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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTA project report usually falls short of its expectations until andunless guided by the right people at the right time. We wouldthus like to express our deep sense of gratitude to our h onorablementor Prof. Pranav Vora for his constant aid and supportthroughout the span of this project. They were always by ourside and accomplished us in this project on TEXTILE INTERNSHIPat BHARAT VIJAY MILLS(BVM),KALOL .We deeply acknowledge the HRD and executive HRD of BharatVijay Mills, Mr.V.K.Chaturvedi and Mr. Chintan Dholakiawithout whom our internship wo uld have been a distant dream.We would also like to thank the general managers and otherstaffs and workers of all the departments at Bharat Vijay Millsfor their helping hand in explain ing us the basic processes andmachinery and for providing us with complete information abouttheir respective departments.Last, but not the least, we would like to thank our other facultymembers for their constant support in guiding us towards thecompletion of this project. Navneet Yadav Vinay Prajapati
CONTENTS i. Objective ii. Company profile iii. Introduction – fiber to fabric iv. Spinning department v. Yarn dyeing vi. Weaving departmentvii. Corduroyviii. Grey folding ix. Dyeing and processing x. Testing xi. Finishingxii. Finish foldingxiii. Conclusionxiv. Bibliography
OBJECTIVE To understand the concept of spun yarn production, grey fabric(both woven and knitted) production, dyeing, printing and finishing of fabric, textile testing and their quality aspects both technical as well as for commercial purposes. To learn the all the above processes and their applications practically by applying theoretical concepts. To have an overview of the organizational structure of the company and mill. To know about the basic functioning of a textile mill. To understand the management of the company and the role of each subsystem (Dept.) and its relationship with other Subsystems for the smooth running of Business.
COMPANY PROFILEBharat Vijay Mills – the textile division of Sintex Industries Ltd., is intoconverting fibre to finished packaged fabrics. It was established in theyear 1931. Later, in year 1956, the present management took over.Their president is Mr. Dinesh Patel. They are for more than sevendecades in textiles as a leading manufacturer of fashion fabricsconsisting of varied product mix in Cottons and Blends. Their plant is atkalol about 30 km from Ahmedabad city about 500 km in north ofMumbai, India.Their product range includes yarn dyed shirting, jacquard & DobbyStructures, corduroys, bottom weights, solid dyed, Poplins & DobbyShirting with varieties of weaves, varieties of jacquard, dobby & lenostructured furnishing fabrics, organic cotton certified by union control,linen, cotton with linen, silk, lycra, nylon, tinsel and viscose and surfacecoating with pigment colors.To be strict on the quality part, they practice ongoing quality checks atevery level starting from input of raw materials to the final product. Afterthe final product is ready, a 100 % inspection is conducted includingshade sorting and grading etc. And only after successful inspection, thefinal product is shipped to the client. They also have organized state of the artlaboratories as well as pilot plants for R&D activities.Their team of professional has been built by hiring the best in the industry and tomaintain healthy work culture, they empower them with mutual trust and the growthopportunities. In house, they train their employees on behaviour, knowledge, culture,and skills etc. Totally, 2000 employees including the most professional candidates andmanagers, together make Bharat Vijay Mills a preferred partner to their clients for longerbusiness relationships.
A combination of their state of the art plant, modern technology, reliable QA systems,qualified managers, and smart workforce make it together to offer world class quality ofproducts and services to their clients and customers. They are totally a customer drivenorganization. Their export markets are worldwide as they are regular suppliers toEurope, USA, Middle East, India and Neighbouring Countries.Infrastructure: Equipped with all level state of the art machinery. Fully automatic. Micro process controlled. Overall capacity - 22 million meters. Can deliver 65" finished width fabrics. Plant specifically designed for varied product mix (Fabric weights - 80 gsm to 550 gsm) . Can handle 100% cotton as well as blends. Combination of rapier & airjet looms with dobbies and jacquards. Continuous and computer controlled processes for product consistency. Equipped to provide specialised mechanical & chemical finishes. Testing & QC lab equipped to satisfy most discerning customers. On line quality checking system. Networking facilities within the complex. Most modern & state of the art plant.Their best practices include - Eco friendly products, economizing on water, energy &salt utilisation, meeting the standards as lay down by discerning customers, higherproductivity.
Vision:To achieve global presence in textile business through continuous product and technicalinnovation, customer orientation and a focus on cost effectiveness, quality and services.Their Additional services include a Design Studio - That offers four seasonal collections every year. CAD & Desk Loom Support based on Customers’ theme. Short Length Fabric Development on Auto Looms. Dedicated setup for Sampling Yardage from 10 to 100 meters. Continuous product concept developments.Financial Details:No of Employees – 2000Turnover in Crs – 100-250 CrsSector- Private SectorBuyer:Arrow, Van Heusen, Armani, Hugo Boss, Diesel, Burberry, DKNY, S.Oliver, Zara,Mexx, Meggimo Dotti, Banana Republic.Website : www.sintex-india.com
Hierarchy in Organization Managing Director President Senior General Manager General Manager Deputyt General Manager Senior Manager Manager Deputy Managers Senior Executive Executive
Manageing Director Administration And Procurement Marketing Group C.F.O Technical President Operational President President President Production, HR, IR, Security,Finance, Accounts, Stores, Purchase, Domestic and Warehouse(Raw Powerplant,Secretrial Function Export, Import Export material + Finished Administration product)
PROCESS FLOW CHART FIBER TO FABRICFibers undergo the following processes to finally get converted into a finished fabric(ready for garment construction).
SPINNING DEPARTMENTProcess Flowchart: Carded Process Flowchart: Combed Stack mixing Bale opening Pre opening Stack mixing Blow room Blow room Card Pre comb Card Lap forming Draw Frame Comber Post comber Speed Frame Speed Frame Ring Frame Winding Ring Frame Winding Warping Winding Winding Parallel winding Parallel Winding T.F.O T.F.O
PROCESSESBale opening:The bale of cotton brought into the spinning department is first opened for furtherprocesses in blow room. It was done manually here.Stack Mixing:The opened bales are mixed.Blow room:Basic operations in the blowroom are: Opening Cleaning Mixing or blending Microdust removal Uniform feed to the carding machine Recycling the wasteBlow room installations consist of a sequence of different machines to carry out theabove said operations. Moreover Since the tuft size of cotton becomes smaller andsmaller, the required intensities of processing necessitates different machineconfiguration.Opening in blowroom means opening of cotton into small flocks. Technologicaloperation of opening means the volume of the flock is increased while the number offibres remains constant. i.e. the specific density of the material is reduced. The larger the dirt particle , the better they can be removed. Since almost every blowroom machine can shatter particles, as far as possible a lot of impurities should be eliminated at the start of the process. Opening should be followed immediately by cleaning, if possible in the same machine.
The higher the degree of opening, the higher the degree of cleaning. A very high cleaning effect is almost always purchased at the cost of a high fibre loss. Higher roller speeds give a better cleaning effect but also more stress on the fibre.MACHINE AT BHARAT VIJAY MILLS:Mixer opener GBR trutzschlerNo. of machines: 2Salient Features: Machine working width is 1600 mm. Infinitely variable production upto 800 kg/hr without opening and cleaning roller and upto 600 kg/hr with opening and cleaning roller. Additional bypass roller aid for a smooth flow of material when the machine is bypassed. In-built panel with PLC and Inverter helps to monitor the machine parameters. Dynamic change of Lattice and feed roller speeds possible. Fault announciation through display.
Guide plates for optimum trash removal. Extremely good and consistent opening of material. Homogenous blending of the material prior to opening. All types of cottons, man-made fibres and their blends can be processed with or without cleaning point. Cleaning: The aim is separation of nonfibrous waste from fibrous blend. The way of separation depends on this waste properties. For metal particles are used magnets. Non-fibrous shape particle fall through working parts of machines (whereas fibers are catched) or they are separated due to their different inertia. Example of separatio due to different inertia is cyclone separator. The circulating mass of air, fibers and particles is moved up so heavy particles can´t follow the air stream and fall down. Fine particles should be filtered. The cleaning process is substituted in machines for fibers opening. It is possible to use special cleaning machines especially when the input fibrous material is dirty. MACHINE AT BHARAT VIJAY MILLS B 12 Uniclean Pre-Cleaner - Efficient And Reliable Pre-Cleaning No. of machines - 2 This pre-cleaner cleans the microtufts in the first cleaning stage. This enables machine output of up to 1400 kg/h to be achieved. Cleaning is performed without nipping and is therefore very gentle to the fibers and at the same time efficient. VarioSet enables waste volume and waste composition to be adjusted optimally at the push of a button. This ensures a high level of raw material utilization. Salient features: This is designed for output of up to 1400 kg/h (carded sliver).
Fiber yield with simultaneous efficient cleaning is up to 2% higher than on conventional units. Energy-saving due to low air consumption. Pre-cleaning without nipping and the use of mote knives results in fiber-preserving cleaning. The large dedusting surface ensures intensive dedusting even at high production performance. Rapid assessment of high cleaning performance and low losses of good fibers by visual waste checks. Mixing or blending: The consistency in yarn quality depends heavily on the homogeneity of the material composition. The objective of mixing is to optimize the homogeneity of the material mixture by combining several bales. Further objectives of mixing are: Decrease of irregularities in bales of different origin. Economic processing. Recycling of comber waste. Effect on the properties of final product. Reduction of raw material costs. Usualy are fibers stocked in one direction and remove in perpendicular direction. MACHINE USED AT BHARAT VIJAY MILLS
No. of machines – 1 Trutzschlier mixing bale.Perfect and Homogeneous blend is achieved, simultaneous mixing by doublings overan extended period of time is achieved.The cotton bales are opened and premixed by bale opener.This blend is blown by the material transport fan and conveyed into the feed duct abovethe hopper.The charging of the multimixer starts with the first hopper at the end of the feed duct.It is filled only to just below the photo cell situated in the adjacent hopper, then theclosing flap of the second hopper is opened by push button operation.Second hopper is charged to a rather higher than the first. The charging level of thehopper rises uniformly up to the last hopper which is fully charged, when the last hopperis full the Closing flap shuts automatically and charging restarts with first hopper, assoon as the level second hopper has dropped below the Photo Electric cell. Whilst thelast hopper is being charged, material transport is switched on and material in thehoppers starts to drop.When the charging level rises, more and more of the holes in the perforated plate of theupper part of hopper are blocked with material. This increases the pressure theconveyor air. Once a pre-selected pressure is reached, which corresponds to aparticular charging level, an electronic switch closes the flap of this hopper and opensup the flap of the next hopper."The base of each hopper is closed by a pair of deliver roller which transfers the materialgradually and uniformly to an opening roller. The delivery rollers of the entire hopper aretwo variable speed motor with control range up to 1 : 6 in this way it is possible to adjustthe output of multimixer to the feed requirement of the subsequent machine.
Opening roller gently loosen the material into tufts and deliver them into the blending channel from which they are sucked by the subsequent condenser. Microdust Removal: Cotton contains very little dust before ginning. Dust is therefore caused by working of the material on the machine. New dust is being created through shattering of impurities and smashing and rubbing of fibres. However removal of dust is not simple. Dust particles are very light and therefore float with the cotton in the transport stream. Furthermore the particles adhere quite strongly to the fibres. If they are to be eliminated they are to be rubbed off. The main elimination points for adhering dust therefore, are those points in the process at which high fibre/metal friction or high fibre/fibre friction is produced. Removal of finest particles of contaminants and fibre fragments can be accomplished by releasing the dust into the air, like by turning the material over, and then removing the dust-contaminated air. Release of dust into the air occurs whereever the raw material is rolled, beaten or thrown about. Accordingly the air at such positions is sucked away. Perforated drums, stationary perforated drums, stationary combs etc. are some instruments used to remove dust.CARDING "Card is the heart of the spinning mill" and "Well carded is half spun" are two proverbs of the experts. These proverbs inform the immense significance of carding in the spinning process. High production in carding to economise the process leads to reduction in yarn quality. Higher the production, the more sensitive becomes the carding operation and the greater danger of a negative influence on quality. The technological changes that has taken place in the process of carding is remarkable. Latest machines achieve the production rate of 60 - 100 kgs / hr, which used to be 5 - 10 kgs / hr, upto 1970.
The Purpose of Carding: To open the flocks into individual fibres cleaning or elimination of impurities reduction of neps elimination of dust elimination of short fibres fibre blending fibre orientation or alignment sliver formationCARDING AT BHARAT VIJAY MILLSLap feeding was followed for carding.Carding capacity: 1.8 tonnes/day Machines : Trutzschler DK -740 cards : 8 Trutzschler DK -780 cards : 8Latest TRUTZSCHLER cards work with three licker-ins compared to one liker-in. Thefirst one is constructed as needle roll. This results in very gentle opening and anextremely long clothing life for this roll. The other two rollers are with finer clothing andhigher speeds, which results in feeding more %of individual fibres and smallest tuftscompared to single lickerin, to the main cylinder. This allows the maing cylinder to gohigh in speeds and reduce the load on cylinder and flat tops. There by higherproductivity is achieved with good quality. But the performance may vary for differentmaterials and different waste levels between the taker-in and main cylinder , theclothings are in the doffing disposition. It exerts an influence on the sliver quality andalso on the improvement in fibres longitudinal orientation that occurs here. The effectdepends on the draft between main cylinder and taker-in. The draft between maincylinder and taker-in should be slightly more than 2.0.
The opening effect is directly proportional to the number of wire points per fibre. At theTaker-in perhaps 0.3 points/ fibre and at the main cylinder 10-15 points /fibre.If a givenquality of yarn is required, a corresponding degree of opening at the card is needed. Toincrease production in carding, the number of points per unit time must also beincreased. This can be achieved by: more points per unit area(finer clothing) higher roller and cylinder speeds more carding surface or carding positionSpeeds and wire population has reached the maximum, further increase will result indesign and technological problems. Hence the best way is to add carding surface(stationary flats). Carding plates can be applied at under the liker-in between the licker-in and flats between flats and dofferTaker-in does not deliver 100% individual fibres to main cylinder. It delivers around 70%as small flocks to main cylinder. If carding segments are not used, the load on cylinderand flats will be very high and carding action also suffers. If carding segemets are used,they ensure further opening, thinning out and primarily, spreading out and improveddistribution of the flocks over the total surface area. Carding segments bring thefollowing advantages: improved dirt and dust elimination improved disentanglement of neps possibility of speed increase (production increase) preservation of the clothing possibility of using finer clothings on the flats and cylinder better yarn quality less damage to the clothing cleaner clothing
COMBING Lapping is a preparatory process for combing. The main objective is to flatten the slivers and obtain a dense lap of fibres to maintain fineness of the combed slivers. Combing is a method for preparing fiber for spinning by use of combs. It is a technique that has been used in the preparation of textiles for centuries. Essentially, combing is a process that helps to smooth and prepare fibers for use in spinning. Combing also helps to separate short fibers from longer ones, which also helps to make the process of spinning much easier. While the combs used in this process of fiber preparation do function with a combing action, the actual devices have no more than a passing resemblance to the combs used on hair. For textile purposes, the fiber combs are equipped with long metal teeth. Two combs are utilized in tandem, with one comb holding the strand of fiber in place while the other comb moves across the surface of the fiber. Combing accomplishes two tasks at once. As the comb moves through the fiber, it slowly separates the shorter fibers from the longer ones. Short fibers do not work well in a spinning operation, but may be set aside and processed using a technique known as carding. The longer fibers are arranged into flat bundles, with all the fibers facing the same direction. These bundles can then be processed through spinning, creating yarn and thread that can then be used to weave cloth. Combing is normally used to prepare a worsted yarn that is made of natural fibers, such as cotton. In fact, combing cotton is a common process when the fiber is intended for
use in various forms of apparel. The combed cotton will feel smoother to the touch, andalso produce a garment that will wear longer than a garment made with uncombedcotton.Not all natural fiber yarns are made by combing, however. Woolen yarn is one example.This type of yarn is made by carding the wool only; the additional step of combing is notperformed. Carding straightens some of the fibers, but not to the degree that combingdoes. The result is a lighter, stretchier yarn with more air.In general, carding is used on shorter fibers, while longer fibers are combed. Manytextile companies will employ both combing and carding in the preparation of fibers foruse in different types of products, such as shirting fabric, towels, sheeting, and otheressential household items.SEQUENCE OF OPERATION IN A COMBER Feeding, lap is fed by feed roller. Fed lap gripped by the nipper Gripped lap is combed by circular comb Detaching roller grips the combed lap and moves forward while the detaching roller delivers the material, top comb comes into action to further clean the lap. While going back,nipper opens and receives a new bit of lap. The rawmaterial delivered by the carding machine can not be fed directly to the comber. Lap preparation is a must.COMBING AT BHARAT VIJAY MILLSCombing capacity : 5 tonnes/dayMachines:High speed combers LK -250 : 6
Lap former E2/4A : 2 High speed combers LK – 54 : 1 High speed combers LK – 64 : 2 High speed combers LK – 10 : 1Draw Frame 8 slivers are combined to form one sliver to increase the uniformity and strength of sliver. Drawing is the process of combining several carded slivers into a single sliver. It eliminates irregularities that would cause too much variation if the slivers were put individually. Blending of fibres can be done by combining slivers of different fibres. Within the card sliver is a substantial proportion of fibres with hooked ends. These hooks are formed as the fibres are moved along by the carding machinery. Their presence reduces the effective length of the fibre, and if these hooks are not removed the yarn produced will be weaker. Drawing out removes these hooks. TASKS OF DRAWFRAME Through doubling the slivers are made even doubling results in homogenization(blending) through draft fibres get parallelised hooks created in the card are straightened through the suction ,intensive dust removal is achieved Defects arising during drawing stages: Usable fibres in suction waste. Single sliver. Cuts in the sliver.
Improper coiling. Improper stock filling. Improper functioning of autolevellers. Drawing at Bharat Vijay Mills: No. of Machines : HS draw frame DO/6 model – 2 HS draw frame Padametex 720 – 4 RSB 1 Draw frame – 2 RSB-D-30 Draw frame - 2SPEED FRAME 120 sliver cans in one speed frame. Attenuation- drafting the sliver into roving: twisting the drafted strand winding the twisted roving on a bobbin The slivers are to be thinned out to the level required for the yarn to be spun. This process of attenuating the slivers is done in several steps on the Speed Frames. While converting slivers into roving, a small amount of twist is also inserted so that the roving could with-stand the winding and the unwinding tensions. The roving is would on suitable bobbins. Under conventional system of fly frames process, the machine use in this department are slubbing frame, intermediate frames and roving frames. Except as regard the numbers of spindles speed and dimensions of bobbins, the object structure and machine of all these frames are practically the same. The attention of the sliver is done gradually at each of these fly frames, depending upon the draft capacity of the machines. The drafting system employed determines the quality of the roving produced
at the fly frames. All the advantage in technology the slubbing and roving process is climinated and the material in processed through only the passage of fly frames, viz. the canfed incer frames. Fibre to fibre cohesion is less for combed slivers. Rollers in the creel can easily create false drafts. Care must be taken to ensure that the slivers are passed to the drafting arrangement without disturbance. Therefore, a perfect drive to the creel rollers is very important. The drafting arrangement drafts the material with a draft between 5 and 15.The delivered strand is too thin to hold itself together at the exit of the front bottom roller. Bobbin and flyer are driven separately, so that winding of the twisted strand is carried out by running the bobbin at a higher peripheral speed than the flyer. The bobbin rail is moving up and down continuously, so that the coils must be wound closely and parallel to one another to ensure that as much as material is wound on the bobbin. Since the diameter of the packages increases with each layer, the length of the roving per coil also will increase. Therefore the speed of movement of bobbin rail must be reduced by a small amount after each completed layer Length delivered by the front roller is always constant. The following parameters are very important in SPEED FRAME. They are Feed hank Twist in the roving Delivery hank Bobbin content Roving tension flyer speed break draft Creel and creel draft Drafting system Drawframe sliverand can Bottom roller setting Bobbin height Top roller setting Breakage rate condensers and spacers Piecings
At Bharat Vijay MillsMachines:Speed frame TS 15 Model – 3Speed frame LF 1400 Model -4Speed frame LF 1400 A Model - 3RING FRAME: The last stage in the manufacture of yarn is spinning. In order to convert the roving into the required counts main operation which are simultaneously carried out off the ring frame are twisting and winding. The roving received from the fly frame department is still much thicker than the thickness final yarn required. Therefore the first process on the ring frame is drafting. The other operation which are done in the ring frames are twisting and winding. The amount of twist inserted here is larger than at any other previous stage on order to strengthen for the end use required. The twisted yarn in wound on bobbins.
Hence this process is carried out : To draft the roving until the required fineness is achieved To impart strength to the fiber, by inserting twist To wind up the twisted strand (yarn) in a form suitable for storage, transportation and further processing. Ring frame at Bharat Vijay Mills: Machines: Ring Frame DJ50N Model - 7WINDING Since bobbins from ring frames are not suitable for further processing, hence winding of yarns on cones is done. First, yarns from bobbins are wound onto cones Secondly, if the yarns are to be dyed, then yarns from cones are transferred to soft package. After dyeing, yarns are wound onto cones again for proper unwind of yarns during warping. Machines : Schlafhorst Autoconer 238 RM - 22
MACHINES IN SPINNING DEPARTMENT Section No. of machines Blow room 9 Carding 16 Combing 14 Drawing 10Speed Frame 10Ring Frame 8 Winding 22 Others 3
YARN DYEINGYarn dyeing is the dyeing of yarns before they have been woven or knitted into fabrics.Yarns may be dyed in different forms: 1) Skeins 2) Packages 3) Beams 1) Skein dyeing – It consists of immersing large, loosely wound hanks of yarns into dye vats that are specially designed for this purpose. Soft, lofty yarns such as hand knitted yarns are dyed using this method. It is the most costly yarn dyeing method. 2) Package dyeing – In package dyeing, about a pound of yarn is wound on a small perforated spool or tube called package. It is widely used for most type of yarns found in knitted and woven fabrics. 3) Beam dyeing – It is simply a much larger version of package dyeing. An entire warp is wound onto a perforated cylinder, which is then placed in a beam dyeing machine where flow of the dye bath is alternated as in package dyeing.Cotton yarns are mostly dyed at package form, andacrylic or wool yarn are dyed at hank form.At Bharat Vijay mills, 100% cotton yarns weremanufactured. Hence, package dyeing was the formof yarn dyeing used at BVM. Two types of dyes –vat & reactive dyes were used.
Reactive dye 1. Pretreatment 2. Peroxide bleaching 3. Acid treatmentVat dye 1) Pretreatment 2) Dyeing 3) Oxidizing 4) After treatment 5) softeningThe common dyeing process of cotton yarn with reactive dyes at package form is givenbelow:Firstly the raw yarn is winded on spring tube to achieve package suitable for dyepenetration. Then, these softened packages are loaded on a dyeing carriers spindleone on other. Then, the packages are pressed up to a desired height to achieve suitabledensity of pkg. then, the carrier is loaded on dyeing machine and yarn is dyed. afterdyeing, the packages are unloaded from the carrier in to a trolley. Then, all thepackages are hydro extracted using aHYDRO EXTRACTOR to removemaximum amount of water. Then, all thepackages are dried using PRESSUREDRYER OR RF DRYER(RADIOFREQUENCY DRYER) to achieve thefinal dyed package. At last the dyed yarnpackages are packed and delivered.HYDRO EXTRACTOR
After dyeing, the packages are sent to hydro extractor which extracts maximum amountof water from the package. Then the packages are sent to pressure or RF dryer forfurther drying.RF DRYER(RADIO FREQUENCY DRYER)More than 800 "RF" (Radio Frequency) modeldryers, installed throughout the world since 1981,are presently in operation for the drying, to aconditioned weight, o f yarns in packages andcakes, worsted fibres (tops) in bobbin and bumpform.Most combinations of natural, artificial andsynthetic fibres, filament fibres or worsted andspun, pure or blended, in every count and formcan be dried perfectly, down to the desiredresidual moisture level, with outstandingefficiency and quality results.In the "RFA" (Radio Frequency Assisted) series dryers, the RF treatment, preciselycontrolled in the different phases of the drying process thanks to a special design of theRF application electrodes, is combined with aconventional warm air circulation system.PRESSURE DRYERDyed yarns are fed into this machine for dryingunder high pressure and temperature.Thetodays pressure dryer is equipped with anintelligent control unit, high performance heatexchanger, separator and a special blower.
Options: Satellite kier Conditioning device for optimum distribution of remaining moisture Continuous blower operation between batch changes for energy savingsMachines at Bharat Vijay MillsEach package is of 700 gm. Weighing capacity of machine(in kg) No. of machines 27 2 46 6 60 4 100 1 109 4 110 3 200 1 400 2 600 2 850 1RF Dryer: 2 m/cPressure Dryer: 1m/cHydro Extractor: 2 m/c WEAVING DEPARTMENT
1) WINDINGThe process of transferring yarn from ring bobbins, hanks, cones etc onto a suitablepackage is called Winding.Purpose of Winding:1. To transfer yarn from one package to another package, this can be conveniently usedfor the weaving purposes.2. To remove yarn faults like hairiness, neps, slubs, and foreign matters.3. To produce long length of yarn by serially joining one yarn package with another.4. To make bigger package.5. To make soft package for package dyeing.6. To permit easy unwinding during warping.7. To avoid of excess looseness and tightness.2) WARPINGThe primary objective of the warping process is to provide a continuous length of yarnfrom individual wound yarn packages, in sheet form to a beam for the succeedingprocess. There are several types of warping techniques, including: ball, direct, draw,indirect also called sectional and sample warping.When utilizing any technique in the warping process it is important to minimize endbreaks, keep a constant and uniform tension on the yarns, keep a constant yarn speed,and insure quick response braking of the warper. These factors play a large role in thequality of the warp yarns, which in turn influences the runability of that warp yarn in thesucceeding process.
Most modern warpers are equippedwith electronic stop motions whichstop the warper as soon as a brokenend is detected. It is crucial that thebraking system is fast enough to stopthe warper before the end reachesthe beam. The end is much harder tofind and correct once it has beenwound onto the beam. Todaysbraking systems allow the beams tostop before one full revolution hasoccurred on the warp beam, in adirect system, or on the pattern drumin an indirect system.In the process of weaving, for warp yarns, we need to produce pre bean which is alsocalled warpers beam. To produce warpers beam we need warping machine with a creelcapacity about 400-700 cone capacity. To produce a weavers beam we need 6 to 16warpers beam. Number of cones to be use in the creel depends on production planning.Warping at Bharat Vijay Mills:Two types of Warping machines wereused in the mill: Direct Warping Sectional WarpingDirect Warping Machine: 2 TECH MECH T- 1000
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS WORKING WIDTH : 54 to 84 BEAM FLANGE DIA : 28” to 36” MAX WARPING SPEED : 600 Mtrs. / Min DRIVE : AC Variable speed frequency control BRAKING DEVICE : Pneumatic disc brakes for drum BEAM LOADING & : By pneumatically operated levers. UNLOADING BEAM PRESSING : Pneumatic pressing on both sides. DRUM : steel drum GUIDE ROLL : Balanced Hard Chrome platedSectional Warping Machine: 6 SERVOTECH -130FEATURES Fixed cone height. Steel drum dynamically balanced. Variable frequency AC Drive. Hydraulic disc brakes on both sides. Stopping of drum at exact position at end of section. Auto braking in case of Power failure. Auto stop at point of lease cord. Two separate motors for warping and beaming.Various parts of the machine are:
DISPLAY UNIT DISC BRAKE BEAM PRESSING DEVICE WARPING TABLE MOTORIZED LEASING DEVICE INSPECTION SOFTWARE PRINTER3) SIZINGSizing is a complementary operation whichis carried out on warps formed by spunyarns with insufficient tenacity or bycontinuous filament yarns with zero twist. Ingeneral, when sizing is necessary, the yarnis beam warped, therefore all beamscorresponding to the beams are fed, assoon as warping is completed, to the sizingmachine where they are assembled.Sizing consists of impregnating the yarnwith particular substances which form onthe yarn surface a film with the aim ofimproving yarn smoothness and tenacityduring the subsequent weaving stage. Dueto its improved tenacity and elasticity, theyarn can stand without problems thetensions and the rubbing caused byweaving.The sizing methods change depending onthe type of weaving machine used, on the
yarn type and count, on the technician’s experience and skill, but above all on the kindof material in progress. The only common denominator of the various sizing materials isthat they have to be easily removable after weaving in order to allow carrying outwithout problems the selected finishing cycle. The substances used as sizing materialare potato flour, starches, glues, fats but also talc and kaolin, when a particularly thicksize is requested.In Bharat Vijay Mills , there were total six warp sizing of three different brand: Ambica warp sizing machine - 1 Sucker Muller sizing machine - 3 Jupiter sizing machine - 2All the warp sheets from different beams are converted into 1 single sheet. Size is madein a drum and is transported through pipes and applied on the beam. It is then dried byhot rollers which are filled with steam.4) DRAWING –INThe term drawing-in and warp tying refers to theoperations involved in preparing the weavers beamfor the purpose of weaving fabrics on the loom. Thedrawing-in process primarily consists of drawingends from the weavers beam through heald eyesof different harnesses and then through the dentsof a reed in the order that is determined by thedesign of the fabric. If a beam is to be worked with warp stop motionon the loom, especially when using closed drop-pins, the ends have to be drawn through these pinsbefore drawing them through the heald eyes andreed dents.
Conventionally drawing-in is carried out manually by two persons-one, the reacher forselecting and presenting the ends from the beam, and the other, the drawer for pullingends through the drop-pins, heald eyes and reed dents.The main requirements of carrying out this process properly and efficiently are:1. The operator should be aware of the principles of drawing-in and be trained to do thejob speedily because any mistakes or delays in carrying out the process would prove tobe costly.2. The healds and reeds should be in good condition and of suitable specifications forensuring that these are not the cause of warp breaks on the loom and of defects in thefabric.3. The drawing of the beam should be done properly to avoid cross ends on the beam.4. Suitable precautions should be taken to reduce the incidence of extra-ends and tocompensate for the missing ends during the weaving of the loom.Only two machines were used in Bharat Vijay Mills for drawing-in process. There weretwo models of STAUBIL: DELTA- 100: The DELTA 100 is specially designed for filament weavers and draws in the warp threads into healds and reed only. DELTA-110: The DELTA 110 drawing-in installations are designed for weaving mills with medium drawing-in requirements. Drawing in at speeds of up to 140 per minute takes place directly from the warp beam with 1 warp sheet, or optionally with 2 warp sheets into healds, drop wires and reed. An optional module is available for drawing in coarse yarns.The main characteristics are: Feature DELTA 100 DELTA 110 Drawing-in speed (ends/min) 100/140* 100/140* Number of warps in 8h (ca.) up to 5 (6*) up to 5 (6*)
Warp widths (m) 2.3 2.3 / 4.0 / 6.0 Number of warp beams 1 1 Number of thread layers 1 (2*) 1 (2*) Reed density (teeth/dm) 350 (500*) 350 (500*) Max. no. of frames (J/C-healds) 20 20 Max. no. of frames (O-healds) 16 16 Max. rows of dropwires – 6 (8*) Number of dropwire paths – 1 Drawing-in element Hook Hook Yarn count range (tex) 3-250 3-2505) Weaving ProcessWeaving is the process of making cloth, rugs, blankets, and other products by crossingtwo sets of threads over and under each other. Weavers use threads spun from naturalfibers like cotton, silk, and wool and synthetic fibers such as nylon and Orlon. But thin,narrow strips of almost any flexible material can be woven. People learned to weavethousands of years ago using natural grasses, leafstalks, palm leaves, and thin strips ofwood.Today weaving ranks as a major industry in many countries. Weaving is oftencompleted on high speed looms. But weaving is not limited to cloth and textile products.Weaving plays an important part in the manufacture of screens, metal fences, andrubber tire cord. Craftworkers also use varied fibers to weave baskets and hats.Woven fabrics are classified as to weave or structure according to the manner in whichwarp and weft cross each other. The three fundamental weaves, of which others arevariations: Plain Twill Satin
PLAIN WEAVE:Each weft yarn goes alternately over and under one warp yarn. Each warp yarn goesalternately over and under each weft yarn. Some examples of plain weave fabrics arecrepe, taffeta, organdy and muslin.TWILL WEAVE:Creates a diagonal, chevron, hounds tooth, corkscrew, or other design. The design isenhanced with colored yarn is strong and may develop a shine. Twill weave ischaracterized by diagonal ridges formed by the yarns, which are exposed on thesurface. Twill weaves are more closely woven, heavier and stronger than weaves ofcomparable fiber and yarn size. Three or more shafts; warp or filling floats over two ormore counterpart yarns in progressive steps right or leftSATIN WEAVE:Floats one warp yarn over four ormore weft yarns, then tied downwith one thread, resulting in asmooth faceCommon Fabrics: Satin, satin-weave fabrics out of fabrics such ascotton & Charmeuse.LOOMSA loom is a mechanism or tool usedfor weaving yarn and thread intotextiles. Looms vary in a wideassortment of sizes. They come inhuge free standing hand looms, tiny hand-held frames, to vast automatic mechanicaltools. A loom can as well pertain to an electric line construction like that of a wiring
loom. The main task of looms is to clutch the twist threads under pressure to enable theprogress of interweaving of the woof strands. The looms system and exact form candiffer to some extent; however it still performs the basic application.The major components of the loom are the warp beam, heddles, harnesses, shuttle,reed and takeup roll. In the loom, yarn processing includes: shedding picking battening taking-up operations.Shedding. Shedding is the raising of the warp yarns to form a shed through which thefilling yarn, carried by the shuttle, can be inserted. The shed is the vertical spacebetween the raised and unraised warp yarns. On the modern loom, simple and intricateshedding operations are performed automatically by the heddle or heald frame, alsoknown as a harness.Two common methods of controlling the heddles are dobbies and a Jacquard Head.Picking. As the harnesses raise the heddles or healds, which raise the warp yarns, theshed is created. The filling yarn in inserted through the shed by a small carrier devicecalled a shuttle. The shuttle is normally pointed at each end to allow passage throughthe shed. A single crossing of the shuttle from one side of the loom to the other isknown as a pick. As the shuttle moves back and forth across the shed, it weaves anedge, or selvage, on each side of the fabric to prevent the fabric from raveling.Battening. As the shuttle moves across the loom laying down the fill yarn, it alsopasses through openings in another frame called a reed. With each picking operation,the reed presses or battens each filling yarn against the portion of the fabric that hasalready been formed.
Taking up: With each weaving operation, the newly constructed fabric must be woundon a cloth beam. This process is called taking up. At the same time, the warp yarnsmust be let off or released from the warp beams.TYPES OF LOOMS:There are two types of loomsdepending upon the weft insertion: SHUTTLE SHUTTLE-LESS Air jet Water jet Rapier ProjectileIn Bharat Vijay Mills rapier and air jet were used.Rapier Looms:The rapier weaving machines are the most flexible machines on the market. Theirapplication range covers a wide variety of fabric styles. Their present weaving speed ofabout 600-700 strokes/min is the result of the use of a state-of-the-art constructiontechnique, characterized by the use of gear sets without plays and by minimumvibrations of the reed, the slay and the heald frames.The weft, which is under constant proper control, remains connected to the cloth as aconsequence of the previous insertion. At the right moment the selection gear acts in away, that the end of the weft is caught by the bearing rapier 1 mounted on a flexibletape or on a rod and at the same time is cut by shears on the selvedge side. The weft,after adequate braking, is transported to the center of the shed, where the bearingrapier meets the drawing rapier 2, which takes over the weft thread and, while holding it
by its end, transports it back to the opposite side, where the rapier leaves it free, thuscompleting the insertion.The weft exchange between the two rapiers in the middle of the shed can take place intwo different ways, that is: negative system positive systemAir jet:The air jet weaving machines are the weaving machines with the highest weft insertionperformance and are considered as the most productive in the manufacturing of light tomedium weight fabrics, preferably made of cotton and certain man-made fibres (sheets,shirting fabrics, linings, taffetas and satins in staple yarns of man-made fibres); it hasanyway to be pointed out that technically positive results are obtained at present alsowith heavy weight fabrics (denims) and that some manufacturers produce also machinemodels for terry production. These machines are the ideal solution for those who wantto produce bulk quantities of customized fabric styles. The weaving widths rangegenerally from 190 to 400 cm. As regards the multicolour weft carrier, up to 8 differentwefts can be fed.It has however to be considered that the air jet weaving machines require a high energyconsumption to prepare the compressed air and that this consumption rises definitelywith increasing loom width and running speed. The reduction in the energy consumptionis in fact one of the main concerns of the manufacturers, and builds for the user animportant selection criterion. S.NO. TYPES OF LOOMS NO. OF LOOMS 1 JACQUARD 18 ( air-jet – 2, rapier – 16) 2 DOBBY 325 3 PLAIN 32
For shedding mechanism jacquard and dobby machines were in use. There were 18jacquard and 325 dobby machines.JACQUARD SHEDDING MACHINE:The name Jacquard machines originates from the designer who improved its operation;today the name ″Jacquard″ is used to identify all machines with a capacity higher than28-32 threads, which are therefore used to produce figured fabrics.Jacquard machines were initially classified as follows: Jacquard machines Vincenzi machines Verdol machinesAt present only Verdol machines and electronic Jacquard machines are still on themarket. Jacquard machines can be classified as follows:According to card reading system: dobbies with endless pattern card reading system dobbies with electronic reading systemElectronic JacquardIn these machines the traditional hooks have been replaced by electro-mechanicallyoperated modules which are driven and controlled by an electronic program. TheJacquard machines available on the market are double lift machines and have inrespect to mechanical Jacquard machines following advantages: easy maintenance owing to following reasons: no point needing lubrication, few moving parts modular construction and thus easy access; low vibration even at high speed;
reduced setting time, as the machine is electronically controlled and therefore no paper is needed. Machine model – gamMax Picanol Speed of air-jet loom – 650 rpm Speed of rapier loom – 400 rpm Cost of loom – Rs. 4,00,000 Cost of jacquard – Rs. 4,50,000 Jacquard made for Home furnishings Yarns used – viscose,polyester,chennile Design repeat – 14.28” Fabric/loom width – 72” Maximum jaqcuard hook capacity – 2688 hooks • design hook capacity(body) – 2400 (rest 288 in selvedge)PRINCIPLE & CONSTRUCTION OFJACQUARD LOOM Principle : electromagnetic principle Electronic programming file(EPF) used for making design Soft wares used : Textronic,ANDX,SOPHIS CONSTRUCTION: 52 solenoid boards are present in each jacquard machine 24 solenoids/board
2 hooks attached between two solenoids on the board Each hook has a stopper which limits its updown movement. A belt is attached to the ends of the two hooks( top belt) The top belt holds a pulley which in turn is attached to a bottom belt The bottom belt is connected to the harness(wire or rope) The harness is attached to the heald wire of the loom through which warp passes.WORKING OF JACQUARD The solenoid attracts the hook as soon as it gets an electronic signal. The hook follows an updown movement according to the command from the CPU. The hook in turn leads to the movement of the harness and hence the loom. Thus weaving takes place according to the fed design.DOBBY SHEDDING MACHINEDobbies are used for the production of plain or flat fabrics, that is of fabricscharacterized by maximum 28-32 threads in the weave repeat. Operation principle of a dobbyToday the rotary dobby is, from the technological point of view, the most advanceddobby available on the market.It consists of a central shaft on which the driving bars are positioned. On a follower ringan eccentric plate is mounted; the plate is constrained within a block which is pivotedwith the control levers of the rods.Under normal working conditions, that is with the heald frames in bottom position, thereis no connection between the follower ring and the plate; the connection can beobtained by inserting a slider which runs in proper guides.
The central shaft is driven by a modulator which has two stop times situated each otherat 180 degrees ; at this very moment the key can be controlled according to the designto be produced. CORDUROY • Corduroy is a textile composed of twisted fibers that, when woven, lie parallel (similar to twill) to one another to form the cloths distinct pattern, a "cord”. • The width of the cord is commonly referred to as the size of the "wale" (i.e. the number of ridges per inch). • Corduroy is made by weaving extra sets of fiber into the base fabric to form vertical ridges called wales. • The float is cut and then brushed. • Chemicals used for smoothening the rib pressed during finishing are siligen and turbingal.Corduroy is made mostly fromcotton. Long wefts span severalwarp and when the weft is cut itcreates the familiar high raised linesor cords with fine backing fabriclines between. The cords lines runthe length of the warp. Like velvet,corduroy should be cut in onedirection only when making agarment or using heavier elephantcords in upholstery. This material is used to produce casual wear such as trousers, jeans, caps and jackets. It often has other names such as corded velveteen,
elephant cord, pin cord, Manchester cloth as it was produced as a Manchester cotton textile and worn originally by poorer workers in the same way that fustian was used. Manchester cloth was very good quality with dense pile but is virtually impossible to obtain today. Cotton corduroy today is often mixed with Lycra to make the fabric easier to wear and retain shape. Weave Wash Dye Grey Bleach Finish folding Cut Brush Brush Brush Inspect Fold PackThe principles of constructing a corduroy fabric: The weave contains two pile picks a, b and two ground picks 1, 2. The ground picks 1, 2 interlace with warp forming the ground weave. Arrangement of ground pick and pile pick is 1:2. The pile pick floats over five
warp threads which are convenient for cutting process.The pile picks interlace with the warp threads 5, 6 for binding the piles where theintersections are called pile roots. After weaving, the pile weft was cut by specially constructed knives between the warp threads 2 and 3 (where the arrow points in Fig. 8.1). Then, brushing it, the piles will be upright, forming a full bulky band corduroy.Working of a corduroy cutting machine: The circular knife is placed on a mandril A indicated by the arrow. As the knives revolve, fabric advances towards in the direction indicated by an arrow F. A guide wire E is inserted in the fabric under the long weft floats. The guide wires have these functions: 1) guiding the weft floats forming a loop-like: “race” to the
knives, and tautening them when they are cut, and 2) keeping the knives in the centre of each “race”. As the uncut fabric approaches, the knives guide wires are conveyed along by it, and consequently require to be pushed forward again intermittently. This is accomplished by a series of spirally arranged rotary cams.No. of machines at Bharat Vijay Mills: Cutting : 12 (capacity 700m/shift) Brushing : 2 (capacity 5000m/shift) Inspection : 4 No. of workers: 56In inspection of corduroy, there were two workers per inspection machine.
GREY FOLDING• Fabrics comes to Grey folding after weaving.• They are checked, mended and sorted here.• The fabric comes with a lot card and is maintained by a register containing lot no., sort no, date, bandha kg, meters, Finish width, contract no, grey width, buyer, pallet no, number of pieces, sample etc.• Capacity: 50,000 m/ shift• No. of workers: 85• No. of mending m/c: 14
DYEING & PROCESSING PRETREATMENT Pretreatment can be defined as a series of cleaning processes or operations that make the fabric fit for the preceding process i.e. dyeing & printing. Pretreatment processes should ensure: the removal of foreign materials from the fibres in order to improve their uniformity, hydrophilic characteristics and affinity for dyestuffs and finishing treatments the improvement of the ability to absorb dyes uniformly (which is the case in mercerising) the relaxation of tensions in synthetic fibres (without this relaxation of tension, unevenness and dimension instabilities can occur). Before dyeing a fabric or yarn some pre-treatment and after treatment is needed. Cotton pretreatment includes various wet operations, namely: • Singeing • Desizing • Scouring • Mercerising (and caustification) • Bleaching. 1) Singeing• Protruding fibre ends at the fabric surface disturb the surface appearance and produce an effect known as "frosting" when dyed. It is therefore necessary to remove the surface fibres by passing the fabric through a gas flame.• The fabric is passed over a row of gas flames and then immediately into a quench bath to extinguish the sparks and cool the fabric.
• The quench bath often contains a desizing solution, in which case the final step in singeing becomes a combined singeing and desizing operation.• Brushing was done to remove the remaining burnt fiber.• Flame was perpendicular to the fabric and can be 1.5 to 4 mm from the end of the flame.• Natural gas (ONGC) was used• Temperature < 90 degrees• Speed is 80m/min.• No. of machines – 1 Objective: Increase wettability, better dyeing characteristics, improved reflection, no frosty look. Improved visibility of the fabric. Less pilling Decreased contamination through the removal of fluff and lint. There are three types of singeing: Plate singeing Roller singeing Gas singeing It is a continuous process carried out on dry open width fabric.It may be done on one side or both sides. 2) Desizing • Desizing is the process of removing the size material from the warp yarns in woven fabrics. • Sizes are applied to the warp yarns to assist in the weaving process. Objective: Removal of added impurities like starch.
Weight loss Improved wettability. Rot steep Enzymatic Hydrolytic steep Acid steep Desiging Chlorite oxidative chlorine Bromite• Enzymatic desizing was done i.e. enzymes were used to remove the size from the fabric. The enzymatic process depends on the quantity of enzyme molecules per gram of fabric, while the thermal stability of the enzyme depends on the bacteria strain from which it originates. Sizes are removed so that chemical penetration of the fabric in later stages(Dyeing ,Printing & finishing)is not inhibited. No. of machines – 1 Speed of machine – 80 m/min Reaction time – 6-8 hrs Washing in hot wash (95 degrees) 3) Scouring It is the process of removing natural impurities present in the cotton fibre. The natural impurities are pectin’s, pectos, ash, wax, mineral compounds, etc. if those impurities present in the cotton fibres are not removed, then it will be difficult to dye or print the fabric uniformly. Normally caustic soda ash is used as main reagent fro scouring of cotton fabric.
Objective: To remove natural fat, wax, oil materials containing in the fabrics without damaging the fibres. To accelerate dye and chemical absorption of the fabrics. To improve the handle of the goods. • done using NaOH and hot water(96-97 degree celcius) under high pressure • time- 15-20 minutes 4) BleachingIt is the process of removing natural coloring matters present in the cotton fibre. For hispurpose, hydrogen peroxide, bleaching powder or other bleaching agents are used.Hydrogen peroxide is the best and most commonly used bleaching agent. If thisbleaching treatment is not carried out before dyeing or printing hen the color yield andshade matching may be a great problem.Objective: To whiten the goods. To make the goods suitable for dyeing and printing with pale or bright shade. To be follow with adding optical brightening agent process(super white)There are two types of bleaching: Hydrogen peroxide Sodium hypochlorite.Recipe Hydrogen peroxide, wetting agent, caustic, stabilizer NaOH (pH 10.5 to 11) Sequesterant Temperature: 95-100 C Speed of machine – 60-80m/min
Drying of fabric was done using heated rollers which had steam inside it.No. of rollers – 28 5) MercerizationIt is a special chemical pre-treatment on cotton fabric t improves the properties andperformance of cotton fabric. The cotton fabric is treated under tension in the 20%caustic soda solution which is called mercerization many properties of cotton fabric isimproved, some of them are mentioned below: • Increases fabric strength • Increases absorbency power • Increases fabric luster • Increases fabric softness and handle property • Reduces dye consumption • Reduces chemical consumption in dyeingTwo types of machines are used at Bharat Vijay Mills: Chain system Cylinder systemObjective: Increases lusture Strength Affinity to dye Resistance to mild dew Lint reductionMercerization of fabrics is performed using NaOH(22- 25%)Tension is applied to the fabrics in the vertical direction with a tension cylinder, and inthe horizontal direction with a clip tenter.The processing time by the cylinder and the tenter in total is 30 to 60 seconds.NaOH applied in impregnator and temperature kept low(15-20degrees) for luster.
Then fabric washed in hot wash in 4 chambers.Mercerized fabric is then dried.Speed of machine – 40-50 m/min DYEINGDyeing is the process of imparting colours to a textile material in loose fibre, yarn, clothor garment form by treatment with a dye.FABRIC DYEING (piece dyeing)In piece dyeing, which is used primarily for fabrics that are to be a solid color, acontinuous length of dry cloth is passed full-width through a trough of hot dye solution.The cloth then goes between padded rollers that squeeze in the color evenly andremoves the excess liquid. In one variation of this basic method, the fabric, in a rope-like coil, is processed on a reel that passes in and out of a dye beck or vat.Types of dyeingThe following are the basic types of fabric dyeing machines:1) Batch dyeing machine2) Semi-continuous dyeing machine3) Continuous dyeing machine1) Batch dyeingBatch Dyeing Process is the most popular and common method used for dyeing oftextile materials. Batch dyeing is also sometimes referred to as Exhaust dyeing. This isbecause in this process, the dye gets slowly transferred from a comparatively largevolume dyebath to the substrate or material that is to be dyed. The time taken is alsolonger. The dye is meant to exhaust from dyebath to the substrate. In batch processes,
textile substrates can be easily dyed at any stage of their assembly into the desiredtextile product. This includes fiber, yarn, fabric or garment. Some type of batch dyeingmachines can function at temperatures only up to 1000oC. For example cotton, rayon,nylon, wool etc. can be dyed at 1000oC or lower temperatures. While polyester andsome other synthetic fibers are dyed at 1000 Centigrade or even higher temperatures.There are three general types of batch dyeing machines. The first type is the one wherethere is circulation of fabric. Second type is the one where the dyebath gets circulatedwhile the material that is being dyed remains stationary, and finally the third type whereboth the bath and material to be dyed gets circulated.The following are the types of batch dyeing processes:1)Beck dyeing2) Jet dyeing(soft flow dyeingmachine)3) Jigger dyeing machineImage showing Popular machinesutilizing the batch dyeing methodillustrated above.For any dyers the ultimate dream is toget the maximum out of the processof dyeing, at minimal cost. For a batchdyeing process the followingtechniques can prove to be effectivefor optimum utilization.
Use machinery that are fitted with latest state-of-the-art automatic controllers of fill volume, temperature and other dyeing cycle parameters, indirect system of cooling and heating, innovative hoods and doors that lessens vapour losses. Choosing the machinery that is exactly sized for the batch that needs to be processed. Also confirmation that it is operated exactly within the specified range of nominal liquor ratios for which it is designed. It has been seen that machines that are operated with a consistent liquor ratio while being loaded at 60 percent level of their nominal capacity gives optimum results. With yarn dyeing machines this level can stretch to even 30% of the nominal capacity. Opting new machineries that adheres to the following requirements: o Liquor ratio that is low-or-ultra-low. o Complete in process separation of bath from substrate. o Mechanism that involves smooth internal separation of process liquor from the washing liquor. o Mechanical liquor extraction that brings the carry-over to minimum and improves washing efficiency. o A reduced cycle duration. Replacement of conventional overflow-flood rinsing method with methods like drain and fill or other methods (for example smart rinsing for fabric). Proper re-use of rinsed water for the next dyeing session. Re-use of the dye bath if technical considerations allows. At Bharat Vijay Mills, the following machines were used for batch dyeing:(i)Jigger dyeing machine Fabric is dyed in its open or full width and hence there is no problem of creasing during dyeing. The machine consists of a small tub and two drawing rollers located above the dye bath. First the fabric is wound around one of the rollers. During dyeing the
fabric is passed though the dye bath and rewound onto the second roller. When the complete fabric is passed though the bath, the direction of fabric movement is reversed and this is repeated until the fabric is dyed completely. During dyeing, tension is imparted along the length of the fabric. Suitable for light weight and delicate fabrics. Liquor ratio is low(1:2 to 1:6) Used for dyeing fabric in small lots. Contact time between fabric and dye liquor is more in jigger than other dyeing machines. At BHARAT VIJAY MILLS: No. of machines – 5(200 kg – 1 machine, 800kg – 4 machine) Maximum speed – 100m/min(ii) Soft flow dyeing machineIn this machine the fabric being dyed iscirculated through the dyeing machine on ajet flow of dye bath. The high speed dyeliquor jet carries the fabric rope along, fromone end of dye vessel to the other end.Less water,energy,time and chemicals arerequired in this machine as compared toother dyeing machine.It is used for dyeing of delicate woven orknits, textured and light weight fabrics.The liquor ratio is very low(1:1)At BHARAT VIJAY MILLS: No. of machines – 1 Model – fong’s
Fabric cycle time 1 to 10 min.* Chamber capacity 100 to 300 kg* Speed of water – 600 rpm2) Semi continuous dyeingIn the process of semi-continuous dyeing that consists of pad-batch, pad-jig, pad-roll thefabric is first impregnated with the dye-liquor in, what is called a padding machine. Thenit is subjected to batch wise treatment in a jigger. It could also be stored with a slowrotation for many hours. In the pad-batch this treatment is done at room temperaturewhile in pad-roll it is done at increased temperature by employing a heating chamber.This helps in fixation of the dyes on to the fibre. After this fixation process, the materialin full width is thoroughly cleansed and rinsed in continuous washing machines. There isonly one point of difference between Continuous and semi-continuous dyeing process isthat in semi-continuous dyeing, the dye is applied continuously by a padding. Thefixation and washing remaining discontinuous. Liquor Ratio in semi-continuous dyeing isnot of much importance and is not taken as a parameter. One of the widely usedtechniques for semi-continuous dyeing process is the Pad Batch Dyeing a schematicdiagram is given here for the semi-continuous dyeing process.The following table shows some of the important machineries for semi-continuous andcontinuous dyeing processes. Pad batch dyeingPad Batch Dyeing is one of the widely used technique for semi-continuous dyeingprocess. It is mainly used in the dyeing of cellulosic fibre like cotton or viscose (knit and
woven fabric) with reactive dyes. Pad batch dyeing is a textile dyeing process that offerssome unique advantages in the form of versatility, simplicity, and flexibility and asubstantial reduction in capital investment for equipment. It is primarily a cold methodthat is the reason why it is sometimes referred to as the cold pad batch dyeing. Working of a cold dyeing processThe technique or process used in pad-batchdyeing starts with saturating first the preparedfabric with pre-mixed dye liquor. Then it ispassed through rollers. The rollers, or padders,effectively forces the dyestuff into the fabric. Inthe process, excess dye solution is alsoremoved. After removal of excess dye stuff thefabric is subsequently "batched". This batchingis done by either storing it in rolls or in boxes. Ittakes a minimum of 4-12 hours. The batchesare generally enclosed by plastic films. Thisprevents absorption of carbon dioxide and water evaporation. Finally as the reaction iscomplete the fabrics are washed. This is done by becks, beams, or any other washingdevices. Special features of pad batch dyeing process Significant cost and waste reduction as compared to other conventional dyeing processes. Total elimination of the need for salt and other specialty chemicals. For example there is no need for anti-migrants, leveling agents and fixatives that are necessary in conventional dyebaths.
Optimum utilisation of dyes that eliminates specialty chemicals, cuts down chemical costs and waste loads in the effluent. All this results in a formidable reduction in wastewater treatment costs. Excellent wet fastness properties. Pad batch dyeing cuts energy and water consumption owing to low bath ratio (dye:water) required for the process. This is because unlike other dyeing processes it does not function at high temperatures. A uniform dye quality is achieved with even color absorbency and colour fastness. As compared to rope dyeing, Pad batch dyeing produces much lower defect levels. In pad batch dyeing, qualities like high shade reliability and repeatability are common. This is because of high reactivity dyes with rapid fixation rate and stability. Lastly Pad batch dyeing can also improve product quality. The fabric undergoing the cold pad batch dyeing process is able to retain an uniformly coloured appearance. It shows added luster and gives a gentle feel. The fabric gives a brighter look in shades. No. of machines in the mill: 33) Continuous dyeingThe working of a continuous dyeing process is described here. The textile substratesare feeded continuously into a dye range. The speeds can vary between 50 to 250meters per minute. According to Industry estimates Continuous dyeing is a populardyeing method and accounts for around 60% of total yardage of the products that aredyed.
A Continuous dyeing process typically consists the following. Dye application, dyefixation with heat or chemicals and finally washing. Continuous dyeing has been foundto be most suitable for woven fabrics. Mostly continuous dye ranges are designed fordyeing blends of polyester and cotton. The step of padding plays a key role in theoperation of continuous dyeing. Sometimes Nylon carpets are also dyed in continuousprocesses, but the design ranges for them is unlike that for flat fabrics. Warps are alsodyed in continuous process. Very good examples of such warp dyeing are long chainwarp dyeing and slasher dyeing using indigo.A continuous dye range has been found useful and economically sustainable for dyeinglong runs of a given shade. One important factor that separates continuous dyeing frombatch dyeing is the tolerance factor for color variation. That is more for continuousdyeing as compared to batch dyeing. This is so because of two reasons a) the speed ofthe process. b) presence of a large number of process variables which affects dyeapplication. The process that is illustrated below is designed for dyeing of blended fabricof polyester and cotton.
Some of the popular methods in continuous dyeing process are Pad-steam, Wet-steam,thermosol dyeing, TAK dyeing, space dyeing, and pad-steam dyeing long chain warpdyeing etc.ProcessContinuous and to some extent semi-continuous dyeing processes both are less proneto water consumption than batch dyeing, but results in high concentration of residues. Ifsome strict control measures are taken up it is possible to reduce this losses ofconcentrated liquor. The following steps may prove useful. Applying low add-on liquor application systems along with minimising of volume capacity of the dip through when pad dyeing techniques are in operation. Adoption of latest dispensing systems, where the chemicals get dispensed on- line as separate streams. They gets mixed only at the moment just before the delivery to the applicator. Using any of the following systems for dosing of the padding liquor. Important to know that it should be strictly according to the measurement of the pick up: o A proper measurement of the dyeing liquor quantity consumption in comparison to the processed fabric. The resulting values thus obtained are processed automatically and applied in preparing the next comparable batch. o Application of the technique of rapid batch dyeing. Here the dyestuff solution is prepared just in time, with steps that are based on on-line measurement of the pick up. This proves better than those dyestuff that is kept prepared already for the whole batch before the commencement of the dyeing batch.
To increase washing efficiency based on the proven principles like reduction of carry-over and counter-current washing.At Bharat Vijay Mills, the following continuous dyeing machines were used:(i) Pad dry dyeing machineNo. of machines at BVM – 1Machine model – kusters calico machineryDYE BATH Dye =10 g/l Antimigrant =10 g/l Reduction inhibitor =10 g/lCHEMICAL RECIPE Caustic soda (48 Be) = 4-8 g/l Soda ash = 10 g/l Salt = 250 g/l PROCEDURE Prepare dye bath and auxiliary bath separately. Pad the fabric in dye bath at 60 - 70 % pick up and then dry the fabric. Then again pad the dyed piece of fabric in chemical bath at 80 % pick up and put it in steam for 1.5 min. (ii) Pad steam dyeing machine No. of machines at BVM – 1 Machine model – kusters calico machineryRECIPE Dye = 10 g/l Glaubar salt =10 g /l Soda ash = 15 g/l
Reduction inhibitor = 10 g/lPROCEDURE Pad the fabric in dye bath at 60 – 70 % pick up. Then steam the fabric for 1- 2 minWASHING Cold wash 30 – 40 ° C Warm wash 50 – 60 ° C Soaping with detergent 2g/l detergent at 90 -100 ° C Warm wash at 50 -60 ° C Cold wash 30 -40 ° C
TESTING QUALITY CONTROL AND INSPECTIONQuality is ultimately a question of customer satisfaction. Good Quality increases thevalue of a product or service, establishes brand name, and builds up good reputation forthe fabric manufacturer, which in turn results into consumer satisfaction, high sales andforeign exchange for the country. The perceived quality of a fabric is the result of anumber of aspects, which together help achieve the desired level of satisfaction for thecustomer. Therefore quality control in terms of garment, pre-sales service, posts –salesservice, delivery, pricing, etc are essentials for any fabric manufacturer.Quality control at BHARAT VIJAY MILLSAt Bharat Vijay Mills, quality control commences from raw material procurement. Theyuse eco-friendly dyes and chemicals that are sourced from reputed companies. Theirfully computerized quality-control laboratory checks everything from fibre to fabric tochemicals, dyes and auxiliaries.AATCC (American Association of textile chemist and colorist) and ASTM(American society for testing and materials) standards are followed at Bharat Vijaymills for quality control and testing of fabrics.4 – Point inspection system was followed for inspection of fabrics.This numeric grading system is endorsed by the American Society for Testing andMaterials (ASTM), The American Apparel Manufacturers Association (AAMA) and theEuropean Clothing Manufacturing Association (ECMA).
Length of defects (in inches) Points < 3” 1 3”to 6” 2 6” to 9” 3 > 9” 4 Diameter of holes (in inches) Points <1 2 >= 1 4Points calculation in 4 point system:Defect points per sq. meter = total points X 10,000 (Fabric width in cms X total length inspected in meters) • Maximum no. of points in any one linear yard is 4 regardless of no. of defects. • Grading irrespective of end use • Not sensitive to width variations of the fabric • Does not consider defects in inconspicuous areas (patterns/markers) • No standard viewing conditions
Fabric defectsAskewed or Bias: condition where filling yarns are not square with warp yarns onwoven fabrics or where courses are not square with wale lines on knits.Bowing: Usually caused by finishing. Woven filling yarns lien in an arc across fabricwidth.Broken Color Pattern: Usually caused by colored yarn out of place on frame.Crease Streak: Occurs in tubular knits. Results from creased fabric passing throughsqueeze rollers in the dyeing process.Jerk-in: caused by an extra piece of filling yarn being jerked part way into the fabric bythe shuttle. The defect will appear at the selvage.Knots: caused by tying spools of yarn together.Missing Yarn: Occurs in warp knit. Reuslts from wrong fiber yarn (or wrong size yarn)placed on warp. Fabric could appear as thick end or different color if fibers havedifferent affinity for dye.Mixed End (yarn): Yarn of a different fiber blend used on the warp frame, resulting in astreak in the fabricOpen Reed: results from a bent reed wire causing warp ends to be held apart,exposing the filling yarn. Will be conspicuous on fabrics that use different colored yarnson warp and shuttlePin Holes: Holes along selvage caused by pins holding fabric while it processesthrough tenter frame.
Puckered Selvage: Usually caused by selvage being stretched in finishing or byuneven wetting out in sanforization processSanforize Pucker: Results from uneven wetting out on sanforize; usually caused bydefective spray heads. Fabric will appear wavy or puckering when spread on cuttingtable. Difficult to detect while inspecting on inspection machine with fabric under rollertension.Scrimp: the result of fabric being folded or creased when passing through tenterframes.Slub: usually caused by an extra piece of yarn that is woven into fabric. It can also becaused by thick places in the yarn. Often is caused by fly waste being spun in yarn inthe spinning process.Smash: caused by a number of ruptured warp ends that have been repaired.Soiled Filling or End: Dirty, oily looking spots on the warp or filling yarns, or onpackaged-dyed yarn.Stop Mark: when the loom is stopped, the yarn elongates under tension; when the loomstarts again, the slack is woven into the fabric.Thin Place: Often caused by the filling yarn breaking and the loom continuing to rununtil the operator notices the problemTypes of testing in Bharat Vijay Mills:FIBER TESTING:Raw material represents about 50 to 70% of the production cost of a short-staple yarn.This fact is sufficient to indicate the significance of the rawmaterial for the yarn
producer. It is not possible to use a problem-free raw material always , because cottonis a natural fibre and there are many properties which will affect the performance.The basic chareteristics of cotton fibre Fibre length Maturity Fineness Rigidity StrengthYARN TESTING:Yarn occupies the intermediate position in the manufacture of fabric from raw material.Yarn results are therefore essential, both for estimating the quality of rawmaterial andfor controlling the quality of fabric produced.The important characteristics of yarn being tested are: Yarn twist Yarn elongation Linear density Yarn evenness Yarn strength Yarn hairnessFABRIC TESTING:The textile industry is becoming an increasingly competitive environment. Differentiatingproducts is therefore important and this can be facilitated through improving quality.Testing can be used to improve product quality and achieve compliance to international,regional or retailer specific standards.Various testing instruments in Bharat Vijay Mills: 1) Cotton testing machine – Uster 6) Cotton trash analyzer HVI 900 7) Trash separator 2) Count strength product(CSP) 8) Fabric Strength tester 3) Single yarn strength tester 9) GSM tester 4) Uniformity tester-Uster tester-4- SX 10) Wrap reel 5) Fault Tester – Uster classimat – 3 11) Yarn twist tester 12) Tearing tester
Cotton testing machine – Uster HVI 900:It is used to determine the fibre length, length uniformityand short fibre index Monitoring the fibre length is essential to producing yarn that meets your quality needs. The USTER FIBROSAMPLER measures properties of fibre samples taken from bales and card mat. Because interrelationships between fibre properties dictate that long cottons are also strong cottons, fibre length has a substantial impact on yarn evenness, yarn strength, and spinnability.Single yarn strength tester: Technical Specifications Tensile strength and elongation are the two prime characteristics of most of the raw materials. Technical Data : Capacity Of The Tester : 5 Kg, Acc. 1 g, 30 Kg, Acc. 5 g Speed Of Traverse : 300 mm/min. Motor : ¼ H.P. 230 volts AC. Gripping Distance : Minimum – 8” and Maximum -20” Elongation : 80 – 100% Over Load Safety : Provided
Uniformity tester - Uster tester-4-SXTo check the slightest deviation in evenness of yarn. The USTER TESTER-4-SX is an indispensable instrument for quality control of filament yarns and has long become a synonym for the highest precision standards. Even the smallest fluctuation in evenness is very important in filament yarns, and this makes the difference between profitable and non-profitable production. The spectrogram of the capacitive measurement makes every periodical fault in the spinning machine and the spinning process immediately visible. Test speeds of up to 800 m/min is ensured.Fault Tester – Uster classimat – 3To measure the yarn faults. It checks for cleared and unclear yarn, providing perfect classification of thick and thin places, as well as checking infrequently occurring yarn defects. Determining infrequently occurring yarn faults in 23 classes. Monitoring yarn counts, measurement of length and weight. Compare your measuring results with the international quality benchmarks directly on the screen. This way, you always have your desired quality standard under control.Cotton trash analyzer:This Trash Analyser is well known and well provenmachine in the Textile Industry for many decades andestablished its maintenance free performance in
determining the Trash and contamination content in any type of cotton and establishedits fact as more suitable for industrial Purpose in Cotton Textile Mills.Fabric Strength tester:This instrument is a robust motor driven floormodel machine which records breaking strengthand elongation at break point with graph facility.GSM tester:Sample cutters are designed to cut fabric samples to determine the GSM. Sample cutteris applicable to Woven, Knitted & Non-Woven Fabrics. Sample cutter is used to determine accurately the GSM (Grams per square meter) of any type of fabrics. Ergonomic latest design with modern aesthetics. Smooth precision engineered components for excellent performance. Stainless steel blade holders for lifelong excellent operations. Complete with all accessories along with four special rubberized foam cutting pad for smooth cutting & long life of the blades & two sets of cutting blades. Weight: 1.7 Kgs Dimension:
Diameter Height 160 mm 110 mm 6.25 inch 4.3 inchWrap reel: Used to make lea of yarn. Digital control panel with resettable revolution counter. Supplied with a wheels-1mtr or 1.5yds perimeter. Bobbin holding stand can accommodate bobbins dia up to 100mm. Five leas can be made together. Complete with all accessories.Yarn twist tester: Single yarn twist tester used to make lea of yarn. Smooth precision engineered components for excellent performance. Supplied with a wheels-1mtr or 1.5yds perimeter. Bobbin holding stand can accommodate bobbins dia up to 100mm. Five leas can be made together. Complete with all accessories.
Tearing tester : Tearing strength tester to determine tearing strength of knitted and woven fabrics. Capacity up to 6.400Kgs. With adjustable cutting knife. Having three variable capacity 1.600kg, 3.200kg & 6.400kg for different type of fabrics. Latest design with modern sophisticated look. Complete with accessories including three calibration weights.DYEING LAB 1) DATA COLOR DISPENSER 2) YARN DYEING MACHINE 3) COLOR COMPUTER MATCHING 4) COLOR MATCHING MACHINE:DATA COLOR DISPENSER:It is design for Textile Laboratory where speed accuracy and repeatability are theprimary focus.
Features: Accurate temperature sensor and controller ensures that the hot water is always at the required temperature Anti-wind doors ensures that the accuracy of the preparation of solutions is not affected by external influences Moveable dispense head allows easy addition of dyestuff to the solution bottles, and also allows the use of different size bottles Automatic hot water and cold water tank refill valves ensures that supply of water is always readily available The use of 4 dispense valves, 3 cold water and 1 hot water, ensures fast preparation of the solutions A small footprint ensures the system does not take up a large amount of laboratory space Spacious dispense area ensures easy access to the solution bottles for the addition of dyestuffs or chemicals More accurate solutions Precise weighing of dyestuffs up to 1000th of a decimal Automated, error-free procedures.COLOR COMPUTER MATCHING:The basic three things are important in CCMS: 1. Color measurement Instrument (Spectrophotometers). 2. Reflectance (R%) from a mixture of Dyes or Pigments applied in a specific way. 3. Optical model of color vision to closeness of the color matching.
Functions of Computer Color Matching System: 1. Color match prediction. 6. Cost Comparison. 2. Color difference calculation. 7. Strength evaluation of dyes. 3. Determine metamerism. 8. Whiteness indices. 4. Pass/Fail option. 9. Reflectance curve and K/S curve. 5. Color –fastness rating. 10. Production of Shade library. Etc.Advantages of Computer Color Matching System (CCMS)Computer Color Matching System (CCMS) has lots of great advantages in TextileIndustry. 1. Customers get the exact shade wanted with his knowledge of degree of metamerism. 2. Customers often have a choice of 10-20 formulation that will match color. By taking costing, availability of dyes, and auxiliaries into account, one can choose a best swatch. 3. 3 to 300 times faster than manual color matching. 4. Limited range of stock color needed.Colour Matching Machine:Colour Matching Machine is designed to evaluate the colour matching of fabrics, yarnsor any coloured materials. Color Matching machine checks matching under a standardlight source in a closed environment to minimize the interference of external lightsFastness testing equipments: 1) Crock Meter 3) Launderometer 2) Light fastness tester 4) Perspirometer