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5G New Radio Technology Throughput Calculation

5th generation mobile networks or 5th generation wireless systems is abbreviated as 5G, and proposed next telecommunications standards beyond the current 4G/IMT-Advanced standards. 5G planning aims at higher capacity than current 4G, allowing a higher density of mobile broadband users, and supporting device-to-device, ultra reliable, and massive machine communications. Its research and development also aims at lower latency than 4G equipment and lower battery consumption, for better implementation of the Internet of things.

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5G New Radio Technology Throughput Calculation

  1. 1. 1. Introduction 5th generation mobile networks or 5th generation wireless systems is abbreviated as 5G, and proposed next telecommunications standards beyond the current 4G/IMT-Advanced standards. 5G planning aims at higher capacity than current 4G, allowing a higher density of mobile broadband users, and supporting device-to- device, ultra reliable, and massive machine communications. Its research and development also aims at lower latency than 4G equipment and lower battery consumption, for better implementation of the Internet of things. What is New Radio?  New Radio (NR) is the wireless standard that will become the foundation for the next generation 5G of mobile networks.  Its development is part of continuous mobile broadband evolution process to meet the requirements of 5G as outlined by IMT-2020, similar to evolution of 3G and 4G wireless technologies.  In legacy 3G and 4G connected people, whereas future 5G NR will connect everything means it will be connecting our smartphones, cars, meters, wearable etc.  It aims to make wireless broadband same as of wireline with the fiber-like performance at a significantly lower cost-per-bit.  With new levels of latency, reliability, and security, 5G NR will scale to efficiently connect the massive Internet of Things (IoT), and will offer new types of mission-critical services. Why New Radio?  NR is required to support wide range of frequency < 6GHz and mmWave band up 100GHz  Currently available technologies like LTE & HSPA not designed and optimized for mmWave frequencies  To support wider channel bandwidth up to 1GHz  To support new channel model profile and deployments  To support eMBB, URLCC and MIoT with single technology 3GPP 5G NR standard, set to be published with 3GPP Release 15 and further developed to likely include new features, functions and services from there. NR will define the air interface that will support next-generation communication connectivity. Based on the ongoing technical work, the 5G NR standard will consider standalone and non-standalone operation of NR cells. In non-standalone operation NR cell will uses LTE cell as the control plane anchor while in standalone operation NR cell will have full control plane functionality. Target use cases include Enhanced Mobile Broadband (eMBB), Mission-Critical Services (MCS) and Massive Connected Device with ultra-reliable, low-latency communications in frequencies both above and below 6 GHz. 5G New Radio- Next Generation of Mobile Broadband White Paper Sukhvinder Singh Malik, Rahul Atri 5G New Radio Technology Introduction And Its Throughput Capabilities 5G New Radio Page 1
  2. 2. 5G New Radio Page 2 2. Requirements for 5G New Radio 5G New radio vision and requirements are driven from ITM-2020. It has put three main use case families and listed performance benchmarks as provided in below tables. 2.1 Use Case Use case Families Service Enhanced Mobile Broadband (eMBB) Gigabyte Internet, 3D Video, UHD Screen, VR/AR etc. Ultra Reliable and Low Latency Communication (URLCC) Self-Driving Car, Mission Critical Application, Industry Robot/Drone etc. Massive Machine Type Communication (mMTC) Smart City, Internet of Things, Home Automation, eHealth etc. 2.2 Performance Benchmarks Parameter Requirement Use case Family Peak Data Rate DL- 20 Gbps UL -10 Gbps eMBB Spectral Efficiency DL- 30 bits/Hz UL- 15bits/Hz eMBB Latency C-Plane -10 ms , U-Plane 0.5ms URLCC User Experienced Data Rate DL-100 Mbps , UL -50 Mbps eMBB Area Traffic Capacity 10 Mbits/s/m2 mMTC Connection Density 1 million Devices/Km2 mMTC Energy Efficiency 90% Reduction in Energy usage mMTC Reliability 1 packet loss out of 100 million packets URLCC Mobility 500Km/h eMBB Mobility Interruption Time 0 ms URLCC System Bandwidth support upto 1GHz eMBB Coverage mMTC- 164 dB mMTC UE Battery Life mMTC – 15 years mMTC 3. New Radio Network Architecture and Network Terminology
  3. 3.  New RAN: A Radio Access Network which can supports either NR/E-UTRA or both and have capabilities to interface with Next Generation Core Network (NG-CN). NG-C/U is the Control/User Plane interface toward NG-CN  gNB: New Radio (NR) Base stations which shall have capability to interface with 5G Core named as NG-CN over NG-C/U (NG2/NG3) interface as well as 4G Core known as Evolved Packet Core (EPC) over S1-C/U interface.  eLTE eNB: An eLTE eNB is evolved eNodeB that can support connectivity to EPC as well as NG-CN  Non-standalone NR : It is a 5G Network deployment configuration, where a gNB needs a LTE eNodeB as an anchor for control plane connectivity to 4G EPC or eLTE eNB as anchor for control plane connectivity to NG-CN  Standalone NR: It is a 5G Network deployment configuration where gNB does not need any assistance for connectivity to core Network, it can connect by its own to NG-CN over NG2 and NG3 interfaces  Non-standalone E-UTRA: It is a 5G Network deployment configuration where the eLTE eNB requires a gNB as anchor for control plane connectivity to NG-CN.  Standalone E-UTRA: It is typical 4G network deployment where a 4G LTE eNB connects to EPC  Xn Interface: It is a logical interface which interconnect the New RAN nodes i.e. it interconnects gNB to gNB and eLTE eNB to gNB and vice versa. 4. New Radio Physical Layer To support Enhance Mobile Broadband (eMBB), Ultra Reliable Low Latency Communication (URLCC) and Massive IoT (MIoT) using single technology, NR requires a scalable and flexible physical layer design. To enable all these, 3GPP has introduced a set of parameters such as the subcarrier spacing Symbol length, cyclic prefix, Transmission Time Interval (TTI). A numerology is defined as a fixed configuration for these set of parameters. 4.1 Subcarrier Spacing (SCS) and Numerology (𝝁) Subcarrier spacing specifies the bandwidth of a single subcarrier in entire bandwidth and it can be represented by∆𝑓and SCS. As per the 3GPP specification TS 38.211, ∆𝑓 = 2𝜇 ∗15 KHz and possible values of 𝜇 can be 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4. Consider above NR supports can have subcarrier spacing of 15, 30, 60, 120 and 240 KHz depending on the value 𝜇. Here 𝜇 is known as the NR numerology constant. 𝝁 ∆𝒇 = 𝟐𝝁 ∗15 KHz Cyclic Prefix 0 15 KHz Normal 1 30 KHz Normal 2 60 KHz Normal and Extended 3 120 KHz Normal 4 240 KHz Normal Subcarrier spacing is a trade-off between symbol duration and cyclic prefix overhear. When SCS is lower symbol duration is larger and to avoid inter symbol interference (ISI) small CP should be enough, while larger SCS result shorter symbol duration and it large CP to handle inter symbol interference. 4.2 Cyclic Prefix (CP) Cyclic Prefix (CP) is required to manage inter symbol interference (ISI) due to multiple path signals. New Radio supports both Normal CP Length and Extended CP Length similar to Long Term Evolution (LTE). CP Length is a trade-off between CP overhead and ISI protection. The selection of CP shall be determined by Outdoor/Indoor Deployment, frequency band and type of service. 5G New Radio Page 3
  4. 4. 4.3 Radio Frame Structure 5G NR support multiple numerologies, hence radio frame structure get a little different depending on the type of numerology. However regardless of numerology the duration of one radio frame and subframe remain constant as given below.  1 NR Radio Frame = 10 ms  1 NR Subframe = 1 ms But number of slots with in a subframe changes with the numerology 𝝁 ∆𝒇 = 𝟐𝝁 ∗15 KHz No. of OFDM Symbols per Slot No. of Slot per Subframe No. of Subframe per Frame No. of Slots per Frame 0 15 KHz 14 1 10 10 1 30 KHz 14 2 10 20 2 60 KHz –Normal CP 14 4 10 40 2 60 KHz Extended CP 12 4 10 40 3 120 KHz 14 8 10 80 4 240 KHz 14 16 10 160 1. Normal CP, Numerology (𝝁) = 0, Subcarrier Spacing (SCS) = 15 KHz 2. Normal CP, Numerology (𝝁) = 1, Subcarrier Spacing (SCS) = 30 KHz 3. Normal CP, Numerology ( 𝝁) = 2, Subcarrier Spacing (SCS) = 60 KHz 5G New Radio Page 4
  5. 5. 5G New Radio Page 5 4. Normal CP, Numerology 𝝁 = 3 Subcarrier spacing (SCS) = 120 KHz 5. Normal CP, Numerology 𝝁 =4 Subcarrier Spacing (SCS) = 240 KHz 4.4 NR Resource Block Definition One NR Resource Block (RB) contains 14 symbols in time domain and 12 subcarriers in frequency domain. In LTE resource block bandwidth is fixed to 180 KHz but in NR it is not fixed and depends on subcarrier spacing.  Numerology 𝜇 =0, ∆𝑓 = 15 KHz: One Resource Block is 180 KHz (15 x 12) in frequency domain and 1ms in time domain, Normal CP  Numerology 𝜇 =1, ∆𝑓 = 30 KHz: One Resource Block is 360 KHz (30 x 12) KHz in frequency domain and 0.5ms in time domain, Normal CP  Numerology 𝜇 =2, ∆𝑓 = 60 KHz: One Resource Block is 720 KHz (60 x 12) KHz in frequency domain and 0.25ms in time domain ,Normal CP  Numerology 𝜇 =3, ∆𝑓 = 120 KHz: One Resource Block is 1440 KHz (120 x 12) KHz in frequency domain and 0.125ms in time domain, Normal CP  Numerology 𝜇 =4, ∆𝑓 = 240 KHz: One Resource Block is 2880 KHz (240 x 12) KHz in frequency domain and 0.0625ms in time domain, Normal CP 4.5 NR Channel Bandwidth The NR is expected to work with 100MHz channel bandwidth for lower bands < 6GHz and 400MHz channel bandwidth higher bands in mmWave ranges. NR is designed to provide higher bandwidth efficiency reaching to 99% which was about 90% in LTE. Another difference the NR has w.r.t. LTE is that it does not reserve any D.C. subcarrier for uplink and downlink. Each numerology has defined minimum and maximum number of resource block and having knowledge of one resource block bandwidth, one can calculate minimum and maximum channel bandwidth. Table below shows the same calculation for minimum and maximum channel bandwidth considering lower band and higher band. The bandwidths shown here include the guard band bandwidth also. 𝝁 ∆𝒇 = 𝟐𝝁 ∗15 KHz Min RBs Max RBs Min. Channel BW (MHz) Max Channel BW (MHz) 0 15 KHz 24 275 4.32 49.5 1 30 KHz 24 275 8.64 99 2 60 KHz 24 275 17.28 198 3 120 KHz 24 275 34.56 396 4 240 KHz 24 138 69.12 397.44
  6. 6. 4.6 Maximum Number of Resource Block after Guard band 3GPP 38.101 has specified maximum transmission bandwidth configuration for each UE channel and subcarrier spacing provided in below table. The resource block number shown here are after removing guard band from channel bandwidth and maximum bandwidth considered is 100 MHz 𝝁 𝑺𝑪𝑺 KHz Supported Bandwidth Min. Guard Band Max Number of RB NRB 0 15 KHz 50 MHz 692.5 KHz 270 1 30 KHz 100 MHz 845 KHz 273 2 60 KHz 100 MHz 1370 KHz 135 Transmission Bandwidth Configuration NRB [RB] Transmission Bandwidth [RB] f Channel Bandwidth [MHz] Active Resource Blocks Guardband, can be asymmetric ResourceBlock ChannelEdge ChannelEdge Resource block calculation example: (Assumption guard band is symmetric) 1) Numerology 𝜇 =0, ∆𝑓 = 15 KHz, One Resource Block is 180 KHz  Channel Bandwidth: 50 MHz  Guard Bandwidth: 692.5 KHz No. of Resource Block = (Channel Bandwidth – 2x Guard Bandwidth) / One Resource Block Bandwidth = (50x103 - 2x 692.5) / 180 = (48615/180) = 270 PRB 2) Numerology 𝜇 =1, ∆𝑓 = 30 KHz: One Resource Block is 360 KHz  Channel Bandwidth: 100 MHz  Guard Bandwidth: 845 KHz No. of Resource Block = (Channel Bandwidth – 2x Guard Bandwidth) / One Resource Block Bandwidth = (100x103 - 2x 845) / 360 = (98310/360) = 273 PRB 3) Numerology 𝜇 =2, ∆𝑓 = 60 KHz: One Resource Block is 720 KHz  Channel Bandwidth: 100 MHz  Guard Bandwidth: 1370 KHz No. of Resource Block = (Channel Bandwidth – 2x Guard Bandwidth) / One Resource Block Bandwidth = (100x103 - 2x 1370) 720 = (97260/720) = 135 PRB 4.8 Modulation Support in NR 5G/New Radio supports modulations like QPSK, 16-QAM, 64-QAM and 256-QAM in downlink and uplink shared channels (PDSCH/PUSCH). Each modulation has its bits carrying capacity per symbol and it is commonly known as modulation order mQ . One QPSK symbol can carry 2 bits, one 16-QAM symbol can carry 4 bits, one 64-QAM single can carry 6 bits and one 256-QAM symbol can carry 8 bits. 5G New Radio Page 6
  7. 7. 4.9 FR1 and FR 2 Definition As per specification 38.104, NR bands are designated for different frequency range (FR) and can be defined as FR1 and FR2. FR1 range considers all band < 6GHz frequencies whereas FR2 considers all band above > 24GHz frequency. The actual range is given below 𝑭𝑹 Desgination Frequency Range FR1 450 MHz- 6000 MHz FR2 24250 MHz – 52600 MHz 5. New Radio Throughput Capabilities The DL and UL max data rate supported by the UE is calculated by band combinations and baseband processing combinations supported by the UE. For NR, the approximate data rate for a given number of aggregated carriers in a band or band combination is computed as follows.             J j j s jBW PRBjj m j OH T N RfQvLayers 1 )( ),( max )()()(6 1 12 10Mbps)(inRateData   Where in J is the number of aggregated component carriers in a band or band combination Rmax = 948/1024 For the j-th Carrier Component, is the maximum number of layers )( j mQ is the maximum modulation order )( j f is the scaling factor and it can at least take the values 1 and 0.75. )( j f is signaled per band and per band per band combination  is NR numerology  sT is the average OFDM symbol duration in a subframe for numerology  , i.e.   214 10 3    sT assuming the normal cyclic prefix.   ,jBW PRBN is the maximum RB allocation in bandwidth  j BW with numerology   j BW is the UE supported maximum bandwidth in the given band or band combination. )( j OH is the overhead and takes the following values  [0.14], for frequency range FR1 for DL  [0.08], for frequency range FR1 for UL  [0.18], for frequency range FR2 for DL  [0.10], for frequency range FR2 for UL  )( j Layers v 5G New Radio Page 7
  8. 8. 5.1 Throughput Calculation Example To calculate max throughput let’s consider following:  J = 1 Single carrier component  = 4 Four Layers transmission  )( j mQ = 8 When 256-QAM max modulation is applied  )( j f = 1 least scaling   = 1 30 KHz carrier spacing  1 33 214 10 214 10        sT  =1    ,jBW PRBN = 273 Max number of resource block with  =1 and j =1  )( j OH = 0.14 & 0.08 Consider band is designated in FR1 frequency range DL Data Rate (in Mbps) = 10-6 *1*4 * 8 * 1* (948/1024)*(273*12)*(14*21)*(1-0.14) = 2337 Mbps =2.34Gbps UL Data Rate (in Mbps) = 10-6 *1*4 * 8 * 1* (948/1024)*(273*12)*(14*21)*(1-0.08) = 2500 Mbps =2.5Gbps 5.2 Max Throughput Snapshots Assumption: In following snapshots, we are considering J as 1, 2, 4 and 8 which indicates number of aggregate carrier components. In each case we assume the every carrier component has same number of Resource block and use same  across all carrier components. E.g. in case of J=4, all four carrier component use same number of resource blocks and same  . J=1 = 4 and )( j mQ =8 𝝁 𝑺𝑪𝑺 KHz Max Number of RB NRB Max DL Throughput Max. UL Throughput 0 15 KHz 270 1.16Gbps 1.24Gbps 1 30 KHz 273 2.34Gbps 2.5Gbps 2 60 KHz 135 2.31Gbps 2.47Gbps J=2 = 4 and )( j mQ =8 𝝁 𝑺𝑪𝑺 KHz Max Number of RB NRB Max DL Throughput Max. UL Throughput 0 15 KHz 270 2.31Gbps 2.47Gbps 1 30 KHz 273 4.67Gbps 5Gbps 2 60 KHz 135 4.62Gbps 4.95Gbps J=4 = 4 and )( j mQ =8 𝝁 𝑺𝑪𝑺 KHz Max Number of RB NRB Max DL Throughput Max. UL Throughput 0 15 KHz 270 4.62Gbps 4.95Gbps 1 30 KHz 273 9.35Gbps 10Gbps 2 60 KHz 135 9.25Gbps 9.89Gbps )( j Layers v )( j Layers v )( j Layers v )( j Layers v 5G New Radio Page 8
  9. 9. 8. Authors Sukhvinder Singh Malik Rahul Atri J=8 = 4 and )( j mQ =8 𝝁 𝑺𝑪𝑺 KHz Max Number of RB NRB Max DL Throughput Max. UL Throughput 0 15 KHz 270 9.25Gbps 9.89Gbps 1 30 KHz 273 18.7Gbps 20Gbps 2 60 KHz 135 18.49Gbps 19.78Gbps 6. Conclusion In this paper, we discussed about 5G New Radio also known as NR. NR is developed as part of IMT-2020 and its specification has been start as part of 3GPP release 15 onwards. New Radio is targeted to support major three service segment namely ultra-high speed internet (eMBB), ultra reliable and low latency communication (URLCC) and internet of thing (MIoT). To support Enhance Mobile Broadband (eMBB), Ultra Reliable Low Latency Communication (URLCC) and Massive IoT (MIoT) using single technology, NR requires a scalable and flexible physical layer design. To enable all these, 3GPP has introduced a set of parameters to define such as subcarrier spacing, Symbol length, cyclic prefix, Transmission Time Interval (TTI). A numerology is defined as a fixed configuration for these set of parameters. Based on numerology, we have calculated the maximum throughput capabilities. The maximum throughput depends on no. of aggregate carrier components, no. of transmission layer layers, Modulation, numerology, no. of resource block, scaling and overhead data. As per our calculation the maximum throughput can be achieved in numerology  1 when 8 carrier components are aggregated and each carrier component transmission is of 4 layer transmission with 100MHz as channel bandwidth and UE is able to decode highest MCS QAM-256. 7. References 1. 3GPP TS 38.101-1: "NR User Equipment (UE) radio transmission and reception Part 1: Range 1 Standalone". 2. 3GPP TS 38.101-2: "NR User Equipment (UE) radio transmission and reception Part 2: Range 2 Standalone". 3. 3GPP TS 38.101-3: "NR User Equipment (UE) radio transmission and reception Part 3: Range 1 and Range 2 Interworking operation with other radios". 4. 3GPP TS 38.133: "NR Requirements for support of radio resource management". 5. 3GPP TS 38.201: "NR; Physical Layer – General Description 6. 3GPP TS 38.211: "NR Physical channels and modulation" 7. 3GPP TS 38.212: "NR; Multiplexing and channel coding" 8. 3GPP TS38.300: “NR; NR and NG-RAN Overall Description; Stage 2” 9. Nomor White Paper 10. 5G America White Paper 11. Ericsson White Paper )( j Layers v 5G New Radio Page 9 Disclaimer: Authors state that this whitepaper has been compiled meticulously and to the best of their knowledge as of the date of publication. The information contained herein the white paper is for information purposes only and is intended only to transfer knowledge about the respective topic and not to earn any kind of profit. Every effort has been made to ensure the information in this paper is accurate. Authors does not accept any responsibility or liability whatsoever for any error of fact, omission, interpretation or opinion that may be present, however it may have occurred

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