper selection technique
is must that would ensure that hired have the requisite KSAs to be successful in
Facilitation of Training Through Organization Intervention
Failure of training is not always because of lack of KSAs but sometimes it is
because of the organizational forces also. These forces also hold back the transfer of
training, and learning. Therefore, it is important to keep in check those forces. For the
successful transfer of training, it is necessary to have supervisor support, trainer support,
peer support, reward system, climate and culture.
PEERS SUPPORT – Peer support can also help in transfer of training, for
example, if the trainee is the only one who is receiving training in the department
then probably the experienced peers might put pressure on trainee to forget the
training and work. This situation also hampers in transfer of training. However,
this situation can be avoided by involving the entire department in training,
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also by encouraging the learning culture in the organization.
SUPERVISOR SUPPORT – can affect their employees’ learning in number
of ways, for example, if the trainee is motivated to learn and receives full support
from their supervisor, then this support in turn encourages the employee to learn
as much as possible. Also, supervisor can also reduce the negative factors of
training, such as, the work that piles up during training that makes the employee
uncomfortable and employees’ negative perception about the training program.
TRAINER SUPPORT – can also have a positive impact on the transfer of
training. Gone are the days, when the trainers’ role used to get over once the
training program is done. Trainers’ role is now extended to the work place also.
Besides training, trainer’s role is to keep a check on how trainees are performing
and help them and discuss with them if they encounter any problem in the
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CLIMATE – Apart from supervisor support, peers support, trainer support,
Climate factor also comprises of company polices, attitude of upper management
towards employee, towards training. If these factors are positive then the climate
will also support the transfer of training. It is the organizations foremost duty to
make the employees realize through these factors that adequate amount of time
and resources are spent on them for their professional and personal development.
CULTURE – also have the impact over the transfer of training. If the culture of
the organization provides enough opportunities to its employees to implement
what they have learnt in the workplace and provide them variety of others factors
such as, social support, challenging jobs, etc then the likelihood of the transfer of
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NEW ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGIES IN TRAINING
1) Interactive computer video technology:
The use of computers and videotapes in the field of training is now well established. Some
leading institution like MANAGE, Hyderabad is using this technology in training
2) Broadcast television / cable television:
Televisions system in which programme is sent out by radio wave and are seen on television.
Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) is very well using this technology its
educational and training programme.
3) Computer aided instruction:
An educational concept which places the student in a conversational mode with a computer
which has programmed study plan. The programmed course selects the next topic or phase of
study according to previous responses from the student allowing each student to progress at
pace directly to his or her learning capability.
4) Interactive video /interactive compute:
The phrase ‘interactive video’ refers to a video programme with which user (trainee) can
interact. Interactivity takes place between user and the system, some thing for IC
also, the system composed of four basic components
(1) monitor or video display unit
(2) video tape or video disc
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(3) a computer
(4) a disc drive, the computer controls the video or video disc. Disc drive loads a programme
into the computer.
A two way audio and one way video system. It is used nowadays by many institutions for
education and training purpose.
Cutting edge of competition today demands every organization, to measure its activities in
terms of effectiveness, efficiency, excellence (triple E). To achieve this triple C a lot of
investment is made by the organization but the sword of sure short success hangs on the head
of the HRD manager, this is because he has to handle the most complex resource i.e. human
resource. The next toughest thins is to maintain is the ROI (return on investment) of training
and development. It is not only the ROI but the performance management, retention level,
motivation, morale, creativity, innovation conflicts, loyalty and commitment etc. of the
manpower which are not easy to handle.
Keeping all these factors in mind the focus of vision falls on training and development. The
training effectiveness is obviously in terms of enhanced skill and knowledge to achieve the
present goals, through the increased learnt behavior. In the process of training effectiveness is
the most important /vital area, where by the individual and organizational goals are integrated
to bring about the desired performance levels. How to reduce the gap?
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Statement of the problem
To understand the perception and behaviuor of investors and potential investors this
study has been conducted. In addition, attitude of investors towards Reliance Money has also
been considered. So, research has been carried on the title
“A study on trading behavior of investors at Reliance Money”
Need of the study
The need of the study arises because of the reason that a trainee must understand the
company, its achievements and tasks, products and services and also to collect information
about its competitors.
But the major focus was on making a customer profile for Reliance Money and study
the position of Reliance Money in the market as well as among its competitors. In addition,
investors were to be made aware about various products and services offered by Reliance
Money and checking the satisfaction level of present customers
Objectives of the study
To create awareness about the products offered by Reliance Money in the Market
To know about the investment preference or style of investors
To know about the awareness of demat account
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To collect the real time information about preference level of customers using Demat
account and their inclination towards various other brokerage firms e.g. Reliance
Money, ICICI, Religare, Angel , Unicon, Sharekhan etc.
As an intern at Reliance Money, to know about response of investors
To know about the awareness of Reliance Money as a brand and services offered
To know about the availability of Reliance Money Franchisee
Sources of Data (Primary & Secondary)
In this project work primary and secondary data sources of data has been used.
Primary dataPrimary data is collected through observation, or through direct communication or
doing experiments. Under this, Survey method has been used.
For this report primary data was collected by personal interview with investors and
potential investors in different areas of Lucknow.
Secondary dataSecondary data refers to existing primary data that was collected by someone else or for a
purpose other than the current one. It means already available through books, journals ,
magazines ,newspaper, websites.
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Data has been collected through various websites the list of which has been given in
the end of report
Research Method or type of study
The Research method used is descriptive research.
Descriptive research, also known as statistical research, describes data and characteristics
about the population or phenomenon being studied. Descriptive research answers the
questions who, what, where, when and how.
In the present Research I have collected data through Survey of 50 respondents
The sampling units are various areas of Lucknow which have been approached to
collect data from different people
Sampling method used in this research is simple random sampling which is also
known as probability sampling. Under this sampling design every item of universe has an
equal chance of inclusion in sample. It is say to a lottery method.
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The size of the sample was restricted to 50, as to just get a quick analysis
Personal interview is used as a method of contacting people.
It is a market research technique for gathering information through face-to-face
contact with individuals. Personal interviews take place in a variety of settings-in homes, at
shopping malls, in a business office. This type of research is relatively costly, because it
requires a staff of interviewers, but it provides the best opportunity to obtain information
through probing for clearer explanations. It is the best technique to use early on in the
research process when the researcher is not yet sure which questions need to be asked,
because new and better questions can come out of the dialogue
Data collection method
Research Instrument used in this research was Questionnaire.
A questionnaire is a formalized set of questions for eliciting information. It is one of
the most common instruments used for primary data collection.
The questionnaire can be administered in various ways. It can be administered by
means of a personal interviewer as well as by the telephone, Mail. Here, the questionnaire
was administered by a personal interview
Tools of analysis
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For the proper analysis of data, Quantitative Technique such as percentage method
was used. In addition, Microsoft excel was also used for preparing charts for deducing
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DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATIONS
Q1.Your Organization considers training as a part of organizational strategy. Do
you agree with this statement?
No. Of Respondants
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Interpretation:The above graph indicates that Organization considers training as a part of
Q 2. How many training programmes will you attend in a year?
No. of respondants
Less than 10
10 - 20
20 – 40
More than 40
INTERPRETATION:Page | 84
The above chart indicates that less training programmes are held in the
Q 3. To whom the training is given more in your organization?
No. of respondants
Based on requirement
INTERPRETATION:Training is provided on the basis of requirement.
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Q 4. What are all the important barriers to Training and Development in your
No. of respondants
Lack of interest by staff
Non-availability of skilled
INTERPRETATION:Page | 86
The above graph indicates that the important barriers to Training and
Development in the organization is Non-availability of skilled trainers.
Q 5. Enough practice is given for us during training session? Do you agree with
No. of respondants
INTERPRETATION:This graph indicates that enough practice is given for employees during training
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Q6. The training sessions conducted in your organization is useful. Do you
agree with this statement?
No. of respondants
INTERPRETATION:The above graph indicates that the training sessions conducted in the
organization is useful.
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Q7. Employees are given appraisal in order to motivate them to attend the
training. Do u agree with this statement?
No. of respondants
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The above graph shows that Employees are given appraisal in order to motivate
them to attend the training.
Q8. What are the skills that the trainer should possess to make the training
No. of respondants
People skills or Soft skills
Generalist makes better
Personnel managers than
Fond of talking to people
INTERPRETATION:Page | 90
The above graph indicates that the trainer should possess technical skills to
make the training effective
Q9. What are the general complaints about the training session?
No. of respondants
Take away precious time
Too many gaps between
Training sessions are
Boring and not useful
INTERPRETATION:Page | 91
The above graph indicates that there are two many gaps between the training
Q10. Reason for shortage of skilled man power at workplace are :
No. of respondants
Lack of planning
Lack of support from
Lack of proper guidance
and training at workplace
Lack of quality education
at primary and secondary
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INTERPRETATION:The above graph indicates that reason for shortage of skilled man power at
workplace are lack of support from senior staff.
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1. The firms follow an effective training process.
2. The training is given to those employees who need it.
3. But the barrier for the training process in the organization is the
non-availability of skilled trainers.
4. There are gaps between the training sessions organized by the
company that’s why trainees lost touch with that.
5. As the work load is much on employees therefore less attention is
given to training sessions by the employees.
6. The Organization also appoints trainers from outside or from
different firms to ensure better training to its employees.
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Every scientific study has certain limitations and the present study is no more exception.
1. The terminology used in the subject is highly technical in nature and creates a lot of
2. All the secondary data are required were not available.
3. Respondents were found hesitant in revealing opinion about supervisors and
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CONCLUSION & SUGGESTIONS
Under noted few suggestions cum conclusion can be taken as for implementation to reap
Making training and development process and entirely in house activity to
It is found that the average age group of trainees are in their twenties or
early thirties which signifies that the consumer durable industry need more
of young blood as enthusiasm is an integral part of the industry.
The maximum emphasis is given to job instruction methods where the
trainee are made to understand their job thoroughly and the role they are
going to play in performing their job.
Lecture as well as the presentation is the major part of imparting the
education and training them.
The training objective are in keeping with needs and abilities of the trainee
and it is this that proves to be the major reason for success of the training
The trainee fill the feedback form and from time to time test are conducted
to know the gauge the effectiveness of training to employee to check their
memory if they retain anything or not.
We think that time management is one of the thing on which Reliance Mobile team
must emphasis so that there employee can be more productive as it was
found during the visit to the corporate office people they lack in managing
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*1) Your Organization considers training as a part of organizational strategy. Do
you agree with this statement?
*2) How many training programmes will you attend in a year?
Less than 10
More than 40
*3) To whom the training is given more in your organization?
Based on requirement
*4) What are all the important barriers to Training and Development in your
Lack of interest by the staff
Non-availability of skilled trainer
*5) What mode of training method is normally used in your organization?
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*6) Enough practice is given for us during training session? Do you agree with
*7) The training sessions conducted in your organisation is useful. Do you agree
with this statement?
*8) Employees are given appraisal in order to motivate them to attend the
training. Do u agree with this statement?
*9) How long will it take to implement the trained process?
Less than 1 month
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More than 4 months
*10) What type of training is being imparted for new recruitments in your
*11) How well the workplace of the training is physically organized?
What Training and Development do you need to make your career
aspirations to come true?
External Degree Study
Formal meeting procedures
Other (Please Specify)
*13) What are the conditions that have to be improved during the training
Re-design the job
Re-organize the work place
Upgrade the information of the material given during training
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David A. Decenzo/Stephen P. Robins (2004) Personal and Human Resource Management
A. Monappa (2004), Personal Management
Allan Pepper (1999) A Handbook on Training and Development
www.naukrihub/training and development.com
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