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Chapter 10 motivating and satisfying employees and teams (1)

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Chapter 10: Motivating and satisfying employees

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Chapter 10 motivating and satisfying employees and teams (1)

  1. 1. Copyright ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Motivating and Satisfying Employees and Teams 10 | 1
  2. 2. Topics ① Explain what motivation is. ② Understand some major historical perspectives on motivation. ③ Describe three contemporary views of motivation: equity theory, expectancy theory, and goal-setting theory. ④ Explain several techniques for increasing employee motivation. ⑤ Understand the types, development, and uses of teams. 2
  3. 3. What Is Motivation?  The individual internal process that energizes, directs, and sustains behavior; the personal “force” that causes us to behave in a particular way  Morale • An employee’s feelings about his or her job, superiors, and about the firm itself • High morale results from the satisfaction of needs or as a result of the job and leads to dedication, loyalty, and the desire to do the job well • Low morale leads to shoddy work, absenteeism, and high turnover rates 3
  4. 4. Historical Perspectives on Motivation  Scientific Management • The application of scientific principles to management of work and workers • Frederick W. Taylor - Observed workers who “soldiered” or worked slowly who feared losing their jobs if there were no work - Job should be broken into separate tasks - Management determines the best way and the expected output - Management chooses and trains the best-suited person - Management cooperates with workers - Piece-rate system (pay per unit of output) is based on the belief that people work only for money 4
  5. 5. Taylor’s Piece-Rate System  Workers who exceeded their quota were rewarded by being paid at a higher rate per piece for all the pieces they produced 5
  6. 6. Historical Perspectives on Motivation (cont’d)  The Hawthorne Studies • Objective: to determine the effects of the work environment on employee productivity • 1st experiment: productivity increased for both the experimental and control groups after lighting was varied in the workplace • 2nd experiment: workers under a piece-rate system produced at constant rates • Hawthorne Experiment • Conclusions: human factors were responsible - Workers had a sense of involvement by participating in the experiment - Groups influenced output through workers’ desire for acceptance • Human relations movement - Employees who are happy and satisfied are motivated to perform better 6
  7. 7. Historical Perspectives on Motivation (cont’d)  Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs • A sequence of human needs in the order of their importance - Physiological needs—survival - Safety needs—physical and emotional safety - Social needs—love and affection and a sense of belonging - Esteem needs—respect, recognition, and a sense of our own accomplishment and worth - Self-actualization needs—to grow and develop and become all that we are capable of being 7
  8. 8. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs 8
  9. 9. Historical Perspectives on Motivation (cont’d)  Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory • Satisfaction and dissatisfaction are separate and distinct dimensions • Motivation factors - Job factors that increase motivation but whose absence does not necessarily result in dissatisfaction • Hygiene factors - Job factors that reduce dissatisfaction when present to an acceptable degree but that do not necessarily result in higher levels of motivation 9
  10. 10. Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory 10
  11. 11. Historical Perspectives on Motivation (cont’d)  Douglas McGregor • Sets of assumptions about managerial attitudes and beliefs regarding worker behavior  Theory X • Generally consistent with Taylor’s scientific management • Employees dislike work and will function only in a controlled work environment  Theory Y • Generally consistent with the human relations movement • Employees accept responsibility and work toward organizational goals if they will also achieve personal rewards 11
  12. 12. Theory X and Theory Y 12
  13. 13. Historical Perspectives on Motivation (cont’d)  Theory Z • Some middle ground between Ouchi’s Type A (American) and Type J (Japanese) practices is best for American business • Emphasis is on participative decision making with a view of the organization as a family 13
  14. 14. The Features of Theory Z 14
  15. 15. Historical Perspectives on Motivation (cont’d)  Reinforcement Theory • Behavior that is rewarded is likely to be repeated, whereas behavior that is punished is less likely to recur - Reinforcement: an action that follows directly from a particular behavior - Types of reinforcement - Positive reinforcement: strengthens desired behavior by providing a reward - Negative reinforcement: strengthens desired behavior by eliminating an undesirable task or situation - Punishment: an undesired consequence of undesirable behavior - Extinction: no response to undesirable behavior in order to discourage its occurrence 15
  16. 16. Contemporary Views on Motivation  Equity Theory • People are motivated to obtain and preserve equitable treatment for themselves • Equity: the distribution of rewards in direct proportion to the contribution of each employee to the organization • Workers compare their own input-to-outcome (reward) ratios to their perception of others’ • Workers who perceive an inequity may - Decrease their inputs - Try to increase outcome (ask for a raise) - Try to get the comparison other to increase inputs or receive decreased outcomes - Leave the work situation (quit) - Switch to a different comparison other 16
  17. 17. Contemporary Views on Motivation (cont’d)  Expectancy Theory (Victor Vroom) • Motivation depends on how much we want something and on how likely we think we are to get it • Implies that managers must recognize that - Employees work for a variety of reasons - The reasons, or expected outcomes, may change over time - It is necessary to show employees how they can attain the outcomes they desire 17
  18. 18. Expectancy Theory 18
  19. 19. Contemporary Views on Motivation (cont’d)  Goal-Setting Theory • Employees are motivated to achieve goals they and their managers establish together • Goals should be very specific, moderately difficult, and ones that the employee will be committed to achieve • Rewards should be tied directly to goals achievement 19
  20. 20. Key Motivation Techniques  It takes more than a generous salary to motivate employees. Companies are trying to motivate employees by satisfying less tangible needs. • Simple, low or no cost approaches such as: - Celebrate birthdays and other important events - Nominations for a formal award program - Support flexible work schedules - Publicly post thank you letters from customers 20
  21. 21. Key Motivation Techniques (cont’d) Management by Objectives–managers and employees collaborate in setting goals, clarify employee roles 21 ADVANTAGES • Motivates employees by actively involving them • Improves communication • Makes employees feel like an important part of the organization • Periodic review enhances control DISADVANTAGES • Doesn’t work if the process doesn’t begin at the top of the organization • Can result in excessive paperwork • Some managers assign goals instead of collaborating on creating them • Goals should be quantifiable
  22. 22. Key Motivation Techniques (cont’d)  Job enrichment • Provides employees with more variety and responsibility in their jobs  Job enlargement • The expansion of a worker’s assignments to include additional but similar tasks  Job redesign • A type of job enrichment in which work is restructured to cultivate the worker-job match 22
  23. 23. Key Motivation Techniques (cont’d)  Behavior modification • A systematic program of reinforcement to encourage desirable behavior  Steps in behavior modification • Identify the target behavior to be changed • Measure existing levels of the behavior • Reward employees who exhibit the desired behavior • Measure the target behavior to check for desired change - If no change, consider changing reward system - If change has occurred, maintain reinforcement 23
  24. 24. Key Motivation Techniques (cont’d)  Flextime • A system in which employees set their own work hours within employer-determined limits • Typically, there are two bands of time - Core time, when all employees are expected to be at work - Flexible time, when employees may choose whether to be at work • Benefits - Employees’ sense of independence and autonomy is motivating - Employees with enough time to deal with nonwork issues are more productive and satisfied • Drawbacks - Supervisors’ jobs are complicated by having employees who come and go at different times - Employees without flextime may resent coworkers who have it 24
  25. 25. Key Motivation Techniques (cont’d)  Part-time work • Permanent employment in which individuals work less than a standard work week • Disadvantage: often does not provide the benefits that come with a full-time position  Job sharing • An arrangement whereby two people share one full-time position • Companies can save on expenses by reducing benefits and avoiding employee turnover • Employees gain flexibility but may lose benefits • Sharing can be difficult if work is not easily divisible or if two people cannot work well together 25
  26. 26. Key Motivation Techniques (cont’d)  Telecommuting • Working at home all the time or for a portion of the work week • Advantages - Increased employee productivity - Lower real estate and travel costs - Reduced absenteeism and turnover - Increased work/life balance and improved morale - Access to additional labor pools • Disadvantages - Feelings of isolation - Putting in longer hours - Distractions at home - Difficulty monitoring productivity 26
  27. 27. Key Motivation Techniques (cont’d)  Employee empowerment • Making employees more involved in their jobs by increasing their participation in decision making • Management must be involved to set expectations, communicate standards, institute periodic evaluations, guarantee follow-up • Benefits - Increased job satisfaction - Improved job performance - Higher self-esteem - Increased organizational commitment • Obstacles - Management resistance - Workers’ distrust of management - Insufficient training - Poor communication between management and employees 27
  28. 28. Key Motivation Techniques (cont’d)  Employee ownership • Employees own the company they work for by virtue of being stockholders • Directly reward employees for success • Benefits - Considerable employee incentive - Increased employee involvement and commitment • Obstacles - Problems between management and employees can still occur 28
  29. 29. Teams and Teamwork  Teams • Two or more workers operating as a coordinated unit to accomplish a specific task or goal • Types of teams - Problem-Solving - Virtuoso - Self-Managed - Cross-Functional - Virtual • Stages of team development - Forming - Storming - Norming - Performing - Adjourning 29
  30. 30. Advantages and Disadvantages of Self-Managed Teams 30
  31. 31. Teams and Teamwork (cont’d)  Roles within a team • Task-specialist role • Socio-emotional role • Dual role • Nonparticipant role  Team cohesiveness • For a team to be successful, members must learn how to resolve and manage conflict 31
  32. 32. Teams and Teamwork (cont’d)  Team conflict and how to resolve it • Middle ground resolution satisfies each party to some extent  Benefits and limitations of teams • Reduces turnover and costs, increases production, quality, customer service, job satisfaction • Reorganizing into teams can be stressful and time consuming with no guarantee it will develop effectively 32
  33. 33. Stages of Team Development 33