• At the end of the workshop, each participant
1. Have a written title, aims & objectives,
references and introduction for a research
2. Be able to explain research tools,
methodology and tests of significance
3. Be able to enumerate basic principles of
5. Thinking vs. Doing
• Most people associate research with doing
something: observing people, using
equipment, or analyzing data
• However, the most critical parts of the
research process are those parts that are
associated with thinking not doing
7. Topic vs. Question
• After one has become interested in an area of
inquiry, and has studied the available
literature, it is time to formulate a research
question and develop hypotheses
• This stage is the most crucial part of research.
If one is not exactly clear about what one is
studying, then the result is a very muddy
8. Research Question
• A research question is a formal statement of
the goal of a study
• The research question states clearly what the
study will investigate or attempt to prove
9. Research Question
An Idea An Observation
Angle of address
Logical Statement Unknown - Known
13. Research Question Analysis
• What do I need to know and how is my topic
different from what is already done in this
area? (Literature search)
• How am I going to answer my question?
• Why is my work important to others?
15. TYPES OF RESEARCH
• Co relational
27. S. SPECIFIC
• Need for a specific goal over and against a
more general one
• This means the goal is clear and unambiguous;
without vagaries and platitudes
• To make goals specific, they must tell a team
exactly what is expected, why is it important,
who’s involved, where is it going to happen
and which attributes are important
28. S. SPECIFIC (cont.)
• What: What do I want to accomplish?
• Why: Specific reasons, purpose or benefits of
accomplishing the goal.
• Who: Who is involved?
• Where: Identify a location.
• Which: Identify requirements and constraints.
29. M. MEASURABLE
• Need for concrete criteria for measuring
progress toward the attainment of the goal
• The thought behind this is that if a goal is not
measurable, it is not possible to know
whether a team is making progress toward
• Measuring progress is supposed to help a
team stay on track, reach its target dates, and
experience the exhilaration of achievement
30. M. MEASURABLE
• A measurable goal will usually answer
questions such as:
• How much?
• How many?
• How will I know when it is accomplished?
31. A. ATTAINABLE
• The third term stresses the importance of goals
that are realistic and attainable. While an
attainable goal may stretch a team in order to
achieve it, the goal is not extreme.
• When you identify goals that are most important
to you, you begin to figure out ways you can
make them come true. You develop the attitudes,
abilities, skills, and financial capacity to reach
• How: How can the goal be accomplished?
32. R. RELEVANT
• Relevant goals (when met) drive the team,
department, and organization forward. A goal
that supports or is in alignment with other goals
would be considered a relevant goal.
• Does this seem worthwhile?
• Is this the right time?
• Does this match our other efforts/needs?
• Are you the right person?
• Is this acceptable for correction?
33. T. TIME BOUND
• The fifth term stresses the importance of
grounding goals within a time frame, giving them
a target date
• A commitment to a deadline helps a team focus
their efforts on completion of the goal on or
before the due date
• This part of the S.M.A.R.T. goal criteria is intended
to prevent goals from being overtaken by the
day-to-day crises that invariably arise in an
34. T. TIME BOUND
• A time-bound goal is intended to establish a
sense of urgency.
• A time-bound goal will usually answer the
• What can I do 6 months from now?
• What can I do 6 weeks from now?
• What can I do today?
35. SMARTER Objectives
• At the end of today’s workshop, 50%
participants will walk out with a research
• 40% will walk out with a research question,
research hypothesis and preliminary tool
• 30% will walk out with a research question,
research hypothesis and preliminary tool and