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Cognitive psychology introduction

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Cognitive psychology introduction

  1. 1. Cognitive Psychology - Introduction Dr.V.Veera Balaji Kumar
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  3. 3. Cognitive Psychology Is… The study of how people perceive, learn, remember, and think about information. Memory Decision MakingAttention Problem Intelligence Language Solving Perception Dr.V.Veera Balaji Kumar
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  10. 10. Philosophical Roots Rationalist Logic & reasoning is keyEmpiricistExperience &observation is key Dr.V.Veera Balaji Kumar
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  21. 21. Cognitive Methods Experiments Psychobiological studies Self report Case studies Naturalistic Observation Computer Simulations Dr.V.Veera Balaji Kumar
  22. 22. In an Experiment… Random sample of participants Manipulate the Independent Variable  Create experimental group  Create control group  Randomly assign participants Measure the Dependent Variable  Same for all groups Control all other variables  Prevent confounds Dr.V.Veera Balaji Kumar
  23. 23. Typical Independent Variables Manipulate stimulus materials  Compare words to non-words  Compare color diagrams to black and white  Compare Yes questions to No questions Control how participants process materials  Use imagery to study versus repetition  Vary speed of presentation of materials Dr.V.Veera Balaji Kumar
  24. 24. Typical Dependent Variables Reaction Time (milliseconds)  Mental events take time Accuracy/Error analysis  How well the participant does on a task Dr.V.Veera Balaji Kumar
  25. 25. Psychobiological Studies Postmortem studies  Examine the cortex of dyslexics after death Brain damaged individuals and their deficits  Study amnesiacs with hippocampus damage Monitor a participant doing a cognitive task  Measure brain activity while a participant is reciting a poem Dr.V.Veera Balaji Kumar
  26. 26. Self Report Studies Verbal Protocol  Participants describe their conscious thoughts while solving a story problem Diary Study  Participants keep track of memory failures Naturalistic Observation  Monitor decision making of pilots during flights Dr.V.Veera Balaji Kumar
  27. 27. Case Studies Intensive studies of individuals  May examine archival records, interviews, direct observation, or participant-observations  Creativity of successful individuals  The deficits of a neglected child Dr.V.Veera Balaji Kumar
  28. 28. Computers in Research Analogy for human Cognition  The sequence of symbol manipulation that underlies thinking  The goal: discovery of the programs in humans’ memory Computer simulations of Artificial Intelligence  Recreate human processes using computers Dr.V.Veera Balaji Kumar
  29. 29. Artificial intelligence Artificial intelligence (AI) is the science of making machines do the sort of things that are done by human minds (Boden 1987). One major assumption of AI is that both humans and some machines are information processors. The computer metaphor involves viewing the brain as being like a computer. Dr.V.Veera Balaji Kumar
  30. 30. I/O PROCESS If the inputs and outputs of the human and the machines are identical, then given that we understand the functioning of the artificial system, this should throw some light on how a human mind functions. AI models assume the human mind functions in an analogous way to the computer and so in AI, computers are tools that are used to try and understand how information is processed by the human mind. Dr.V.Veera Balaji Kumar
  31. 31. • Donders found that simple reaction time is shorterthan recognition reaction time (RT), and that choicereaction time is longer than both.• devised a subtraction method to analyze the time ittook for mental operations to take place.• This method provides a way to investigate thecognitive processes underlying simple perceptual-motor tasks, and formed the basis of subsequentdevelopments Dr.V.Veera Balaji Kumar
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  39. 39. Information processing model One of the difficulties facing cognitive psychologists is that they are trying to study processes that are not directly observable. Consequently they suggest that we can imagine what is going on in between input and output and make a model of this which can then be tested by experimental or other means. Dr.V.Veera Balaji Kumar
  40. 40. Information processing model Dr.V.Veera Balaji Kumar
  41. 41. ADVANCED INFORMATIONPROCESSING MODEL Dr.V.Veera Balaji Kumar
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