2. WHAT IS TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT ?
TQM is an approach to improving the
effectiveness and flexibilities of business as a
whole. It is essentially a way of organizing
and involving the whole organization, every
department, every activity and every single
person at every level. TQM ensures that the
management adopts a strategic overview of
the quality and focuses on prevention rather
3. OBJECTIVES OF TQM
Meeting the customers requirements is the primary
objective and the key to organizational survival and
The second objective of TQM is continuous
improvement of quality. The management should
stimulate the employees in becoming increasingly
competent and creative
Third, TQM aims at developing the relationship of
openness and trust among the employees at all
levels in the organisation.
4. SIGNIFICANCE OF TQM
The importance of TQM lies in the fact that it
encourages innovation, makes the
organization adaptable to change, motivates
people for better quality, and integrates the
business arising out of a common purpose
and all these provide the organization with a
valuable and distinctive competitive edge.
5. ELEMENTS OF TQM
Be customer focused
It requires the company to check customers
attitudes regularly and includes the idea of internal
customers as well as external ones.
o Do it right the first time
This means avoiding rework, i.e., cutting the
amount of defective work.
o Constantly improve
Continuous improvement allows the company
gradually to get better.
6. Quality is an attitude
Every one has to be committed to quality. That
means changing the attitude of the entire
workforce, and altering the way the company
o Telling staff what is going on
This involves improved communication. Typically, it
includes team briefing.
o Educate and train people
An unskilled workforce makes mistakes. Giving
more skills to workers means they can do a wider
range of jobs, and do them better. It also means
educating staff in the principles of TQM, which is a
whole new style of working
7. REASONS FOR FAILURE
TQM fails because
Top management sees no reason for change.
Top management is not concerned for its staff.
The workforce and the management do not agree
on what needs to happen.
Urgent problems intervene.
TQM is imposed on the workforce, which does not
inwardly accept it.
No performance measure or targets are set, so
progress cannot be measured.
Processes are not analyzed, systems are weak and
procedures are not written down.
8. Masaaki Imai is known as the developer of
‘KAI’ means ‘Change or the action to correct’.
‘ZEN’ means ‘Good’.
Kaizen is small incremental changes made for
improving productivity and minimizing wastes.
9. 3 MAIN PRINCIPLES OF KAIZEN
1. Consider the process and the results.
2. The need to look at the entire process of the job
at hand and to evaluate the job as to the best way
to get the job done.
3. Kaizen must be approached in such a way that
no one is blamed and that best process is put into
10. FEATURES OF KAIZEN
Highly effective and result oriented.
A learning experience.
Team based and cross-functional.
11. PHASES IN KAIZEN
A. Select an event
B. Plan an event.
C. Implement an event.
D. Follow-up an event.
12. BENEFITS OF KAIZEN
Kaizen reduces waste - like inventory waste, time
waste and workers motion.
Kaizen improves space utilization and product
Results in higher employee moral and job
Teaches workers how to solve everyday problems.
13. What is Lean?
Lean means creating more value for
customers with fewer resources.
Lean Manufacturing is sometimes called the Toyota
Production System (TPS) because Toyota Motor
Company’s Eiji Toyoda and Taiichui Ohno are given credit
for its approach and innovations.
14. SEVEN PRINCIPLES OF LEAN
7. Defective units
1. Over Production – Producing over customer
requirements, producing unnecessary materials /
2. Waiting – Time delays, idle time (time during
which value is not added to the product).
3. Transportation – Multiple handling, delay in
materials handling, unnecessary handling.
4. Inventory – Holding or purchasing unnecessary
raw materials, work in process, and finished goods.
16. 5. Motion – Actions of people or equipment that do
not add value to the product.
Over-processing – Unnecessary steps or work
elements / procedures (non added value work).
7. Defective units – Production of a part that is
scrapped or requires rework.
17. CONCEPT USED IN LEAN
JIT (just in time):- It means producing the
necessary items in necessary quantities at the
Benefits of JIT:
1. Reduced operating cost
2. Greater performance
3. Higher quality
4. Improved delivery
5. Increased flexibility and innovativeness
6. Shortened lead time
7. Reduced inventory
“ The most dangerous kind of waste is the
waste we do not recognize." ~ Shigeo