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Presentation on THE
MINIMUM WAGES ACT 1948
Presented by: Uzma Rukhsar.
History of minimum wages.
The initiative by Shri K.G.R.Choudhary in
1920 set up boards for determination of
The International Labour Conference
adopted convention no.26 and 30 in 1928
relating to wage fixing machinery in trades
or parts of trades.
A Minimum Wages Bill was introduced in
the Central Legislative Assembly on
11.04.1946 and came into force with effect
The Minimum wages .
The minimum wages Act 1948, was to secure the welfare of
unorganised workers in certain industries by fixing the
minimum rates of wages. The Act contemplates that
minimum wages rates must ensure for him not only his
subsistence and that of his family but also preserve his
efficiency as a workman.
The Act empowers the appropriate
Government for fixation of minimum wages in
employments enumerated in the schedule to the Act. The
fixation of minimum wages relates to the industries where
sweated labour is most prevalent or where there is
inevitable chance of exploitation. In prescribing the
minimum wages rates, the capacity of the employers need
to be considered as the State assumes that every employer
must pay the minimum wages if he employs labour.
Objectives of the act.
To provide minimum wages to the workers
working in organized sector.
To stop exploitation of the workers.
To empower the government to take steps
for fixing minimum wages and to revising it
in a timely manner.
To apply this law on most of the sections
in organized sector.
Short title and extent
This Act, the Minimum Wages Act,
1948 extends to the whole of India.
This Act may be called the Minimum
Wages Act, 1948.
(a) ‘Adult', ‘Adolescent’ and ‘Child’
Adult- is who has completed his eighteen years of age.
Adolescent – completed his fifteen years but not
eighteen years of age.
Child –who has not completed his fifteen years of age
(b) Appropriate government India has federal form
of Government at the centre and state level . The
minimum wages act provide separate areas of
jurisdiction for both centre and state government.
(e) Employer means any person who
employs one or more employees in any
schedule of employment.
(h) Wages means all remuneration
capable of being expressed in terms of
(i) Employee means any person
employed for hire or reward and
includes an out –worker.
FIXATION AND REVISION OF MINIMUM WAGES
fixing of minimum rates of wages
The minimum rates of wages will be reviewed/
revised, for every five years, by the appropriate
Appropriate govt. can add any employment, to the
schedule(part-I or part – II), wherein one thousand
or more employees are found working
Different minimum rates of wages may be fixed
for different scheduled employments/ different
classes of work /different localities
Minimum rates of wages
1. Basic + Special Allowance (Which varies
with the cost of living index).
2. Basic + Cash value of concessional supply of
materials like food, clothes, etc.
3. An all inclusive rate which includes Basic +
Cost of living Allowance + Cash value of
concessional supply of materials.
Procedure for fixation and revision of minimum
rates of wages (sec.5)
Publish its proposals in the official gazette asking
comments from the affected parties.
Constitute committees/sub committees for the
The committees/sub-committees and advisory
boards constituted by the Government consist of
equal number of members of :
• Employees, and
• Independent persons
Fixation of minimum wages
Recommendation of Advisory Board for different class
[unskilled, skilled, Clerk, Supervisor]
Publish recommendations in National Publications [for
public comments/representations from Trade Unions etc.]
Hearing of the Representatives
Notification of Minimum wages
Central advisory board (sec.8)
. To advise the Central and State Governments in fixation
and revision of minimum rates of wages.
. To co-ordinate the work of the Advisory Boards.
. Appointed by appropriate government.
. To co-ordinate the work of committees and sub committees
appointed under Section 5.
Each of the committee, sub-committee and the
Advisory Board shall consist of:
a. persons to be nominated by the appropriate
b. representing the employers and employees in the
scheduled employments who shall be equal in
c. independent persons not exceeding one-third of its
total number of members: one of such independent
persons shall be appointed the Chairman by the
Composition of Committees, etc.
Wages in kind (sec. 11)
• Minimum wages shall be paid in cash.
• The appropriate govt. may authorize, where
there has been a custom of payment in this
manner, payment of minimum wages either
wholly or partly in kind.
• The appropriate govt. may authorize supply
of essential commodities at concessional
PAYMENT OF MINIMUM WAGES
Payment of minimum rate of wages
The Minimum Wages has to be paid without
any deductions other than Statutory
Payment of wages less than minimum
wages on the ground of less performance or
output is illegal.
Fixing hours of work
For an Adult Worker working in Factories:
Number of Working Hours should not exceed 48
Hours in a week with a weekly Holiday.
The Daily Hours should not exceed more than 9
Hours with 1 Hour Rest Interval.
Provision of Compensatory Holiday/Overtime Wages
if working on holiday.
If the person has worked for more than 48 hours in a
week then, the excess hours worked will be treated as
Overtime wage rate will be twice of the normal wage
Wages for a person who has worked less than normal
working hours (sec. 15)
Employer could not provide the activities of
the job then, the employee is entitled to
receive full salary.
Employee has not worked due to his
unwillingness then, the employee is not
entitled to receive full salary.
Records to be maintained
The Registers should contain the following
(i) particulars of employed persons
(ii) the work performed by them
(iii) the wages paid to them
(iv) the receipts given by them
A Labour Commissioner or any other
appointed authority is authorized to hear
claims regarding non-payment of minimum
Any aggrieved person may apply to the
authority for settling his claims within 6
Payment of less than
Minimum Wages to employee
Imprisonment which may
extend up to 6 Months or Fine
which may extend up to Rs
500/- or Both
Any contract or agreement, whether made
before or after the commencement of this
Act, whereby an employee either
relinquishes or reduces his right to a
minimum rate of wages or any privilege or
concession accruing to him under this Act
shall be null and void so far as it purports to
reduce the minimum rate of wages fixed
under this Act.
Power of State Government to add
The State Government has to notify in the Official
Gazette not less than three months of its intention to do
The Central Government may give directions to a State
Government as to the carrying into execution of this Act in
Power of Central Government to give