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Etat de l’art ENR & transport en Espace Atlantique

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Etat de l’art ENR & transport en Espace Atlantique, Pr Alan Hutchinson, Oxford Brookes University

La Rochelle, EIGSI Ecole d’ingénieurs généralistes
3ième Edition du Forum des mobilités interrégionales « ENERGIES & TRANSPORT PUBLIC »

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Etat de l’art ENR & transport en Espace Atlantique

  1. 1. Guide to energy and publicly-accessible transport in rural areas
  2. 2. REPUTE RENEWABLE ENERGY IN PUBLIC TRANSPORT ENTERPRISE Introduction Approach Results Conclusions
  3. 3. GUIDE TO ENERGY AND PUBLICLY-ACCESSIBLE TRANSPORT IN RURAL AREAS MOTIVATION The ‘Atlantic Arc Regions’ of Europe all share similar experiences of  geographical difficulties remote populations large distances between centres of population problems keeping up with advances in technology inter-modality issues The REPUTE Guide explores how the regions could learn from each other keep up with the pace of development within larger, more populated, regions provides examples of innovative large-and small-scale transport schemes from different regions introduces the REPUTE pilot projects.
  4. 4. MODAL SPLIT CARS BUSES & COACHES RAILWAYS POWERED 2-WHEELERS TRAM & METRO 80.5 9 7 2 1.5 Passenger transport in EU-27 in 2010 Passenger transport in EU27 in 2010 (%)
  6. 6. SUSTAINABILITY IN TRANSPORT Source: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
  7. 7. GUIDE TO ENERGY AND PUBLICLY-ACCESSIBLE TRANSPORT IN RURAL AREAS PROBLEM The transport sector is the fastest growing source of GHG emissions. People in rural areas typically travel 50% further than those in urban areas-most by bus or car. SOLUTION Locally generated energy Initiatives to connect people to rural public transport hubs through community- run schemes Shared ownership of transport resources and bespoke on-demand services. This is known as Total Transport. Transfer of best practice from cities DRIVERS FOR CHANGE These include community engagement, fund-raising at a local level, local energy initiatives and policies The introduction of cost-effective, energy-saving, technologies.
  8. 8. Joining Technology Publicly- accessible transport* Renewable energy Financial viability *Publicly-accessible transport solutions include buses, taxis, cars in car-share schemes, bicycles and pedelecs in bike-share schemes, trams and trains Community engagement
  9. 9. GUIDE TO ENERGY AND PUBLICLY-ACCESSIBLE TRANSPORT IN RURAL AREAS SUGGESTIONS AND DIRECTIONS • Modal shift • Socio-technical transitions • Alternative and renewable energy • Accessible and intelligent transport of people and goods • Financial considerations CASE STUDIES OF GOOD PRACTICE • Within the partners’ regions • Outside the partners’ regions • REPUTE pilot projects CONCLUSIONS SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT • Policy context • Renewable energy in transport • Intelligent transport systems • Behaviour change and modal shift CURRENT SITUATION IN THE PARTNERS’ ATLANTIC AREA REGIONS • Regional descriptions • Energy and transport • Regional economics • Social mobility in the Atlantic Arc area REGIONAL MOBILITY CHALLENGES AND INITIATIVES • Rural issues, community and finance • Transport context • Rural transport schemes and projects • Car clubs • Energy context
  10. 10. ENERGY PERSPECTIVE Vehicle type Pedelec Twike Renault Twizy Mitsbishi iMiEV Nissan Leaf Tesla S Energy used kWh/100km (claimed) 0.5 5 6 11 12 20 (realistic data) 0.5 8 20 25 35
  11. 11. CURRENT SITUATION IN THE PARTNERS’ REGIONS Partner and Stakeholder Questionnaire April 2014  Energy sources  Urban density  Transport availability  Vehicle ownership  Cycle ways  Air quality  Economics
  13. 13. EXAMPLE DATA ON AIR QUALITY Average daily concentrations of Nitrogen Dioxide (micro g/m3) Average daily concentrations of PM10 (micro g/m3)
  15. 15. REGIONAL MOBILITY CHALLENGES AND POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS Issues People living in rural areas travel ~50% further than their city counterparts and a large proportion of their total mileage is made by car or bus Lack of access to public transport hubs Lack of integration of different modes of transport Lack of coherent local policy Lack of real-time information Total Transport solutions integrate transport services provided by different agencies and operators, eg combining a local bus service with hospital transport
  16. 16. MODAL SHIFT
  17. 17. SUGGESTIONS AND DIRECTIONS Energy Biofuels Wind Solar Tidal Hydro Mobility Interesting e-mobility and e- transport schemes Journey planning Integrated ticketing Energy saving devices Freight transport by bus Oxford buses fitted with Formula 1- style kinetic energy recover systems – KERS provide ~20% fuel saving at 25% of the cost of a hybrid bus
  18. 18. SOCIO-TECHNICAL TRANSITIONS Pilot projects start here
  19. 19. PEDELECS Only 0.5 kWh/100km
  20. 20. CASE STUDIES Examples of community-run local transport schemes
  21. 21. TALYBONT ZERO ENERGY CARBON CAR SHARE SCHEME (2011-) Talybont is a small rural village in South Wales Talybont on Usk Energy Ltd runs two vehicles: • An electric van powered by the group’s solar panels • A car powered by bio-diesel The vehicles are funded by the Talybont Energy and Sustainable Development Fund. Talybont Energy earns ~30,000 Euro/year from its community hydro-electric scheme The project has twin environmental aims of replacing fossil fuel miles with zero carbon miles and encouraging less cars on the road through car sharing.
  22. 22. ECO TRAVEL NETWORK EV RENTAL, BRECON BEACONS NATIONAL PARK, SOUTH WALES (2012-) The Eco Travel Network runs an EV rental and charging network for tourists to the Brecon Beacons national park. 7 Renault Twizys with 40 charging points installed throughout the national park at cafes, hotels and shops. The Eco Travel Network is run as a not-for-profit organisation. They obtained a 30,000 Euro Start up Grant from the Brecon Beacons National Park Sustainable Development Fund. This was used to cover set up costs and subsidise the first set of vehicles. All costs in future will be covered by members.
  23. 23. CASE STUDY -BIOFUEL Biofuels derived from waste represent a promising alternative to fossil fuels Liquid biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel) already meet around 3% of global transport demand Gaseous biofuels (biomethane or biogas) – second generation biofuels - meet a much smaller demand currently, but they can also be used in road transport applications
  24. 24. GENeco Bio-Bus, Bristol-Bath, UK Bath-Bristol Airport commuter route Biomethane, produced at the Bristol Sewage Works at Avonmouth, converts food waste and human waste into biomethane by the anaerobic digestion route The 40-seater bus has a range of 300 km on a full tank which is equivalent to the waste per year from five people. These buses produce approximately 30% less greenhouse gases than their diesel equivalents and improve the air quality in city centres Lille has over 10 years’ experience of using biofuels in buses. There are ~130 biogas buses currently.
  25. 25. Cycle hire, Torres Vedras Wirelessly-charged E-bus, Milton Keynes Community hydro energy scheme, Oxfordshire Dedicated cycle route, Copenhagen Solar canopies for EVs, Poitou-Charentes
  27. 27. REPUTE PILOT PROJECTS Portugal Renewable energy for publicly- available cars (EV charging stations powered by solar panels) Scotland Renewable energy for public transport signs Scotland Saving energy using Personal Travel Planning
  28. 28. SUMMARY Future transport will use more energy derived from natural resources – solar, wind, tidal, hydro, biomass, etc. Renewable energy sources can be owned, operated and controlled in rural areas through community actions and local partnerships. The energy generated can be used directly or indirectly in local transport Rural public transport hubs need to be built and connected by express services to major destinations Total transport solutions are required for rural communities where pooling of resources and voluntary actions can provide a service Financing mechanisms, such as crowd-funding and local share schemes, can integrate community energy schemes with transport solutions, providing a strong sense of local involvement
  29. 29. Joining Technology Publicly- accessible transport* Renewable energy Financial viability *Publicly-accessible transport solutions include buses, taxis, cars in car-share schemes, bicycles and pedelecs in bike-share schemes, trams and trains Community engagement
  30. 30. AVAILABILITY OF GUIDE English, French, Spanish, Portuguese Download from www.reputeproject.eu