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Curriculum Evaluation

Evaluation is the process of collecting data on a programme to determine its value or worth with the aim of deciding whether to adopt, reject, or revise the programme. The public want to know whether the curriculum implemented has achieved its aims and objectives; teachers want to know whether what they are doing in the classroom is effective; and the developer or planner wants to know how to improve the curriculum product.

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Curriculum Evaluation

  1. 1. Evaluation is the process of collecting data on a programme to determine its value or worth with the aim of deciding whether to adopt, reject, or revise the programme The developer or planner wants to know how to improve the curriculum product. The public want to know whether the curriculum implemented has achieved its aims and objectives Teachers want to know whether what they are doing in the classroom is effective
  2. 2. Curriculum evaluation should be concerned with assessing the value of a program of study and a course of study a field of study
  3. 3. Worthen and Sanders (1987) define curriculum evaluation as “the formal determination of the quality, effectiveness, or value of a programme, product, project, process, objective, or curriculum”
  4. 4. Ornstein and Hunkins (1998) define curriculum evaluation as “a process or cluster of processes that people perform in order to gather data that will enable them to decide whether to accept, change, or eliminate something- the curriculum in general or an educational textbook in particular”
  5. 5. Plan for Curriculum Evaluation The basis for evaluation Objectives of evaluation Curriculum description Evaluation report Evaluation design
  6. 6. Need for Curriculum Evaluation To provide a conceptual framework for specific purpose of the evaluation. Several experts have proposed different models describing how and what should be involved in evaluating a curriculum. Models are useful because they help us define the parameters of an evaluation, what concepts to study and the procedures to be used to extract important data
  7. 7. •The Tyler Model is often referred to as the ‘objective model’ because of it’s objective approach to educational evaluation •It emphasizes consistency among objectives, learning experiences, and outcomes •Curriculum objectives indicate both behaviour to be Tyler’s evaluation model
  8. 8. Tyler recommends that curriculum planners identify general objectives by gathering data from three sources: •The learners •Contemporary life outside the school •Subject matter.
  9. 9. After identifying numerous general objectives, the planners refine them by filtering them through two screens: The philosophical screen The psychological screen
  10. 10. (Assessment and evaluation) (Objectives) (Instructional strategies and content) (Organization of learning experiences)
  11. 11. •Stating Objectives The progressive emphasizes the importance of studying the child to find out what kinds of interests he has, what problems he encounters, what purposes he has in mind. The progressive sees this information as providing the basic source for selecting objectives •Selecting Learning Experiences Tyler believes that students learn through exploration Like his mentor, John Dewey, Tyler believes teachers should encourage children to become actively engaged in discovering what the world is like
  12. 12. •Evaluating the Curriculum The process of assessment is critical to Tyler’s Model and begins with the objectives of the educational program The process of evaluation is essentially the process of determining to what extent the educational objectives are actually being realized by the program of curriculum and instruction Organizing Learning Experiences Central to Tyler’s Model is effectively organizing the learning activities Students need concrete experiences to which the readings are meaningfully connected Three major criteria are required in building organized learning experiences: continuity, sequence and integration
  13. 13. The Tyler Model is: One of the best known models for curriculum development. Known for the special attention it gives to the planning phases. Deductive for it proceeds from the general to the specific Strengths of model Involves the active participation of the learner Objectives are clearly defined in the purposes. These purposes are translated into educational objectives. Simple linear approach to development of behavioral objectives
  14. 14. Criticisms of the Tyler model •Narrowly interpreted objectives (acceptable verbs) •Difficult and time consuming construction of behavioural objectives •Curriculum restricted to a constricted range of student skills and knowledge •Critical thinking, problem solving and value acquiring processes cannot be plainly declared in behavioural objectives •Learning experiences are individual and are not totally within the power of the teacher to select •The teacher can control the learning experience through the manipulation of the environment, which results in stimulating situations sufficient to evoke the kind of learning outcomes desired
  15. 15. •Hilda Taba believed that the curriculum should be designed by the teachers rather than handed down by higher authority. •Further, she felt that teachers should begin the process by creating specific teaching-learning units for their students in their schools. •Taba advocated an inductive approach to curriculum development. •In the inductive approach, curriculum workers start with the specifics and build up to a general design as opposed to the more traditional deductive approach of starting with the general design and working down to the specifics.
  16. 16. Some of the problems from using the Taba Model are: Teachers not understanding the connection between the content, activities, teaching methods and evaluation. Keeping the resources up to date. Maintaining training for new teachers on the method as well as support needed for teachers as they must review the plan often.
  17. 17. Robert Stake's "countenance model" (Stake, 1967) was originally formulated for curriculum studies in the late 1960s. The countenance model aims to capture the complexity of an educational innovation or change by comparing intended and observed outcomes at varying levels of operation.
  18. 18. Three sets of Data 1. Antecedents •Conditions existing before implementation 2. Transactions •Activities occurring during implementation 3. Outcomes •Results after implementation •Describe the program fully •Judge the outcomes against external standards
  19. 19. Stake divides descriptive acts according to whether they refer to what was intended or what was actually observed. He argues that both intentions and what actually took place must be fully described. He then divided judgemental acts according to whether they refer to the standards used in reaching judgements or to the actual judgements themselves. He assumes the existence of a rationale for guiding the design of a curriculum.
  20. 20. Stake wrote that greater emphasis should be placed on description, and that judgement was actually the collection of data. He also noted connections between intentions and observations, which he called congruence(similarity). Stake developed matrices for the notation of data for the evaluation. Data is collected through these matrices.
  21. 21. According to Stufflebeam, evaluation is the process of delineating, obtaining and providing useful information for judging decision alternatives ‘Delineating’ refers to focusing of informative requirements needed by decision-maker ‘Obtaining’ implies collection, organization and analysis of information ‘Providing’ refers to synthesizing of information . ‘Delineating’ and ‘providing’ operations are carried out collaboratively between evaluator and decision-maker, whereas the obtaining of information is carried out primarily by the evaluator CIPP model was originated by Daniel Stufflebeam and Egon Guba
  22. 22. Scriven visualize evaluation as an assessment of merit. He stresses the need to assess the merit of the goals themselves. He points out if the goals are not worth achieving, then it is uninteresting how well they are achieved. So considerable attention has to be paid to the quality of goals itself. Scriven also observed that action decision can be made without completely understanding why one programme Michael Scriven’s Goal free model
  23. 23. Scriven detected that in most cases of evaluation, the main focus of the evaluator is gathering information regarding goals of the program. Such goal-preoccupation might actually be interfering with the quality of evaluator’s work. Therefore, Scriven has proposed a goal-free evaluation model
  24. 24. The focus of the evaluator is on checking whether the goals of the program have been achieved or not. The evaluator focuses on the intended as well as unintended outcomes of the program. The chief advantage of goal-free evaluation is that it encourages the evaluator to be attentive to a wider range of program outcomes. Goals are only a subset of predictable effects Effects Intended effects and Unintended effects
  25. 25. Roles of curriculum evaluation: Scriven differentiates between two major roles of curriculum evaluation: the “formative” and the “summative” Formative evaluation – during the development of the programme Summative evaluation – at its conclusion For example, results of formative evaluation may help in 1. Selection of programme components
  26. 26. Cronbach (1980), a student of Tyler, also focused on the decision-making process. Cronbach advocated that the evaluator should be a teacher, educating the client group throughout the evaluation process. During this educative process, the evaluator is constantly giving feedback to the clients. Cronbach did not believe that the evaluator should determine the worthiness of a program nor provide
  27. 27. According to Cronbach, the context of curriculum (i.e. what the curriculum attempts to achieve) should also be evaluated. The achievement tests used should not test small domains of the curriculum but include all aspects of the curriculum. School tests need to be understandable, reliable and valid enough.
  28. 28. Curriculum is forced on people The quality of the academic programs in public school education may not be as high as those of private schools. Classrooms are usually larger in public schools Public schools adhere to state and federal regulatory standards. Dropout and violence rates are generally higher in public schools, even though public schools differ. Pupils and students may be tested in ways that do not suit their differences. Tests can be misleading. The teaching tends to be averaged to the disadvantage
  29. 29. Mukopadhya Model This model has been developed in Indian conditions. This model is also based on Benjamin Bloom’s evaluation approach. The learning process is based on teaching. Both learning and teaching are based on objectives. Teaching activities are performed with the help of the content to be taught.
  30. 30. Identification of initial objectives Deciding theinstructional procedure Using the availableinstructional resources Feedbackfor modification of curriculum Continuous observation and evaluation of the teaching-learning activities
  31. 31. Saran’s Model This model developed by Saran came to light in 1976. This model employs systems approach and analyses the input, process and output of a curriculum. This model emphasizes for specific behavioural objectives. This model gives importance for output analysis in curriculum evaluation.
  32. 32. Assumptions of this model No curriculum is complete and perfect in itself. Every curriculum requires modification and improvement. New curriculum developed may not also be complete in itself. Therefore, it is better to analyse the existing curriculum to diagnose its weakness which can be rectified and improvements could be brought. All the three elements such as input, process and output help in evolving effective model of curriculum.
  33. 33. Assumptions of this model Input Process Output Expertise Needs Formulation of Specific Objectives Curriculum Development Material Resources Selection of Content
  34. 34. •Survey is done for need assessment •Assessment is done for future needs of the society and students. •Identification of objectives ( Input aspect) •Writing objectives in behavioural terms (Process aspect) •Selection of content with the help of subject experts (Process aspect) •Designing or preparing evaluation system (Output aspect) •Resource development of curriculum •Empirical tryout of new model of curriculum to examine its workability The following steps are used in input, process and output aspects.