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cognition and perception

A compilation from cultural psychology by shinobu kitayama and Gordon 2004....

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cognition and perception

  1. 1. Cognition andCognition and PerceptionPerception A Compilation by Vida DehnadA Compilation by Vida Dehnad ,, 20132013
  2. 2. Food for thoughtFood for thought  What is cognition ?What is cognition ?  What is perception?What is perception?  Do we have the same contents ofDo we have the same contents of mind cross-culturally?mind cross-culturally?  Do humans have the same information –processingDo humans have the same information –processing strategies across the globe?strategies across the globe?  Can weCan we establish common grounds of understandingestablish common grounds of understanding globally ?globally ?  Do you defendDo you defend relativismrelativism in the studies of cognition andin the studies of cognition and perception ?perception ?
  3. 3. Two “pro –universalistic” stances in theTwo “pro –universalistic” stances in the study of cognition in 20study of cognition in 20thth cent.cent.  Behaviorism & Learning theorists in earlyBehaviorism & Learning theorists in early experimental psychology / deficit modelexperimental psychology / deficit model  ““Universality of cognition” or “psychic universality” as a result of biology research effect onUniversality of cognition” or “psychic universality” as a result of biology research effect on psychological research (mainly starting from 1988 to mid 20psychological research (mainly starting from 1988 to mid 20thth century ).century ). - use of analogy to find shared species-wide characteristics- use of analogy to find shared species-wide characteristics - mental mechanisms not only applied to all humans , but to animals- mental mechanisms not only applied to all humans , but to animals - cross- culturally the same rules- cross- culturally the same rules ►► Cognitivists (from mid 20Cognitivists (from mid 20thth century /CPDcentury /CPD model /model / -- rejected animalistic behaviorism , but still held the samerejected animalistic behaviorism , but still held the same ““universalistic position”universalistic position” - Analogy between human mind & computer : brain as hardware & cognitive procedures asAnalogy between human mind & computer : brain as hardware & cognitive procedures as softwaresoftware - given different inputs across cultures we will have different outputs (behaviors , beliefs ) , but wegiven different inputs across cultures we will have different outputs (behaviors , beliefs ) , but we still have the same underlying architecture of mind every where.still have the same underlying architecture of mind every where.
  4. 4. Richard Shweder 1991 observed that 20Richard Shweder 1991 observed that 20th-th- century stancescentury stances mainly concur with the idea of "autonomousmainly concur with the idea of "autonomous ccentralentral pprocessingrocessing ddevice “, something likeevice “, something like CPUCPU CPD in this view transcends ecology and socio-culturalCPD in this view transcends ecology and socio-cultural contexts; the processor is always the samecontexts; the processor is always the same
  5. 5. The three major theoretical positions of psychologyThe three major theoretical positions of psychology & social sciences against universalistic stance& social sciences against universalistic stance  The first challenge brought fourth by Wilhelm WundtThe first challenge brought fourth by Wilhelm Wundt , the, the founder of experimental psychology /founder of experimental psychology / folk psychologyfolk psychology laterlater known as cultural psychology (1916)known as cultural psychology (1916)  higher cognitive processes are affected by cultural practiceshigher cognitive processes are affected by cultural practices  When culture and history diverge , cognitive processes diverge as wellWhen culture and history diverge , cognitive processes diverge as well
  6. 6.  The second challengeThe second challenge by Russian School Of Lev Vygotskyby Russian School Of Lev Vygotsky (1978)(1978) && AlexanderAlexander Luria (1971) ;Luria (1971) ; and in West by Michael Cole (1996)& hisand in West by Michael Cole (1996)& his colleaguescolleagues
  7. 7.  The tenets of Vygotsky’s thoughtsThe tenets of Vygotsky’s thoughts  Human cognition develops in a cultural contextHuman cognition develops in a cultural context  Cultural context is an accumulated pattern of symbolic & non-symbolicCultural context is an accumulated pattern of symbolic & non-symbolic tools in the historical existence of a grouptools in the historical existence of a group  Diverging historical trajectories , practices & tools result in differentDiverging historical trajectories , practices & tools result in different cognitive tendenciescognitive tendencies ►► The third influential idea challenging cognitive universalityThe third influential idea challenging cognitive universality was proposed by Benjaminwas proposed by Benjamin Lee WhorfLee Whorf (1956) known as(1956) known as linguistic relativitylinguistic relativity
  8. 8.  The idea here is that the language people speak affects thoughtThe idea here is that the language people speak affects thought processesprocesses  When linguistic conventions vary , thought processes vary as wellWhen linguistic conventions vary , thought processes vary as well  Have Genetic Mutations endowedHave Genetic Mutations endowed Humans with such higher cognitiveHumans with such higher cognitive abilities in the process of evolution ?abilities in the process of evolution ?  Human cognition is culturally dependent in ways that other primateHuman cognition is culturally dependent in ways that other primate cognition is notcognition is not  Cultural transmission allows both genetic & social transference ofCultural transmission allows both genetic & social transference of learning mechanismslearning mechanisms  So “culture is greatly important since only the “ process of geneticSo “culture is greatly important since only the “ process of genetic variation “ & “natural selection “ have not led to these higher-ordervariation “ & “natural selection “ have not led to these higher-order cognitive abilities in humans with this speedcognitive abilities in humans with this speed
  9. 9. Knowing that some people don’t haveKnowing that some people don’t have any word forany word for greengreen, do you think they, do you think they perceiveperceive greengreen thethe samesame way we doway we do ?? Linguistic relativityLinguistic relativity – Whorfian hypothesisWhorfian hypothesis  ColorsColors ( experiment with hunter -gatherer people of Papua( experiment with hunter -gatherer people of Papua new Guinea with five basic colors & English Speakers withnew Guinea with five basic colors & English Speakers with foci of 8 colors --result--foci of 8 colors --result-- poorer memory /sensitivitypoorer memory /sensitivity ofof hunter-gatherers …less vocabulary items for colors )hunter-gatherers …less vocabulary items for colors )  NumbersNumbers
  10. 10. Language and Color PerceptionLanguage and Color Perception
  11. 11.  New researches have been exploring whether color terms affect perception of colors.
  12. 12. Categorical perceptions ofCategorical perceptions of colorscolors
  13. 13. Do structural differences between two languages affect the way children learn to count ? Do linguistic differences affect numerical reasoning ?  -- Chinese children found it easier to count the second decade (10-Chinese children found it easier to count the second decade (10- 20) where the base 10 is first learned compared to English children.20) where the base 10 is first learned compared to English children.  Much of numeric cognition is the result of culturalMuch of numeric cognition is the result of cultural inventioninvention - for the most part, people have- for the most part, people have some degree of innate mathsome degree of innate math abilitiesabilities , but most abilities emerge as a result of cultural learning., but most abilities emerge as a result of cultural learning.  Some cultures do not have number terms beyond 2. For example, theSome cultures do not have number terms beyond 2. For example, the PirahaPiraha from Amazon have number terms that only correspond to 1, 2, and many.from Amazon have number terms that only correspond to 1, 2, and many.  What happens when theWhat happens when the PirahaPiraha are asked to count beyond 3? (see Gordonare asked to count beyond 3? (see Gordon¹¹,, 2004). They were confused ! / had great difficulty matching an array of items2004). They were confused ! / had great difficulty matching an array of items more than threemore than three  ¹¹Gordon, P. (2004). Numerical cognition without words: Evidence from Amazonia.Gordon, P. (2004). Numerical cognition without words: Evidence from Amazonia. Science, 306, 496–499.Science, 306, 496–499.
  14. 14.  The larger the numbers they were asked to represent, the greaterThe larger the numbers they were asked to represent, the greater their errors were, however, they had some general sense oftheir errors were, however, they had some general sense of approximate quantities.approximate quantities. • There are still questions about whether theseThere are still questions about whether these indigenous tribesindigenous tribes cannot represent numbers because they don’t have related numbercannot represent numbers because they don’t have related number terms (a Whorfian argument) or because they lack sufficient culturalterms (a Whorfian argument) or because they lack sufficient cultural learning.learning.
  15. 15.  linguistic differences affect spatial , temporal reasoninglinguistic differences affect spatial , temporal reasoning - Chinese thinkChinese think verticallyvertically about time while English speakers thinkabout time while English speakers think horizontallyhorizontally - Alfred BloomAlfred Bloom experiment about counterfactual , subjunctive –mood statements : some languages have more such structures - Human cognition is influenced by - Linguistics structures , Social & cultural structures
  16. 16. Deductive reasoning versusDeductive reasoning versus concrete reasoningconcrete reasoning  Preference for concrete reasoning / knowledge is inPreference for concrete reasoning / knowledge is in traditional and sometimes non-literate societiestraditional and sometimes non-literate societies  Societies affected by industrialization more favorSocieties affected by industrialization more favor formal logic (deductive thinking )formal logic (deductive thinking )  -- theoretical sciencetheoretical science  - adversarial debate- adversarial debate  Formalization of knowledgeFormalization of knowledge
  17. 17. Cultural differences in perceptionCultural differences in perception carpentered world hypothesis /carpentered world hypothesis / the degree tothe degree to which the environment is carpenteredwhich the environment is carpentered
  18. 18. Pictures borrowed from the following websitesPictures borrowed from the following websites  www.proprofs.comwww.proprofs.com  http://ling.yale.edu/history/benjamin-lee-whorfhttp://ling.yale.edu/history/benjamin-lee-whorf  www.thisisnotthat.comwww.thisisnotthat.com  https://aims.uchicago.edu/page/1993-richard-shwederhttps://aims.uchicago.edu/page/1993-richard-shweder  www.vygotskydocumentary.comwww.vygotskydocumentary.com  http://blogs.transparent.com/language-news/2015/03/18/how-language-changehttp://blogs.transparent.com/language-news/2015/03/18/how-language-change – https://www.um.ac.ir/https://www.um.ac.ir/  http://www.michaelbach.de/ot/sze-muelue/index.htmlhttp://www.michaelbach.de/ot/sze-muelue/index.html  http://www. tehranpress.comhttp://www. tehranpress.com  http://www.http://www.nikoodel.comnikoodel.com  www.quora.comwww.quora.com  www.ihoosh.irwww.ihoosh.ir

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