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Evaluation is the process of collecting data on a programme to determine its value or worth with the aim of deciding whether to adopt, reject, or revise the programme. The public want to know whether the curriculum implemented has achieved its aims and objectives; teachers want to know whether what they are doing in the classroom is effective; and the developer or planner wants to know how to improve the curriculum product.
Evaluation is the process of collecting data
on a programme to determine its value or
worth with the aim of deciding whether to
adopt, reject, or revise the programme
The developer or planner wants to know
how to improve the curriculum product.
The public want to know whether the
curriculum implemented has achieved its
aims and objectives
Teachers want to know whether what they
are doing in the classroom is effective
Curriculum evaluation should be concerned
with assessing the value of a
program of study
and a course of study
a field of study
Worthen and Sanders (1987) define
curriculum evaluation as “the formal
determination of the quality, effectiveness,
or value of a programme, product, project,
process, objective, or curriculum”
Ornstein and Hunkins (1998) define curriculum
evaluation as “a process or cluster of
processes that people perform in order to
gather data that will enable them to decide
whether to accept, change, or eliminate
something- the curriculum in general or an
educational textbook in particular”
Plan for Curriculum Evaluation
The basis for evaluation
Objectives of evaluation
Need for Curriculum Evaluation
To provide a conceptual framework for specific
purpose of the evaluation.
Several experts have proposed different models
describing how and what should be involved in
evaluating a curriculum.
Models are useful because they help us define the
parameters of an evaluation, what concepts to
study and the procedures to be used to extract
•The Tyler Model is often referred to as the ‘objective
model’ because of it’s objective approach to
•It emphasizes consistency among objectives, learning
experiences, and outcomes
•Curriculum objectives indicate both behaviour to be
Tyler’s evaluation model
Tyler recommends that curriculum planners
identify general objectives by gathering data from
•Contemporary life outside the school
After identifying numerous general objectives, the
planners refine them by filtering them through two
The philosophical screen
The psychological screen
(Assessment and evaluation)
(Instructional strategies and content)
(Organization of learning experiences)
The progressive emphasizes the importance of studying the
child to find out what kinds of interests he has, what problems
he encounters, what purposes he has in mind. The progressive
sees this information as providing the basic source for selecting
•Selecting Learning Experiences
Tyler believes that students learn through exploration
Like his mentor, John Dewey, Tyler believes teachers
should encourage children to become actively engaged in
discovering what the world is like
•Evaluating the Curriculum
The process of assessment is critical to Tyler’s Model and begins with the
objectives of the educational program
The process of evaluation is essentially the process of determining to
what extent the educational objectives are actually being realized by the
program of curriculum and instruction
Organizing Learning Experiences
Central to Tyler’s Model is effectively organizing the learning
Students need concrete experiences to which the readings are
Three major criteria are required in building organized learning
experiences: continuity, sequence and integration
The Tyler Model is:
One of the best known models for curriculum development.
Known for the special attention it gives to the planning phases.
Deductive for it proceeds from the general to the specific
Strengths of model
Involves the active participation of the learner
Objectives are clearly defined in the purposes. These purposes are
translated into educational objectives.
Simple linear approach to development of behavioral objectives
Criticisms of the Tyler model
•Narrowly interpreted objectives (acceptable verbs)
•Difficult and time consuming construction of behavioural objectives
•Curriculum restricted to a constricted range of student skills and knowledge
•Critical thinking, problem solving and value acquiring processes cannot be
plainly declared in behavioural objectives
•Learning experiences are individual and are not totally within the power of
the teacher to select
•The teacher can control the learning experience through the manipulation
of the environment, which results in stimulating situations sufficient to evoke
the kind of learning outcomes desired
•Hilda Taba believed that the curriculum should be
designed by the teachers rather than handed down by
•Further, she felt that teachers should begin the process
by creating specific teaching-learning units for their
students in their schools.
•Taba advocated an inductive approach to curriculum
•In the inductive approach, curriculum workers start with
the specifics and build up to a general design as opposed
to the more traditional deductive approach of starting with
the general design and working down to the specifics.
Some of the problems from using the Taba Model are:
Teachers not understanding the connection
between the content, activities, teaching methods
Keeping the resources up to date.
Maintaining training for new teachers on the
method as well as support needed for teachers as
they must review the plan often.
Robert Stake's "countenance model" (Stake, 1967)
was originally formulated for curriculum studies in
the late 1960s.
The countenance model aims to capture the
complexity of an educational innovation or change
by comparing intended and observed outcomes at
varying levels of operation.
Three sets of Data
•Conditions existing before implementation
•Activities occurring during implementation
•Results after implementation
•Describe the program fully
•Judge the outcomes against external standards
Stake divides descriptive acts according to whether they
refer to what was intended or what was actually
He argues that both intentions and what actually took
place must be fully described.
He then divided judgemental acts according to whether
they refer to the standards used in reaching judgements
or to the actual judgements themselves.
He assumes the existence of a rationale for guiding the
design of a curriculum.
Stake wrote that greater emphasis should be placed
on description, and that judgement was actually the
collection of data.
He also noted connections between intentions and
observations, which he called
Stake developed matrices for the notation of data for
the evaluation. Data is collected through these
According to Stufflebeam, evaluation is the process
of delineating, obtaining and providing useful
information for judging decision alternatives
‘Delineating’ refers to focusing of informative
requirements needed by decision-maker
‘Obtaining’ implies collection, organization
and analysis of information
‘Providing’ refers to synthesizing of
. ‘Delineating’ and ‘providing’
operations are carried out
collaboratively between evaluator and
decision-maker, whereas the obtaining
of information is carried out primarily
by the evaluator
CIPP model was originated by Daniel
Stufflebeam and Egon Guba
Scriven visualize evaluation as an assessment of merit.
He stresses the need to assess the merit of the goals
He points out if the goals are not worth achieving, then it
is uninteresting how well they are achieved.
So considerable attention has to be paid to the quality of
Scriven also observed that action decision can be made
without completely understanding why one programme
Michael Scriven’s Goal free model
Scriven detected that in most cases of
evaluation, the main focus of the evaluator is
gathering information regarding goals of the
Such goal-preoccupation might actually be
interfering with the quality of evaluator’s work.
Therefore, Scriven has proposed a goal-free
The focus of the evaluator is on checking whether the
goals of the program have been achieved or not.
The evaluator focuses on the intended as well as
unintended outcomes of the program.
The chief advantage of goal-free evaluation is that it
encourages the evaluator to be attentive to a wider
range of program outcomes.
Goals are only a subset of predictable effects
Effects Intended effects and
Roles of curriculum evaluation: Scriven
differentiates between two major roles of
the “formative” and the “summative”
Formative evaluation – during the development
of the programme
Summative evaluation – at its conclusion
For example, results of formative evaluation
may help in
1. Selection of programme components
Cronbach (1980), a student of Tyler, also focused on
the decision-making process.
Cronbach advocated that the evaluator should be a
teacher, educating the client group throughout the
During this educative process, the evaluator is
constantly giving feedback to the clients.
Cronbach did not believe that the evaluator should
determine the worthiness of a program nor provide
According to Cronbach, the context of curriculum (i.e.
what the curriculum attempts to achieve) should also
The achievement tests used should not test small
domains of the curriculum but include all aspects of
School tests need to be understandable, reliable and
Curriculum is forced on people
The quality of the academic programs in public school
education may not be as high as those of private
Classrooms are usually larger in public schools
Public schools adhere to state and federal regulatory
Dropout and violence rates are generally higher in
public schools, even though public schools differ.
Pupils and students may be tested in ways that do not
suit their differences. Tests can be misleading.
The teaching tends to be averaged to the disadvantage
This model has been developed in Indian
This model is also based on Benjamin Bloom’s
The learning process is based on teaching.
Both learning and teaching are based on
Teaching activities are performed with the help of
the content to be taught.
Identification of initial
Using the availableinstructional
Feedbackfor modification of
Continuous observation and
evaluation of the teaching-learning
This model developed by Saran came to light in
This model employs systems approach and
analyses the input, process and output of a
This model emphasizes for specific behavioural
This model gives importance for output
analysis in curriculum evaluation.
Assumptions of this model
No curriculum is complete and perfect in itself.
Every curriculum requires modification and improvement.
New curriculum developed may not also be complete in
Therefore, it is better to analyse the existing curriculum to
diagnose its weakness which can be rectified and
improvements could be brought.
All the three elements such as input, process and output
help in evolving effective model of curriculum.
Assumptions of this model
Input Process Output
•Survey is done for need assessment
•Assessment is done for future needs of the society and
•Identification of objectives ( Input aspect)
•Writing objectives in behavioural terms (Process aspect)
•Selection of content with the help of subject experts
•Designing or preparing evaluation system (Output aspect)
•Resource development of curriculum
•Empirical tryout of new model of curriculum to examine its
The following steps are used
in input, process and output