• Evans (1995) defines referencing as “the labeling of
material you have drawn from other writers with enough
information for the reader to be able to locate the
• Practice of acknowledging authors is known as
• A reference is required if :
quote (use someone else’s exact words)
copy (use figures, tables or structure)
paraphrase (convert someone else’s ideas into your own
summaries (use a brief account of someone else’s ideas).12/11/0214 3
• Shows the breadth of your research.
• Strengthening your academic argument.
• Showing the reader the source of your information.
• Allowing the reader to consult your sources
•Allowing the reader to verify your data.
• Avoid Plagiarism.
• Support arguments.
n.p. no place (of publication known)
p. Page number.
et alia or
et al. These terms mean and others and is used for four
or more authors to shorten the in-text citation.
The entry in the reference list must show all the
authors. The term et al. is not italicized.
Also known as Author-Date style.
Most frequently used style
REFERENCING IN HARVARD
4.Use of ‘et al’.
6.Use of city, state, and country location
Paraphrasing is putting someone else’s ideas into your
Reference a paraphrase in text, you must provide the
author and year of publication.
Single quotation marks used around direct quotes of
fewer than 30 words.
Single quotation marks.
Full stop after the reference if the quote is information
e.g:- quote into your sentence :-
Although students are initially nervous, ‘when students
conquer the challenging initial days of the program, they
begin to settle into a routine’ (Doyle 2006, p. 86).
quote into your sentence author-prominent:-
Students are initially nervous, but as Doyle (2006, p. 86)
suggests, ‘when students conquer the challenging initial
days of the program, they begin to settle into a routine’.
Long quotations (30 words or more) should:
• Introduced in your own words .
• Not have any quotation marks .
• Begin on a new line.
•The lead-in statement ends with a colon (:).
• Separate the quotation from the text that follows it with
one blank line.
Though many may recoil from making their private lives
public in digital spaces, there are obvious benefits for
The public life is fun. It’s creative. It’s where their friends
are. It’s theatre, but it’s also community: in this linked,
logged world, you have a place to think out loud and be
listened to, to meet strangers and go deeper with friends.
(Nussbaum 2007, p. 27)
Quote within a quote :-
• When a quote appears within a quote use double quote
The first words of Melville’s Moby Dick are “Call me
Ishmael” and these words are full of significance’ was
the first statement in Smith’s memorable speech (Johns
1995, p. 43).
• Always give the page number.
• When paraphrasing, providing a page number is
• The word “page” is abbreviated to p.
• Electronic sources do not provide page numbers.12/11/0214 13
USE OF ET AL:-
• With two or three authors, give all authors’ names in
every in-text reference.
• For references with four or more authors, list only the
first author’s name followed by ‘et al.’ (which stands for
‘and others’) in your in-text references. For example:
(Chaffee et al. 2000).
Note:- et al. should not be in italics and there should
always be a full-stop after al.
• Only the first word in the titles of books, chapters,
journal articles and Web sites is capitalised.
• Authors’ names and initials, journal titles and the names
of publishing firms and business or organizations are
Jones, B 1999, The history of rock: John Lennon, Zen
•For the titles of periodicals (journals, magazines and
newspapers), capitalise the first word.
• Other word which is not ‘the’, ‘a’, ‘an’.
• A preposition (such as ‘for’, ‘on’, ‘under’, ‘about’) or a
conjunction (such as ‘and’, ‘but’, ‘or’).
USE OF CITY, STATE, AND COUNTRY
•The place of publication should be provided in the
reference list .
•If several cities are given on the source, use the first-listed
•If the place of publication is little-known, provide the state
•If the place of publication could be confused with another
city of the same name, provide additional information to
clarify the location.
AUTHOR, DATE, TITLE:-
Family name first, then a comma and space followed by
e.g. John, A
•Three or more authors:-
Just put the surname of the first author, followed by “et al‟
(which means “and the others ).‟
e.g. Petrus et al (2009)
Editors are treated the same as authors except that ed. or eds.
is put in brackets after the editor's or editors name(s).‟12/11/0214 17
e.g:- Walker, T. (ed.)
• A corporate author is a group.
• It could be a society and professional body, an
international organisation, a government department or
any other group.
• A government publication should begin with the
country, then the department, then any committee or
e.g. Great Britain. Department for Education and Skills.
The date of ‘publication' should be included.
• If there are a number of different reissues or reprints of
the item, give the earliest date of the edition you are
e.g. if the information in the book reads “1989 reprinted in
1990, 1992, 1995, 1996, 2000” give 1989.
•If it is not possible to ascertain the date put the following:
[n.d.] or [undated] or [no date].
•The title should be copied from the item itself if possible
and should be in italics.
•If there is a mistake in the title of the published work (and
you do not wish the reader to think that you cannot spell!)
put the word sic (= thus) in square brackets after the
e.g.:- Brimingham [sic]
DETAILED EXAMPLES :-
BOOKS (OR REPORTS):-
Basic Essentials of a Reference :-
• Author(s) or Editor(s)
Tierney, J. (2006) Criminology. Harlow:
Author Date of Title Place of
If the book is in an edition other than the first e.g.:-2nd
include that information immediately after the title
e.g. Tierney, J. (2006) Criminology. 2nd Ed. Harlow:
Volume Number :-
If you have used only one volume of a multi-volume work
you could indicate that by adding the volume number
immediately after the title.
e.g. Merriam, J.L. (2003) Engineering Mechanics. Vol. 1:
Statics. 5th Ed. Hoboken, N.J. : Wiley
If the title does not give much information about the
subject of a book you may wish to include the subtitle
(everything which occurs after a colon (:) or question mark
in the title).
e.g. Tierney, J. (2006) Criminology: Theory and Context.
2nd Ed. Harlow: Pearson/Longman.
Series Title and Number:-
If the book is part of a series it may be helpful to give the
series title and number of the book within the series.
e.g. Boles, J. K., & Hoeveler, D. L. (2006) The A-Z of
Feminism. The A to Z Guide Series; No. 19. Oxford:
ISBN (International Standard Book
The ISBN is a unique 10- or 13-digit number which serves
as a unique identifier of a particular book.
e.g. Tierney, J. (2006) Criminology: Theory and Context.
2nd Ed. Harlow: Pearson/Longman. 1405823615.
Electronic Books :-
You need to include the address of the website.
Roshan, P. & Leary, J. (2003) Wireless LAN Fundamentals
Sebastopol, CA: Cisco Press [available at:
[viewed on 11/07/2006].
JOURNAL ARTICLES :-
• Journals, magazines or serials.
• Include publications published annually, quarterly (4
times per year), bimonthly (every 2 months), monthly,
weekly or daily.
Author Year Article title
Kushner, G. B. (2005) Changes Ahead in Health Care. HR
Magazine, Vol 50, No 13, pp. 60-61.
Journal Title Volume Part/Issue Page
oReview in a Journal:-
If you refer to a review you should also include the details
of the work being reviewed.
Author Year Review Title
Sanderson, C.(2005) Travelling with an anti-tourist.
(Daniel Kalder - Lost Cosmonaut) (Book Review). The
Bookseller 5209 (Dec 16, 2005) p.37.
Journal Title Issue Title of reviewed
oElectronic Journal Articles:-
Electronic journal articles should be cited in the same way
as print ones.
e.g. :-Parry, S. and Dunn, L. (2000). Benchmarking as a
Meaning Approach to Learning in Online Settings Studies
in Continuing Education, Vol. 22 No. 2, p.219 [Online
version via SwetsWise] [viewed on 11/07/2006]
NEWSPAPER ARTICLES :-
•Is necessary to include the date not just the year.
e.g. Jackson, L. (2006), Turning Brum into a hotbed of new
writers, Sunday Mercury, 25 June 2006, p.29
• In that it should have an author or editor and a title.
• Also have a publisher.
• Full address of the web page and also the date on which
you accessed the page.
Barger, J. (2000) A biography of Leopold Paula Bloom
DISSERTATIONS AND THESES :-
• The name of the institution where the dissertation was
undertaken and the type of degree for which it was written.
Author Year Title
Rowland-Jones, R., (2003) Beyond environmental
management to quantifiable pollution management. Ph.D,
University of Wales .
Awarding Institution Types of Thesis
VANCOUVER CITATION STYLE
• Style used by most biomedical journals and many
• It came out of a meeting of medical journal editors in
1978, held in Vancouver, BC.
• Maintained by the International Committee of Medical
Journal Editors (ICMJE).
Citing your sources in the text:-
• cite the source by inserting a number in text.
• Placed punctuation marks such as full stops or commas
and before colons and semi-colons.
• should be written in round brackets.
• When citing two or more sources at once,
e.g. (1, 2) or (6, 12)
•When citing more than two sources.
Directly quoting from your sources:-
•Enclose quotations in double quotation marks followed by
the citation number.
e.g. Key causes of economic deprivation include low income
or unemployment which are often the result of “poor
qualification levels and lack of basic skills”. (2)
DETAILED EXAMPLES :-
CITING A BOOK:-
Name/s of author/s, editor/s, compiler/s or the
Format: surname (1 space) initial/s (no spaces or
punctuation between initials) (full-stop OR if further
names comma, 1 space).
Title of publication and subtitle if any:-
• Do not use italics or underlining.
• Only the first word of journal articles or book titles are
Format: title (full-stop, 1 space)
Example: Physical pharmacy: physical chemical principles
in the pharmaceutical sciences.
If other than first edition.
• Abbreviate the word edition to:- ed. (Do not confuse with
Format: edition statement (full stop, 1 space)
Example: 3rd ed.
• The publisher’s name should be spelt out in full.
Format: publisher (semi-colon, 1 space)
Example: Australian Government Publishing Service;
Getzen TE. Health economics: fundamentals of funds. New
York: John Wiley & Sons;1997.
Place of Publisher Year
CITING A JOURNAL ARTICLE:-
Title of journal (abbreviated):-
• Abbreviate title according to the style used in Medline.
• Note: no punctuation marks are used in the abbreviated
journal name – just spaces.
Format: journal title abbreviation (1 space)
Example: J Mol Biol
Year (and month/day if
necessary/available) of publication:-
• Abbreviate the month to the first 3 letters.
Format: year (1 space) month (1space) day (semi-colon,
no space) OR year (semi-colon, no space)
Example: 1996 Jun 1;
Volume number (and issue/part -):-
Format: volume number (no space) issue number in
brackets (colon, no space) OR volume number (colon,
no space) e.g.: 1996;12(5):127-33.
NOTE: do not repeat digits unnecessarily.
Format: page numbers (full-stop)
Author Title of Article
Russell FD, Coppell AL, Davenport AP. In vitro enzymatic
processing of radiolabelled big ET-1 in human kidney as a
food ingredient. Biochem Pharmacol 1998 Mar
Title of journal Volume/year/month/
CITING A NEWSPAPER ARTICLE:-
Format: Author if given (full-stop, 1 space) Title of
article (full-stop, 1 space) Name of newspaper (1
space) Date of edition (year Month Day) (semi-colon,
no space) Section if applicable (section abbreviated to
Sect.) (colon, no space) Page/s (1 space) Column
number in round brackets (column abbreviated to col.)
e.g. Lee G. Hospitalizations tied to ozone pollution: study
estimates 50,000 admissions annually. The Washington
Post 1996 Jun 21;Sect. A:3 (col. 5).
• If the author is not documented, the title becomes the
first element of the reference.
Format: Author (full-stop after last author, 1 space) Title
(full-stop, 1 space) [Online] (full stop, 1 space)
Publication Year (1 space) [cited year month
(abbreviated) day] (semi colon) Number of screens in
square brackets or pages (full-stop, 1 space) Available
from (colon, 1 space)
URL: (no space) URL address underlined
National Organization for Rare Diseases [Online]. 1999
Aug 16 [cited 1999 Aug 21];Available from:
WEB BASED/ONLINE DATABASES:-
Format: Author/editor. (full stop, 1 space) Title (full
stop, 1 space) [type of medium = Online] (full stop, 1
space) Publishing details if available. Available from: (1
space) Title and publishing details of the database if
available. [cited date] (full stop)
e.g.:-Kirkpatrick GL. Viral infections of the respiratory
tract. In: Family Medicine. 5th ed. [Online]. 1998.
Available from: Stat!Ref. Jackson (WY): Teton Data
Systems; 2001. [cited 2001 Aug31].
REFERENCES IN APA STYLE
• American Psychological Association (APA) citation
• Which is used primarily in the social sciences.
• Single spaces separate each element.
• Citations are arranged alphabetically by authors’ last
• Works by the same author are in alphabetical order.
• If the author is unknown, alphabetization is by the first
word of the title.
• Only the first letter of the first word of the title of books
and articles is capitalized.
DETAILED EXAMPLES :-
•Book titles are italic.
•If more than one location is listed, the first is used.
•The city and state in which the publisher is located are
Book other than first edition:-
Abbott, C. (1982). Colorado: A history of the Centennial
State (Rev. ed.). Boulder: Colorado Associated University
• Other abbreviations include: 1st ed., 2nd ed, etc.
• The title of the periodical is italicized.
• The first letter of each word of the periodical title is
King, R. D. (1997, April). Should English be the law?
Atlantic Monthly, 279, 55-64.
Island of trouble. (1988, March 12). The Economist, 306,
U.S. trade deficit. (1994, August 19). The Wall Street Journal
(Eastern ed.), p. A1.
• To the extent possible, information is provided as for a
• Information identifying the electronic source is placed at
• The date of retrieval is included.
Article from an Internet journal based on a
E.g.:-Killingbeck, D. (2001). The role of television news in
the construction of school violence as “moral panic”
[Electronic version]. Journal of Criminal Justice and
Popular Culture, 8, 186-202.
MLA (MORDEN LANGUAGE
DETAILED EXAMPLES :-
• Author’s last name, First name. Title of the book. Place
of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication. Medium
of Publication are capitalize.
• Example: Franke, Damon. Modernist Heresies: British
Literary History, 1883-1924. Columbus: Ohio State UP,
Book with More Than One Author:-
• Author’s last name, First name, and Subsequent
Author(s) Name. Title of Book. Place of Publication:
Publisher, Year of Publication. Medium of Publication.12/11/0214 45
e.g.:-Booth, Wayne C, Gregory G. Colomb, and Joseph M.
Williams. The Craft of Research. 2nd ed. Chicago: U of
Chicago P, 2003. Print.
Two or More Books by the Same Author:-
•Give the name of the author in the first entry only.
Thereafter, in place of the author’s name, place three
hyphens, followed by a period.
---. Title of the Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year
of Publication. Medium of Publication.
Book with No Author:-
•For books with no author or editor listed, list the book on
your works cited page by the title of the book.
•Title of the Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of
Publication. Medium of Publication.
Author(s).“Title of Article.”Title of Periodical Day Month
Year: Pages. Medium of Publication.
e.g.:-Weintraub, Arlene, and Laura Cohen. “A Thousand-
Year Plan for Nuclear Waste.” Business Week 6 May
• If the newspaper is national, you need not include the
city of publication.
• Author(s).“Title of Article.”Newspaper Name Day
Month Year, Edition (if available): Pages. Medium of
e.g.:-Jeromack, Paul. “This Once, a David of the Art World
Does Goliath a Favor.” New York Times 13 July 2002
•Author, Editor or Compiler Name.“Title of Page.”Name of
Entire Site. Name of Institution or Organization Affiliated
With the Site (use n.p. if not available), Date of Creation
(use n.d. if no date). Medium of Publication. Date of
•e.g.:-Quade, Alex. “Elite Team Rescues Troops Behind
Enemy Lines.” CNN.com. Cable News Network, 19 Mar.
2007. Web. 15 May 2008.
CHICAGO MANUAL STYLE
• Academic writing in the humanities, social sciences and
• Two formats of referencing within the Chicago style.
• One is notes-bibliography and the other author-date.
• The author-date format is similar to the Harvard style
and is detailed in the official Chicago Manual of Style.
ROYAL SOCIETY OF
•A numeric style of referencing with reference numbers
given in superscript in appropriate places.
•The reference numbers should be cited in sequence
through the text, including those in tables and figure
DETAILED EXAMPLES :-
INITIALS. Author’s surname, Title, Publisher, Place of
publication, Edition (if not the first), Year, Pages.
•J. March, Advanced Organic Chemistry, Wiley, New
York, 3rd edn.,1985.
Book with editor(s) instead of author(s):-
• Title, ed. INITIALS. Editor’s surname, Publisher, Place
of publication, Edition (if not the first), Year, Pages.
e.g.:-CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, ed. W. M.
Haynes and D. R. Lide, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 92nd
Book with corporate author:-
• Corporate author, Title, Publisher, Place of publication,
Edition (if not the first), Year, Pages.
e.g.:-International Energy Agency, Offshore Renewable
Energy: Accelerating the Deployment of Offshore Wind,
Tidal, and Wave Technologies, Earthscan, Abingdon,
2012, ch. 5, pp. 60–69.
• Use this format for PDF or HTML versions of print
• INITIALS. Author’s surname, Title of journal
(abbreviated), Year, Volume number, Pages.
• Resource title, web address, (access date)
• Please note the most important information to include is
the URL and the data accessed.
• ChemSpider, http://www.chemspider.com/Chemical-
Structure.1906.html, (accessed June 2011).
Library and Learning Resources, Birmingham City
http://www.cqu.edu.au/referencing [accessed 6/11/2014]
Vancouver Community College Library
The University Of Queensland
http://hi.au.dk/uploads/File/vancouv [accessed 7/11/2014]12/11/0214 53
Royal Society of Chemistry Style, University of Bath
Cite Referencing in APA Style
MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. Seventh
Ed. New York: Modern Language Association of America.