• The practice of reheating cooking oil or using the same cooking oil for frying is
common. Cooking oil is often repeatedly used by topping it up with fresh oil.
Generally, big food businesses involved in the manufacturing of fried foods
dispose of their used cooking oil (UCO) for industrial purposes (soap
• But sometimes it finds way to small food vendors at cheap prices. At household
level or by road-side vendors, the UCO is discarded in an environmentally
hazardous manner therefore, in order to safeguard public health,
• FSSAI has notified the limit of Total Polar compounds to be not more than 25%
beyond which the oil is unsafe for human consumption. This guidance note
outlines the Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for safe handling and disposal
of UCO for the benefit of consumers as well as small and big Food business
3. • Frying is one of the most common methods used for the preparation of food such
as French fries, chips, samosas, patties, pakodas and various other products.
• Frying temperatures can range from 170–190°C. Fried Foods are good in texture,
flavor, aroma and taste. Soft foods become crispy when fried and so are liked by
• Cooking oils with more saturated fatty acids such as palm oil are usually more
stable than the oils with more unsaturated fatty acids such as soybean oil which
decomposes easily at high frying temperature, leading to the formation of Polar
Compounds. So oils with more saturated fatty acids can be used for frying,
provided it is occasional. On the other hand, oils with higher levels of unsaturated
fatty acids are far healthier, provided they are used only once for frying.
5. • These changes include development of dark color, increase in viscosity and free
fatty acid content, decrease in iodine value and surface tension, changes in
refractive index and an increased tendency to foam. The flavor and stability of
compounds present in the oil are also changed.
• Numerous by-products that are volatile and non-volatile in nature such as free
fatty acids, alcohols, cyclic compounds, dimers and polymers are produced during
frying. The majority of the non-volatile by-products are generally categorized as
the Total Polar Compounds (TPC). The TPC constituents include dimeric fatty
acids, triglyceride monohydroperoxides, polymerized triglycerides (PTG), cyclic
fatty acid monomers and aldehydic triglycerides.
Changes after frying:
7. • The toxicity of these compounds is due to their high reactivity with
proteins, nucleic acids, DNA and RNA and reports have related them
to the cause of several diseases such as hypertension, atherosclerosis,
Alzheimer’s disease and liver disease.
• A probable human carcinogen, acrylamide is produced when the food
containing starch such as potato chips are heated above 120°C, due to
a reaction between amino acids (e.g., asparagines) and reducing
sugars (glucose and fructose).
8. Dispose of Used Cooking Oil and Key issues:
• Out of 69, 00,000 units of oil used by processing industry nearly one
third of the oil i.e. 20,70,000.00 units is discarded as a used cooked
oil. The used oil is usually disposed:
• By throwing off
• Giving away / selling to waste collector / aggregator / waste
• Giving away / selling to used cooked oil processors/user
10. Environmental effects:
• Disposing of Fat, oil and grease cause major problems to drains and sewers
leading to blockages and polluting streams and rivers. Fat, oil and grease in liquid
form may not appear to be harmful, but as it cools it congeals and hardens. It
sticks to the inner lining of drainage pipes and restricts the wastewater flow
causing the pipes to block. Clearing these blockages may costs lakhs of rupees in
a year to businesses and the government
Source: www.theverge.com Source: www.bbc.com
11. Methods for determining polar compounds in cooking
• The Total Polar compounds are determined by reference methods such as ISO
8420:2002 and AOAC Official Method which are generally recognized as standard
methods for measurement of oil deterioration during frying.
• Which based on the principle that these fats and oils can be separated by the
process of Silica Gel based column chromatography into polar and non polar
components. However, these methods are time consuming for on-site
measurements of Total Polar Compounds for frying operation businesses.
• Note: Polar components include polar substances such as monoglyerides,
diglycerides, free fatty fatty acids that occur in unused fats, as well as polar
transformation products formed during frying of foodstuffs and/or during heating
and these components of fats can be determined by column chromatography
under specified conditions. Nonpolar components are mostly unaltered
12. • For this purpose, hand-held devices (cooking oil tester based on the
dielectric method which records all polar and non-polar components
and thus monitors the overall polarity) are available in market to
enable rapid on-site TPC measurements. Such devices measure TPC
content in the oil and display this as a percentage. These are available
in the market in the range of Rs. 40,000 to Rs. 50,000 each.
14. Guidelines in Food Safety and Standards (Licensing and
Registration of Food Businesses) Regulations, 2011:
• At present, following provisions in Schedule 4 Part V- Specific Hygienic
and Sanitary Practices are to be followed by Food Business Operators
engaged in catering/food service establishments:
19. What is biodiesel?
• ‘Biofuels’ are liquid or gaseous fuels produced from biomass
resources and used in place of, or in addition to, diesel, petrol or
other fossil fuels for transport, stationary, portable and other
• Biodiesel is made through a chemical process called trans-
esterification whereby the glycerin is separated from the fat or
vegetable oil. The process leaves behind two products -- methyl esters
(the chemical name for biodiesel) and glycerin (a valuable byproduct
usually sold to be used in soaps and other products).
• Aims at mainstreaming of biofuels and, therefore, envisions a central
role for it in the energy and transportation sectors of the country in
• It will bring about accelerated development and promotion of the
cultivation, production and use of biofuels to increasingly substitute
petrol and diesel for transport applications, while contributing to
energy security, climate change mitigation, apart from creating new
employment opportunities and leading to environmentally
• At present, approximately 850 crore litres of High Speed Diesel (HSD) is
consumed on a monthly basis in India.
• The National Policy on Biofuels - 2018 envisages a target of 5% blending of
Biodiesel in HSD by 2030.
• In order to achieve the blending target, 500 crore litres of Biodiesel is required in
• The goal is to ensure that a minimum level of biofuels become readily available in
the market to meet the demand at any given time. An indicative target of 20%
blending of biofuels, both for bio-diesel and bio-ethanol, by 2017 was proposed.
1. To encourage production of Biodiesel in the country, MoP&NG announced a
Biodiesel Purchase Policy, in October 2005, which became effective from 1st
2. In its meeting held on 16th January 2015, the Cabinet, decided to allow the
direct sale of Biodiesel (B100) by private Biodiesel manufacturers.
3. On 10th August 2015, the Government allowed direct sale of Biodiesel (B100)
to Bulk Consumers such as Railways, State Road Transport Corporations, etc.
4. Later, MoP&NG issued Gazette notification No. GSR 728 (E) on 29th June 2017
for amending the Motor Spirit and High Speed Diesel (Regulation of Supply,
Distribution and Prevention of Malpractices)
5. MoP&NG has issued the National Biofuel Policy-2018 in which an indicative
target of 5 % blending of biodiesel in diesel is proposed by 2030.
24. • It has been stated in the Policy that in house produced Used/Waste Cooking Oil
(UCO/WCO) offers potential to be a source of biodiesel production. However, the
same is marred by diversion of UCO to edible stream through various small
eateries/vendors & traders and focus will be laid upon laying down the stringent
norms for avoiding the entry of UCO in food stream and developing a suitable
collection mechanism to augment its supply for biodiesel production.
25. Method of production:
• There are three basic methods of biodiesel (methyl ester) production
from oils and fats. They are:
1. Base(NaOH/KOH) catalyst trans- esterification of the oil with
2. Directed acid catalyzed esterification of the oil with methanol.
3. Conversion of the oil to fatty acids, and then to methyl esters with
27. Factors considering the Biodiesel Reaction:
• Waste oil type: Bacon grease and other solid greases are not acceptable for
biodiesel production since they raise the cloud point and could cause cold
• Restaurant fryer oils: Tend to be high in free fatty acids which results in lower
yields of biodiesel due to soap production during the reaction.
• High water content in the oil: Water impedes the biodiesel reaction resulting in
only partial conversion of the oil to biodiesel.
• The temperature should be lower than 60˚c
28. Biodiesel is better than normal Diesel?
• Biodiesel is a renewable fuel obtained from vegetable oils or animal fats. It is low
toxic in comparison with diesel fuel and also it degrades more rapidly than diesel
fuel minimizing the environmental consequences of biofuel spills.
• The advantages of biodiesel will also expand to its clean combustion as compared
with petro diesel, lower emissions of carbon monoxide, particulate matter,
polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, aldehydes thereby lowering health risk, due to
reduced emissions of carcinogenic substances. Infact, it is less toxic than table salt
and biodegrades as fast as sugar.
29. • Therefore, it is essential to monitor the quality of vegetable oils
during frying. In order to safeguard consumer health, FSSAI has fixed
a limit for Total Polar Compounds at 25 percent beyond which the
vegetable oil shall not be used. From 1st July, 2018 onwards, all Food
Business Operators (FBOs) are required to monitor the quality of oil
during frying by complying with the said regulations. Repurpose Used
Cooking Oil (RUCO) is an ecosystem that will enable the collection and
conversion of UCO to biodiesel.
• Annually, about 23 million MT Cooking Vegetable Oil is consumed in India. There is
potential to recover and use about 3 million MT of this for production of bio-diesel.
• Triple ‘E’ strategy:
• UCO can be collected from Bulk Consumers such as hotels, restaurants, canteens, etc. for
conversion, which will give approximately 110 crore litres of Biodiesel in one year.
35. • To facilitate the production of Biodiesel from UCO, the Oil Marketing Companies
shall float an Expression of Interest (EOI) for procurement of Biodiesel from Used
Cooking Oil across 100 cities. The purpose of inviting this EOI is to encourage the
applicants to set up Biodiesel producing plants from Used Cooking Oil (UCO),
processing plants and further utilizing the existing potential of UCO based Bio-
diesel in India
36. How Biodiesel can help combating issue of
used cooking oil?
• Biodiesel is an environment friendly option that can be help in solving the issue of
food waste esp. used cooking oil. If produced domestically with natural resources,
its use decreases our dependence on imported fuel and contributes to our own
• Biodiesel opens a great entrepreneurship opportunity and employment in the
country. Honorable Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi has said that “social
entrepreneurs can benefit from Swachh Bharat programme as it has huge
business element, while stressing on the need to convert waste into wealth.
• He has said that waste to wealth is a belief that is gaining momentum. If we
consider waste as waste, then we have lost our precious possession.”
Government bodies, oil industry and biodiesel associations can collaborate to
plan a strategy to collect used cooking oil and convert it into an environment
37. Included stakeholders:
• Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas- Coordinating Ministry for National Biofuels Policy 2018.
• State Biofuel Boards/competent authority
• Ministry of Health and family welfare
• The Revenue Department Ministry of Finance
• The Central Pollution Control Board
1. Processed food manufacturers
2. Fast food and Hotel chains
3. Hotel Associations
4. Canteens with large capacity
5. Municipal authorities for small/unorganized food vendors
• The Major consumers -Oil Marketing Companies/Indian Railways
• At present about 4000 OMC retail outlets are supplying B5 Blend of Biodiesel. The program is mainly in the
38. Mechanism of action:
1. Identification and quantification of UCO sources- Dischargers
2. Creating unique identity with complete traceability- suggest use of coloring agent for UCO-
only designated Transport/Storage/Final consumption to be permitted.
3. Pricing and collection infrastructure- OMC’s/railways/large fleet operators/Industrial
consumers would be the major consumers of Biodiesel in the country.
4. The State Pollution Control Boards need to make UCO a part of NOC/permission. The Material
Balance including projected consumption and discharge figures to be mentioned in the
5. The State authorities to synchronize the consumption and discharge parameters in their license
for monitoring purposes.
6. The FSSAI to issue license to collection agencies who fulfill the requirements and create the
7. As per National Biofuels Policy the MoP&NG to coordinate and fix price for UCO based
Biodiesel in consultation with all stakeholders.
39. List of biodiesel manufacturers:
1. M/s Rajputana Biodiesel Pvt. Ltd. Jaipur, Rajasthan
2. Monopoly Innovations Private Limited, Raigad, Maharashtra
3. Muenzer Bharat Private Limited, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra
4. Advaith Biofuels Ltd., Hyderabad, Telangana
5. Eco Green Fuels Pvt. Ltd., Bangalore, Karnataka
6. Kaleesuwari Refinery and Industry Pvt. Ltd., Kakinada,Andhra Pradesh
7. Yantra Fintech(India) Limited, Chennai, Tamil Nadu
41. Global scenario:
• Biobot20 product made by a Britain company, it’s tabletop diesel processor has a
capacity of 20 liters per batch. But briefly you fill the reaction chamber with used
vegetable oil, then heat the oil to a designated temperature while agitating the oil
with a built-in hand operated mixer. When the oil comes to temperature, a small
amount is tested to determine the amount of free fatty acids it contains.
44. Current research:
• There is ongoing research into finding more suitable crops and improving
• Biodiesel from Human Fecal matter, Ghana building its first plant.
• US(largest diesel fuel user) developing biodiesel technologies for navy
• Ecofas announced a new biofuel made from trash. Urban waste is treated by
bacteria to produce fatty acids, which can be used to make biodiesel.
• Another approach involves the use of genetically modified microbes.
• As India is the second most populated country in the world. Energy and food
safety is a critical input for socio-economic development. The energy strategy of a
country aims at efficiency and security and to provide access which being
environment friendly and achievement of an optimum mix of primary resources
for energy generation.
• RUCO is one of the initiative taken under the theme of National biofuel policy
which associate to satisfy the needs of India’s food safety and energy security in
terms of conversion from used cooking oil to biofuel.