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Coco processong

coco processing and value addition

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Coco processong

  1. 1. PROCESSING AND VALUE ADDITION OFPROCESSING AND VALUE ADDITION OF COCOACOCOA P C VengaiahP C Vengaiah Scientist (Food Science &Technology)Scientist (Food Science &Technology)         Horticltural Research StationHorticltural Research Station PandirimamidiPandirimamidi Dr.Y.S.R Horticultural UniversityDr.Y.S.R Horticultural University
  2. 2. COCOACOCOA (Theobroma cocoa)(Theobroma cocoa)  A small tree native to AmericaA small tree native to America tropicstropics  Now grown in all tropical regionsNow grown in all tropical regions of the worldof the world  Chief cocoa producing countriesChief cocoa producing countries  Ghana, Nigeria, Ivory Coast andGhana, Nigeria, Ivory Coast and BrazilBrazil  Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu andKerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh in IndiaAndhra Pradesh in India
  3. 3.  The pods are 10-18 cm in diameter,The pods are 10-18 cm in diameter, having thick leathery rinds containinghaving thick leathery rinds containing 20-50 beans inside in rows20-50 beans inside in rows  The seeds are embedded in white orThe seeds are embedded in white or pinkish pulppinkish pulp  Seeds are the principal source ofSeeds are the principal source of cocoa or cocoa powder highly prizedcocoa or cocoa powder highly prized as a nutritious beverage, andas a nutritious beverage, and chocolate used as food all the worldchocolate used as food all the world overover
  4. 4. Thank You
  5. 5. FRESH POD WITH PULPFRESH POD WITH PULP
  6. 6. WHY COCOA ISWHY COCOA IS PROCESSED ?PROCESSED ?  Raw cocoa is bitter, astringent andRaw cocoa is bitter, astringent and devoid of chocolatedevoid of chocolate flavourflavour  The original taste, flavour and colour ofThe original taste, flavour and colour of the chocolatethe chocolate areare due to thedue to the interplay of about 600 differentinterplay of about 600 different chemicals developed during processingchemicals developed during processing  Biochemical processes for developmentBiochemical processes for development of chocolateof chocolate flavour start duringflavour start during fermentation and continuefermentation and continue during drying,during drying, roasting and conching.roasting and conching.
  7. 7. QUALITY OF INDIAN COCOA – CURRENT STATUS`QUALITY OF INDIAN COCOA – CURRENT STATUS` At present, more thrust is given on valueAt present, more thrust is given on value addition, so farm leveladdition, so farm level processing isprocessing is relevant.relevant. Knowledge of farmers on processingKnowledge of farmers on processing techniques is inadequatetechniques is inadequate The area expansion on cocoa is veryThe area expansion on cocoa is very extensive and India willextensive and India will become an exporterbecome an exporter of cocoa in the next decade.of cocoa in the next decade. Adoption of improper processing technologyAdoption of improper processing technology can lead tocan lead to branding of Indian cocoa asbranding of Indian cocoa as “poor quality” in international“poor quality” in international marketmarket
  8. 8. Thank You Cocoa pods when mature, are yellow in some varieties and red in others
  9. 9.  1. Post harvest processing1. Post harvest processing  A. Primary processingA. Primary processing  B. Secondery processingB. Secondery processing 2. Value added products2. Value added products  A. Cocoa mass/liquerA. Cocoa mass/liquer  B. Cocoa butterB. Cocoa butter  C. Cocoa PowderC. Cocoa Powder  D. ChocolateD. Chocolate  E. By product utilisationE. By product utilisation
  10. 10. PRIMARY PROCESSING – PRESENT STATUS  Above 90% of cocoa is sold as pods or as wetAbove 90% of cocoa is sold as pods or as wet beansbeans  Quality of beans processed by growers is poorQuality of beans processed by growers is poor due todue to  Wrong choice of the method of fermentationWrong choice of the method of fermentation  Indiscriminate mixing of diseased, germinatedIndiscriminate mixing of diseased, germinated and caked beansand caked beans  Adulteration practicesAdulteration practices  Improper turning and lack of insulation duringImproper turning and lack of insulation during fermentationfermentation  Under fermentation and consequent acidityUnder fermentation and consequent acidity problemsproblems  Too rapid drying in artificial dryersToo rapid drying in artificial dryers
  11. 11. FACTORS INFLUENCING QUALITY OF COCOAFACTORS INFLUENCING QUALITY OF COCOA Pre harvest factorsPre harvest factors Post harvest handling methodsPost harvest handling methods Environmental conditions during growthEnvironmental conditions during growth Variety GrownVariety Grown Agrotechniques adoptedAgrotechniques adopted FermentationFermentation DryingDrying StorgaeStorgae
  12. 12. HARVESHARVES TT Only ripe pods areOnly ripe pods are harvestedharvested
  13. 13. Primary ProcessingPrimary Processing  Matured pods are removed from the tree byMatured pods are removed from the tree by machetes or by a similar knife attached to amachetes or by a similar knife attached to a long pole for the higher brancheslong pole for the higher branches  After a day or two, the pods are split openAfter a day or two, the pods are split open with the machete and the beans and pulpwith the machete and the beans and pulp removed by hand or by hand implementsremoved by hand or by hand implements  Beans are subjected to natural fermentationBeans are subjected to natural fermentation to assist in removing the adhering pulp andto assist in removing the adhering pulp and to prepare the beans for dryingto prepare the beans for drying  Fermentation generally takes for 5-10 daysFermentation generally takes for 5-10 days
  14. 14. At the end of fermentation, the pulp breaksAt the end of fermentation, the pulp breaks down and there is a change in color of thedown and there is a change in color of the seeds from pale yellow or violet to brownseeds from pale yellow or violet to brown  The endogenous enzymes, activated by theThe endogenous enzymes, activated by the heat of fermentation bring about changes inheat of fermentation bring about changes in proteins and polyphenols in the Kernel andproteins and polyphenols in the Kernel and there is also a reduction in the astringencythere is also a reduction in the astringency of the kernelof the kernel  The beans are then dried to 6-8% moistureThe beans are then dried to 6-8% moisture level in sun or in artificial dryerslevel in sun or in artificial dryers  The bean is then ready for export or furtherThe bean is then ready for export or further processing to manufacture cocoa productsprocessing to manufacture cocoa products
  15. 15. PRIMARY PROCESSING – SOME TIPS FOR BETTER QUALITY 1.1. Harvest ripe podsHarvest ripe pods 2.2. Pre fermentation storage of 3-5 days isPre fermentation storage of 3-5 days is essentialessential 3.3. Use only good beansUse only good beans 5.5. Choose method depending upon the quantityChoose method depending upon the quantity 6.6. Allow smooth drainage of sweatingsAllow smooth drainage of sweatings 7.7. Insulate the fermenting mass properlyInsulate the fermenting mass properly 8.8. Turn on alternate daysTurn on alternate days 9.9. Avoid too small quantitiesAvoid too small quantities 10.10.Avoid over or under fermentationAvoid over or under fermentation 11.11.Take out for drying after judging the end pointTake out for drying after judging the end point 12.12.As far as possible sun dry fermented cocoaAs far as possible sun dry fermented cocoa 13.13.If artificial dryers are used, adjustIf artificial dryers are used, adjust temperature to less than 60temperature to less than 6000 C, stir at regularC, stir at regular intervals and adjust rate of air flow so thatintervals and adjust rate of air flow so that
  16. 16. PRE FERMENTATION STORAGE (3-5PRE FERMENTATION STORAGE (3-5 DAYS)DAYS)  Ensures correct nib acidificationEnsures correct nib acidification  Enhances pre-fermentation activity inside beansEnhances pre-fermentation activity inside beans  Facilitates rapid rise in temperatureFacilitates rapid rise in temperature  Imparts stronger chocolate flavourImparts stronger chocolate flavour
  17. 17. POD BREAKING & COLLECTION OF WET BEANSPOD BREAKING & COLLECTION OF WET BEANS √√ Break pods without causing damage to beansBreak pods without causing damage to beans √√ Collect good beansCollect good beans √√ Discard diseased, germinated and caked beansDiscard diseased, germinated and caked beans
  18. 18. BREAKING OF RIPED PODSBREAKING OF RIPED PODS
  19. 19. Heap method  Heaps of reasonable quantity (50-500kg)Heaps of reasonable quantity (50-500kg)  Slanting floor to ensure drainageSlanting floor to ensure drainage  Use banana leaves for heaping & coveringUse banana leaves for heaping & covering  Insulate adequatelyInsulate adequately  Turn on alternate daysTurn on alternate days  Retain for 6-7 daysRetain for 6-7 days FERMENTATION - TRADITIONAL METHODSFERMENTATION - TRADITIONAL METHODS
  20. 20. STARTING A FERMENTATION HEAPSTARTING A FERMENTATION HEAP
  21. 21. HEAP READY TO FERMENTHEAP READY TO FERMENT
  22. 22. FERMENTATION IS FINISHEDFERMENTATION IS FINISHED
  23. 23. COCOA BEANS IN BASKETS READY FORCOCOA BEANS IN BASKETS READY FOR FERMENTFERMENT
  24. 24. Box methodBox method TW boxes of 1.2 x 0.95x 0.75m) Small scale
  25. 25. Tray method TW Tray of 90x 60x 13 cm to hold 45 kg wet beans Large scale Small scale
  26. 26. Basket method
  27. 27. On drying platforms Gunny bags
  28. 28.  Pod maturityPod maturity  Pod storagePod storage  Quantity of beansQuantity of beans  Quantity of pulpQuantity of pulp  Type of cocoaType of cocoa  DurationDuration  TurningTurning  Seasonal effectsSeasonal effects  Pod diseasesPod diseases FACTORS INFLUENCINGFACTORS INFLUENCING FERMENTATIONFERMENTATION
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  30. 30. 1.1. Bean colour changes to brown, becomesBean colour changes to brown, becomes plump and filled with a reddish brownplump and filled with a reddish brown exudateexudate 2. Testa becomes loose and detached from the2. Testa becomes loose and detached from the cotyledonscotyledons 3. Longitudinal halves of cotyledons show3. Longitudinal halves of cotyledons show bleachedbleached appearance in the centre withappearance in the centre with a brownish ring ata brownish ring at the peripherythe periphery 4. When 50 % of beans show these signs, the4. When 50 % of beans show these signs, the lot can belot can be taken out for dryingtaken out for drying End point of fermentationEnd point of fermentation
  31. 31. DRYING Sun drying Artificial drying 1.1. Moisture content reduced from 55% to 6-7%Moisture content reduced from 55% to 6-7% 2.2. Sun drying is the best as it ensures lower acidity,Sun drying is the best as it ensures lower acidity, astringency, bitterness and better chocolate flavourastringency, bitterness and better chocolate flavour 3.3. The beans are to be skin dry in first 24 hoursThe beans are to be skin dry in first 24 hours 4.4. 3-4 days drying is desirable3-4 days drying is desirable 5.5. Temperature of the dryer should not exceed 60Temperature of the dryer should not exceed 60 00 cc 6.6. Avoid contamination by smokeAvoid contamination by smoke
  32. 32. Large scale Sun Drying
  33. 33. Small scale sun drying
  34. 34. Mechanical drying
  35. 35. STORAGE 1.1. Remove flat beans, foreign matter andRemove flat beans, foreign matter and broken beansbroken beans 2.2. Beans are packed in gunny bags lined withBeans are packed in gunny bags lined with polythenepolythene 3.3. Humidity of store not to exceed 80 %Humidity of store not to exceed 80 % 4. Store to be made clean and insect free4. Store to be made clean and insect free 5. Avoid nearness to smoke, fumes, bad5. Avoid nearness to smoke, fumes, bad odour etc.odour etc.
  36. 36. FARM LEVEL SECONDARY PROCESSING 1. Alkalization  Reduces acidity  Imparts attractive colour to cocoa powder  Improves dispersability of cocoa powder Soak beans in 1.0% Sodium bicarbonate solution for 3 hours
  37. 37. ROASTING ( 20-30 MINUTES) Large scale Roaster Winnower Small scale Uruli roaster
  38. 38. Roasting of CocoaRoasting of Cocoa BeanBean  Roasting develops theRoasting develops the characteristics flavorcharacteristics flavor  A large number of compoundsA large number of compounds have been identified in coca andhave been identified in coca and chocolatethat form during roastingchocolatethat form during roasting  Roasting also causes changes inRoasting also causes changes in the chemical structure ofthe chemical structure of polyphenols, producing lesspolyphenols, producing less astringent compoundsastringent compounds
  39. 39.  In choosing a roast, attention isIn choosing a roast, attention is given to the ultimate product beinggiven to the ultimate product being made, its use, and the kind ofmade, its use, and the kind of beans being usedbeans being used  Roasting temperatures dependRoasting temperatures depend upon the type of roaster used andupon the type of roaster used and the location of the measuringthe location of the measuring instrumentinstrument  Roasters traditionally were ofRoasters traditionally were of batch design but modernbatch design but modern manufacturing practice calls moremanufacturing practice calls more and more for the continuousand more for the continuous
  40. 40.  While roasting, the beans areWhile roasting, the beans are processed through corrugatedprocessed through corrugated rollers to break their shells androllers to break their shells and removed by winnowingremoved by winnowing  The cotyledons are known asThe cotyledons are known as ‘Nibs’‘Nibs’  Usually there is some blending ofUsually there is some blending of the nibs from different varieties ofthe nibs from different varieties of cocoa before they are processedcocoa before they are processed furtherfurther
  41. 41. REMOVAL OF SHELL Nib Shell
  42. 42. Large scale Small scale GRINDING NIBS TO A FINE PASTE Large scale Small scale
  43. 43. Grinding of Pressed CocoaGrinding of Pressed Cocoa  As cocoa loaves drop from the presses,As cocoa loaves drop from the presses, they are passed through breakers tothey are passed through breakers to form a ‘kibbled cake’ of less than 1”form a ‘kibbled cake’ of less than 1” sizesize  The higher fat cocoa break down to aThe higher fat cocoa break down to a smaller size than do the lower fatsmaller size than do the lower fat cocoas because of the presence ofcocoas because of the presence of extra cocoa butterextra cocoa butter  The cocoa then requires further grindingThe cocoa then requires further grinding or pulverizing to be used commerciallyor pulverizing to be used commercially  Traditionally pulverized cocoa has beenTraditionally pulverized cocoa has been
  44. 44. Grinding of NibsGrinding of Nibs  The nibs are ground using stoneThe nibs are ground using stone mills or other suitable mills to amills or other suitable mills to a fine paste or liquorfine paste or liquor  The heat produced during grindingThe heat produced during grinding causes cocoa fat to melt and thecauses cocoa fat to melt and the melted fat carries with it, inmelted fat carries with it, in suspension, finely groundsuspension, finely ground particles of cocoaparticles of cocoa
  45. 45.  This is known asThis is known as ‘Cocoa mass’,‘Cocoa mass’, ‘Chocolate liquor’‘Chocolate liquor’ or ‘or ‘BitterBitter chocolate’chocolate’  This mass solidifies at about 30This mass solidifies at about 30 ˚C˚C  Cocoa mass is very rich (50-55%)Cocoa mass is very rich (50-55%) in fat and can not be used directlyin fat and can not be used directly for the preparation of anyfor the preparation of any beveragebeverage
  46. 46. Pressing ofPressing of NibsNibs Filter-pressing to separate outFilter-pressing to separate out a major part of fat (cocoaa major part of fat (cocoa butter)butter)  The amount of fat left in theThe amount of fat left in the pressed cake can be varied bypressed cake can be varied by the conditions of pressingthe conditions of pressing  The pressed cake is used forThe pressed cake is used for producing cocoa powderproducing cocoa powder  The fat content of cocoa usedThe fat content of cocoa used
  47. 47.  According to ISI specifications,According to ISI specifications, cocoa used for beverage shouldcocoa used for beverage should contain 20 % cocoa fatcontain 20 % cocoa fat  Medium fat cocoa, containingMedium fat cocoa, containing between 10 – 20 % fat, and low fatbetween 10 – 20 % fat, and low fat cocoa, containing less than 10 %cocoa, containing less than 10 % fat are madefat are made  Flavoring substances like vanillaFlavoring substances like vanilla and cinnamon are generallyand cinnamon are generally incorporated into cocoa powderincorporated into cocoa powder
  48. 48. Large scale Small scale EXTRACTION OF COCOA BUTTER
  49. 49.  Separates cocoa butter from cocoaSeparates cocoa butter from cocoa powderpowder  Presses are large, hydraulic,Presses are large, hydraulic, expensive, and contain steel filterexpensive, and contain steel filter screensscreens  The first part of the press cycleThe first part of the press cycle separates the butter from the solids asseparates the butter from the solids as in normal filtrationin normal filtration  The second part begins when the pressThe second part begins when the press is filled with solids and a hydraulic ramis filled with solids and a hydraulic ram exerting pressure up to 6000 psiexerting pressure up to 6000 psi squeezes still more fat from thesqueezes still more fat from the remaining coca solidsremaining coca solids ProcessingProcessing
  50. 50.  The lower the desired fat content inThe lower the desired fat content in cocoa, the larger is the pressingcocoa, the larger is the pressing time so it is usually uneconomicaltime so it is usually uneconomical to press to cocoa fat content lessto press to cocoa fat content less than 10-12%than 10-12%  A small amount of cocoa solidsA small amount of cocoa solids remains with the cocoa butter andremains with the cocoa butter and that is removed usually by a smallthat is removed usually by a small conventional filter pressconventional filter press
  51. 51. Cocoa ButterCocoa Butter  Pale yellow liquidPale yellow liquid  Characteristic flavour of chocolateCharacteristic flavour of chocolate  Brittle at temperature below 25°CBrittle at temperature below 25°C  Softens in hand and melts in mouthSoftens in hand and melts in mouth (34°C)(34°C)  Not greasy to touchNot greasy to touch  Keeps well due to presence ofKeeps well due to presence of antioxidantsantioxidants  Rich in saturated fatty acidRich in saturated fatty acid  Palmitic and lower acids 26.2%Palmitic and lower acids 26.2%  Stearic and higher acids 34.4%Stearic and higher acids 34.4%  Oleic acid 37.3%Oleic acid 37.3%  Linoleic acid 2.1%Linoleic acid 2.1%
  52. 52. Cocoa butterCocoa butter
  53. 53. PULVERIZATION OF CAKE AND SIEVING Large scale Small scale
  54. 54. Milk chocolate Cocoa mass, cocoa butter, sugar, milk powder and vanilla are mixed in proportions fixed by the manufacturer, conched for about 72 hours, tempered, moulded and packed Soya lecithin, vegetable fat and preservatives are used for making commercial chocolates KAU Chocolate Cocoa mass, cocoa butter, sugar, milk powder and vanilla powder are ground for 7 hours, moulded and refrigerated No lecithin, vegetable fat, preservatives added
  55. 55. CONCHINGCONCHING At factory level (upto 72 hours) At home level (7 hours)
  56. 56. ConchingConching  Conching is a balance of temperature,Conching is a balance of temperature, time, agitation, and aerationtime, agitation, and aeration  Dry conching is utilized when the feedDry conching is utilized when the feed material to the conche can not bematerial to the conche can not be pumpedpumped  Heat generated by the agitation must beHeat generated by the agitation must be dissipated either by atmosphericdissipated either by atmospheric conditions or by water-jacketedconditions or by water-jacketed equipmentequipment  Wet conching is utilized when theWet conching is utilized when the feed material can be pumped to thefeed material can be pumped to the concheconche  heat is supplied by hot water to theheat is supplied by hot water to the jacket of the conchejacket of the conche  Longitudinal conche has beenLongitudinal conche has been
  57. 57. ConchingConching  Rotary conches are becoming popular asRotary conches are becoming popular as they can handle larger quantities ofthey can handle larger quantities of chocolate and require much less laborchocolate and require much less labor  Both milk and dark chocolate are conchedBoth milk and dark chocolate are conched atat 49-8249-82˚C˚C forfor 1-4 days1-4 days  Develops chocolate flavour, darkens color,Develops chocolate flavour, darkens color, stabilizes viscosity by covering allstabilizes viscosity by covering all interfaces with cocoa butter, lowersinterfaces with cocoa butter, lowers moisture contentmoisture content  The flavour development results fromThe flavour development results from volatizing undesirable flavorsvolatizing undesirable flavors  pH increases as the conching proceedspH increases as the conching proceeds  Oxidation and browning reaction in milkOxidation and browning reaction in milk chocolate takes placechocolate takes place
  58. 58. TEMPERING At factory level At home level Moulded and kept in freezer of refrigerators for 2 hours
  59. 59. CHOCOLATE MAKING (KAU Technology -Home level) Cocoa nibs 400 g Cocoa butter 600 g Sugar 1000 g Milk powder 500 g Vanilla powder (natural) 30 g Milk chocolate
  60. 60. Chocolate ManufactureChocolate Manufacture  Cocoa mass not treated with alkali is generallyCocoa mass not treated with alkali is generally used the manufacture of chocolateused the manufacture of chocolate  Many types of chocolate are producedMany types of chocolate are produced depending upon the level of cocoa mass, addeddepending upon the level of cocoa mass, added cocoa butter, sugar, milk and other ingredientscocoa butter, sugar, milk and other ingredients  Plain Chocolate:Plain Chocolate: 40 - 45% sugar40 - 45% sugar & 32 – 42% fat& 32 – 42% fat  Milk Chocolate:Milk Chocolate: 35 – 55% sugar,35 – 55% sugar, 28 – 39% fat28 – 39% fat andand 12% milk solids12% milk solids  Plain and milk chocolate are extensively usedPlain and milk chocolate are extensively used in confectionary and ice creamsin confectionary and ice creams  Chocolate manufacture consists ofChocolate manufacture consists of  Mixing, Refining and ConchingMixing, Refining and Conching
  61. 61. Thank You
  62. 62. MixingMixing  Prepares the mass for refiningPrepares the mass for refining byby  Producing a homogenous massProducing a homogenous mass  Coating all of the particles with fat,Coating all of the particles with fat, andand  Mixing in the right amount of fatMixing in the right amount of fat  Too much fat - The feed rolls ofToo much fat - The feed rolls of the refiner will take the fat firstthe refiner will take the fat first and later the dry solidsand later the dry solids  Too little fat - The refiner willToo little fat - The refiner will overheat due to much friction andoverheat due to much friction and produce a very non uniform gradeproduce a very non uniform grade
  63. 63. MixingMixing  At this point the chocolateAt this point the chocolate manufacturer wants a soft, plastic,manufacturer wants a soft, plastic, pliable, non flow able masspliable, non flow able mass  Its cocoa butter contents are aboutIts cocoa butter contents are about 25 – 30 %25 – 30 %  Flavorings are not added in theFlavorings are not added in the mixture if the mass is later tomixture if the mass is later to conched or heat treatedconched or heat treated  The mixing operation can beThe mixing operation can be carried out by batch wise weighingcarried out by batch wise weighing ingredients, or continuously byingredients, or continuously by automatic metering of theautomatic metering of the ingredientsingredients
  64. 64. RefininRefinin gg  Produces chocolate mass ofProduces chocolate mass of proper particle sizeproper particle size  Five roller refiner is used inFive roller refiner is used in which the rolls are water cooledwhich the rolls are water cooled  Each roll rotates faster than theEach roll rotates faster than the prior one thus wiping up theprior one thus wiping up the mass and pressing it, in turn, tomass and pressing it, in turn, to the next rollthe next roll  The operator must adjust theThe operator must adjust the clearance to obtain the desiredclearance to obtain the desired particle size in the resultingparticle size in the resulting productproduct
  65. 65. RefininRefinin gg  The quality of the productThe quality of the product depends upon its particle sizedepends upon its particle size distributiondistribution  A wide range of chocolate qualityA wide range of chocolate quality is produced by varying particleis produced by varying particle sizes of sugar and chocolatesizes of sugar and chocolate liquorliquor (maximum particle size of(maximum particle size of sugar: 25-57 µ and chocolatesugar: 25-57 µ and chocolate liquor: 50-114 µ)liquor: 50-114 µ)  For a good eating chocolate, noFor a good eating chocolate, no more than 20% of the massmore than 20% of the mass should have particle size moreshould have particle size more
  66. 66. Chocolate cake Chocolate Fudge Chocolate cookies Chocolate doughnuts Drinking chocolate Cocoa candy & ghoa COCOA BASED PRODUCTS
  67. 67. JUDGING QUALITY 1. Flavour of chocolate √ Mould √ Smoke √ Underfermentation √ Acidity 2. Purity or wholesomeness √ Pesticides √ Bacteria √ Infestation √ Foreign matter
  68. 68. 3. Consistency 4. Yield of edible matter  Bean size and uniformity : 1.0 g  Shell percentage : 11-12 %  Fat percentage : 56-58 %  Moisture content : 6-7 %  Foreign matter  Flat and shrivelled beans  Insect damaged beans JUDGING QUALITY …2
  69. 69. Cocoa of merchantable quality must be fermented, thoroughly dry, free from smoky beans, free from abnormal or foreign odours and adulteration.  It must be reasonably free from living insects It must be reasonably uniform in size, free from broken beans, fragments and pieces of shell and be virtually free from foreign matter INTERNATIONAL COCOA STANDARDS Thoroughly dry: Moisture content must not exceed 7.5 per cent Smoky bean: Cocoa beans with smoky smell or taste or showing signs of contamination by smoke must be avoided. Uniform size: Not more than 12 per cent of the beans should be outside the range ± 1/3 average weight. Other standards
  70. 70. GRADE STANDARDS Grade Maximum Percentage by count Mouldy bean Slaty bean Insect damaged/ germinated/ flat Grade 1 3.00 3.00 3.00 Grade 2 4.00 8.00 6.00 Sub standard cocoa (SS) marketed at special contract
  71. 71. Cocoa pulp juice BY PRODUCT UTILIZATION Cocoa pod husk : as manure, cattle & poultry feed, for vermicomposting, multiplying biological agents Cocoa shell : good mulch and manure for potted plants, preparing media for mycological cultures Cocoa sweatings: Fresh juice, jam, jelly, marmelade, wine, multiplying biological agents Cocoa jam Cocoa shell mulch

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