I am very thanks Frankfinn Institute & very
grateful for the strong support and
guidance provided to me by my Aviation
teacher “Mrs.Reena Ma’am” Who helped me
in preparing this assignment. I am very
thankful to her for the same.
Current Affairs in aviation Industry :
Low – cost Airline Indigo Ranked Second:
Low- cost airline Indigo grabbed the second position
in the aviation industry .
Goh Choon Phong – New CEO of Singapore Airlines
Goh Choon Phong took charge as the chief executive
officer of Singapore Airlines .
IATA Against Imposition of Service Tax :
At a CII meeting organized on 23 September 2010 ,
the International Air Transport Association(IATA) criticized the
recent move of the Indian Aviation Ministry to impose 10.3%
Rohit Nandan appointed Chairman and Managing
Director(CMD) of Air India :
India current Affairs August 2011 . Rohit Nandan a joint
secretary in the civil aviation ministry was a appointed as
chairman and managing Director (CMD) of Air India for a three
year term .
Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs approved
Rs30,000 crore Bailout for Air India :
Economy Current Affairs 2012, Union
government approved Rs 30,000 crore bailout for
Air india Rs 6750 crore would be infused
immediately to meet the airline’s working capital
ST Aerospace Won Contract from jet Airways :
Singapore’s ST Aerospace on 31 March 2010
secured a 10 – year contract worth 750 million US
dollars from india’s jet Airways to provide engine
maintenance and engineering support .
Identify and describe the function of the parts
shown to you?
(a) Cockpit :- A cockpit or flight deck is the area
usually near the front of an aircraft , from which a
pilot controls the aircraft . Most modern cockpits
are enclosed , except on some small aircraft , and
cockpits on large airlines
are also physically from
the cabin .From the
cockpit an aircraft is
controlled on the
ground and in the air .
(b) Cargo :- Cargo is a storage section of an aircraft.
Usually provided underside of the aircraft for
Passenger Baggage and freight cargo is divided into
part (Fwd) Cargo that is
forward cargo and (Aft)
cargo that is after cargo
and , it is also called as
HOLD and BAGGAGE
(c) External part :Exterior part basically mean the body of an aircraft.
The exterior structure of an aircraft can be divided
into three parts.
• Wing assembly.
i) Fuselage : Central body portion of a plane
designed to carry fuel , passengers , freight & mail
. The part of the aircraft , which is streamlined ,
and the wings and tails are attached to it . It is
made up of Duralium – an alloy of Aluminum ,
nickel & cobalt .
ii) Cockpit :- The part of the aircraft that houses the
pilots & the aircraft’s controls .
iii) Cabin :- The portion of enclosed airplane intended
for transporting passengers or freight .
iv) Wings :- The parts of the plane that provided lift
& support the weight of the plane , its passengers
, crew & cargo while the plane is in flight .
v) Flaps :- The movable portions of the wings closest
to the fuselage . These are controls surface
installed on the trailing edge of a wing and used to
increase the amount of lift generated by the wing at
slower speeds . Flaps also have the effect of slowing
an aircraft during its landing approach.
vi) Ailerons :- Movable portion of the aircraft’s wings
found on the outer part of the wing , on the trailing
edge , which move in opposite direction i.e. up &
down . These are used to make the plane turn &
control the ‘roll’ if the aircraft .
vii) Rudder :- The movable vertical section of the tall ,
installed on the trailing edge of the vertical
stabilizer ,which controls the yaw motion of the
aircrafts left and right . The Rudder permits the
pilot to move the tail of the aircraft left or right by
use of the rudder pedals in the cockpit .
viii) Horizontal stabilizer :- This is the horizontal part
of the tail assembly , the small wings at the rear of
an aircraft fuselage . It balances the lift forces
generated by the main wings farther forward on the
fuselage . The stabilizer also usually contains the
ix) Elevator :- The control surface , usually on the
trailing edge of the horizontal stabilizer , which is
used to control the pitch attitude of an aircraft .
Movement of the elevator will force the nose of an
aircraft up or down.
x) Landing gear/undercarriage :- Located underneath
the plane , it allows the plane to land and supports
it while it on ground . It also has the mechanism to
reduce and absorb the shock of landing to
acceptable limits .
xi) Slats : Special surfaces attached to or actually part
of the leading edge of the wing . During takeoff and
landing , they are extended to produce extra lift .
xii) Winglet :- Extended portion of the wing , curving upwards , that helps in
increasing lift during takeoff and landing.
d) Interior part :- In the cross section of an aircraft/
airline one can see that it is mainly divided into two
parts separated by the floor . The upper portion is
the cabin that houses the passengers &
the crew of the flight . The
lower half is the cargo where
the freight/ mail is placed .
All the flight controls of the
aircraft pass through the
floor of the plane.
Cargo : Usually provided on the underside of the
aircraft for storage of passenger baggage & freight .
Cabin: The portion of enclosed airplane intended
for transporting Passengers or freight . An airliner
can have a single deck or have two decks , like a
Boeing 747 .
• Aisle : A passage between two sections of seats ,
comprising of horizontally placed rows that is
located from the nose to the tail of the aircraft
without any obstruction.
Doghouse : A small cupboard , placed on the floor
of the aircraft on casters , usually behind the last
row of seats in every zone/section of the plane.
Used for storage purpose.
• Galley :The ‘Kitchen’ of the aircraft is called the
Galley . The number of galleys in each airliner
depends on the number of passenger that aircraft
can carry & the size of the aircraft itself . All galleys
have the provision for storing & preparing food &
beverages . Removal
containers, that insert
& latch into the galley
walls are used for rapid
replenishment of supplies ,
food , beverages &waste
(e) Slide raft :- The part of the aircraft door/exit that
holds the slide/ raft in a compressed state. An
evacuation slide is an inflatable slide used to
evacuate an aircraft quickly . An escape slide is
required on all commercial aircraft where the door
sill height is such
that , in the event
of an evacuation ,
be unable to step
Down from the
door uninjured .
Cabin inter communication system :The phone network on board consisting of
handsets in flight deck, near every door , flight
attendant station, and the crew rest area. Each
handset can initiate and receive call from all points.
Passenger Service Unit : PSU is an abbreviation aviation for
Passenger Service Unit. This aircraft components is situated
above each seat row in the overhead panel above the
passenger seats in the cabin of airlines . Amongst other things
a PSU contains reading lights , loudspeakers , illuminated
signs and automatically deployed oxygen masks and also
louvers providing conditioned air.
The PSU is the module located above the seats ,
providing the passenger with the following functions :
Reading light and switches
Audio facility for announcement
and boarding music
Attendant call and indication.
Seat row numbering
A number of different signs , such as
fasten seat belt , no smoking and return
to seat .
Jump seat : In aircraft jump seats which are officially
termed auxiliary crew stations can be located in
cockpits or passenger cabin . In cockpits , jump
seats are provided for individuals who are not
operating the aircraft .These might include trainee
pilots , off-duty crew
members in transition to
another airport government
officials or airline staff .
The passenger cabin jump seats are used by the
cabin crew , especially during take off and landing
.These seats are normally located near to
emergency exits so that flight attendants can
quickly open the exit door for an emergency
evacuation . The passenger cabin jump seats usually
fold out of the way when not in use to keep aisles ,
workspaces and emergency exits clear .
Emergency equipment used in emergency :(a) Smoke Hood :- A smoke hood is a protective device
similar in concept to a gas mask . A translucent airtight bag
seals around the head of wearer while an air filter held in
the mouth connects to the outside atmosphere and is used
to breathe. Smoke hoods are intended to protect victims of
fire from the effects of smoke inhalation.
High quality smoke hoods are generally
constructed of heat resistant material
like Kapton , and can withstand relatively
high temperatures . The most important
part of a smoke hood is the filter that
provides protection from
the toxic byproducts of combustion.
Virtually all smoke hood designs utilize some form of
active charcoal filter and particulate filter to screen
out corrosive fumes like ammonia and chlorine , as
well as acid gases like hydrogen chloride and
hydrogen carbon monoxide to relatively harmless
carbon dioxide through a catalytic process.
(b) Oxygen bottle :- This bottle is
used to store oxygen , and can be
in situation where people suffer of
lack of oxygen .It is produced of
aramik reinforced epoxy by filament
winding , over an aluminum liner
Sometimes a complement of glass fibers can be added. The
material has been chosen to fulfill the requirements of high
strength and hardness , so that the bottle doesn’t explode
under high pressure or when knocked.
(c) Fire Axe :- A fire axe is a type of which has been designed
specifically for the use of firefighters , and it includes several
features which make it ideally suited to emergency services
in general .
The primary distinguish feature of a
fire axe is the head . Which features
a classic axe blade on one side and
a pointed pick on the other .
Companies which specialize in selling
supplies to emergency services personal
often carry fire axes , and they can also
be ordered directly from manufactures .
A typical fire axe is mounted on a long half which
has often been treated to be fire resistant . The half
is attached to the head especially firmly . So that
the head does not fly off at inopportune moments .
Typically the head of the axe is also painted in
bright colors which make it easy to distinguish in
conditions of low visibility and the pick and head
may be painted in different colors so that
firefighters can be sure they are working with the
right end .
(d) Asbestos Gloves : Asbestos is fire-resistance and also
provides very effective insulation . It was often used in
the 20th century for many purpose , including a variety
of a construction materials and protective clothing .
Asbestos gloves were often used for industrial purposes
to protect the hands of workers from extremely high
They were used in steel plants ,
foundries and glassworks and
often by firefighters as well .
While the use of asbestos gloves
and other asbestos clothing did
protect such workers from the
hazards of their work , it also
exposed workers to other to
other serious hazards.
(e) Fire Extinguisher : A fire extinguisher , flame
extinguisher , or simply an extinguisher is an active fire
protection device used to extinguish or control small
fires , often in emergency situation . It is not intended
for use on an out-of-control fore , such as one which
has reached the ceiling , endangers the user or
the expertise of a fire department .
Typically ,a fire extinguish consist
of a hand- held cylindrical pressure
vessel containing an agent which
can be discharge to extinguish a fire.
Fire extinguisher is two types :
Water and Halon fire extinguisher .
(f) Oxygen mask : An oxygen mask provides a
method to transfer breathing oxygen gas from a
storage tank to the lungs .Oxygen masks may cover
the nose and mouth or the entire face(full face
mask) . They may be made of plastic , silicon or
rubber .Canisters of pure oxygen placed in the cabin
for first aid & smoke
(g) Mega phone : A mega phone , speaking-trumpet ,
bullhorn , blow horn or loud hailer is a portable ,
usually hand-held , cone- shaped acoustic horn used to
amplify a person’s voice or other sounds and direct it in
a given direction . The sound is introduced into the
narrow end of the megaphone , by holding it up to the
and speaking into it , and direct
it in a given direction . The sound
is introduced into the narrow end
of the megaphone ,by holding it
up to the face and speaking into it,
and the sound waves radiate out
the wide end.
The megaphone increases the volume of sound by increasing
the acoustic impedance seen by the vocal cords , matching
the impedance of the vocal cords to the air , so that more
sound power is radiated . It also serves to direct the sound
waves in the direction the horn is pointed .
(h) ELT : Distress radio beacons , also known as emergency
beacons ,PLB ,
ELT are tracking transmitters
which aid in the detection and
location of boats , aircraft ,
and people in distress .Strictly
they are radio beacons that
interface with worldwide
offered service of Cospas-Sarsat ,
the international satellite system
for search and rescue .
When manually activated , or automatically activated
upon immersion , such beacons send out a distress
signal .The basic purpose of a distress radio beacon is to
help rescuers find survivors within the so-called golden
day during which the majority of survivors can usually
be saved .
(i) Life Jacket : A life jacket is a type of personal
flotation device designed to
keep a person’s airway clear
of the water whether the
wearer is conscious or
unconscious . They are either
made from two layers of
bonded polyurethane to be
inflated or from foam
The inflatable lifejacket is probably the most widely
used for both leisure and commercial activities ,
while the foam lifejacket is predominantly designed
either for children , or for emergency use .
REPORTING FOR DUTY :
On the day of flight :
Crew will Report to the Moment Control at 7:45 am(1
hour,45 min. before the flight time).
Then crew will Check Departure board.
The Detail which Crew checked and saw are :
• Captain name : Ali
• Senior most crew : Pavan Kumar
• Flight no. IX 323
• Registration no.: VT EAS
• Departure time : 9:00 am
• Arrival time
: 03:23 am
BRIEFING AT AIRPORT :
In the briefing room, Chief will check crew :
Knowledge about safety & first aid
Usage of Emergency equipment and features.
EMBARKATION PROCEDURE :
Formalities of a cabin crew at the time of embarkation
• Check baggage.
• ID check
• Security Check
Crew proceed to the aircraft after security check.
Crew should embark at least 45min before the
And as crew enter the aircraft according to work
position , Crew will go to the mid galley .
PRE-FLIGHT CHECK AND DUTIES:
• Crew will check all the emergency equipments and
• Crew will also check the Cabin dressing, Lavatory
• Crew will make sure that the galley is prepared with
all the beverages and meals.
SERVICE ON BOARD :
While the passengers board the aircraft , Crew welcome and
greet them and help them in finding their seat . After all the
passengers are on board .
Before/During Take-off :
After all the galley’s are prepared Crew start service first.
Crew serve passengers with the sweets , Hot Towels and
Welcome drinks .
In the mean while welcome announcement and
demonstrations are also done.
Now crew make sure that Cabin secure for take off.
On board service :
All the particular announcement like before take off , before
meal service, before landing , after landing , safety measures
Meal service :
• Crew announce for a service and start the service.
• Crew go to the cabin along with the trolley with preset trays and several to
• The main dish is served according to the passenger choice.
• After that Tea/Coffee service is done.
• The trays are collected.
Preparation for landing:
• Crew check the Cabin to be secured.
• Crew check the lavatory clear and keep galley secured.
• Senior most informs commander.
• As per the commanders order, Crew sit in crew station for landing.
• Then the flight is landed.
After landing :
• Airport specific announcement is done .
• Crew help the passengers in removing baggage, Thank them for choosing
our airline and wish a good day.
• The crew disembark the passengers.
POST FLIGHT DUTIES :
After all the passengers deplane :
Crew check the cabin for any left over passengers.
Also check lavatory, baggage bins and loose items
for any personal belongings of passengers.
Then I fill the documents to be filled ;
• Crew Complete the flight report by filling the
remaining particulars .
• Crew fill the catering check list .
• Crew fill the Complain book.
• Crew fill if any emergency equipment is used .
Crew thank all the Crew members.
And then proceed to Moment Control .
Always cabin crew should deplane , after the
At last , again Crew go to Moment control and know
next days Sector from the Roster.
Boeing 747 & Airbus A380 :
Boeing : The Boeing 747 is a wide- body commercial airline and
cargo transport aircraft , often referred to by its original nickname
, Jumbo jet or Queen of the Skies . It is among the world’s most
recognizable aircraft , and was the first wide body ever product .
Manufactured by Boeing
commercial Airplane unit
in the United States , the
original version of the 747
was two and a half times
the size of the Boeing 707 ,
one of the common large
common large commercial
aircraft of the 1960s . First
flown commercially in 1970 ,
the 747 held the passenger
capacity record for 37 years .
The four engine 747 uses a double deck configuration
for part of its length .It is available in passenger ,
freighter and other versions . Boeing designed the 747’s
hump like upper deck to serve as a first class lounge or
extra seating, and to allow the aircraft to be easily
converted to a cargo carried by removing seats and
installing a front cargo door .Boeing did so because the
company expected supersonic airlines to render the
747 and other subsonic airliners obsolete , while
believing that the demand for subsonic cargo aircraft
would be robust into the future .The 747 in particular
was expected to become obsolete after 400 were sold
but it exceeded its critics expectations with production
passing the 1000 mark in 1933 by September 2012 ,
1448 aircraft had been built with 81 of the 747-8
variants remaining on order .
Airbus A380 : The Airbus A380 is a double-deck, wide body four
engine jet-engine jet airliner manufactured by the European
corporation Airbus a subsidiary of EADS .It is the world’s largest
passenger airliner and due to its size many airports have had to
upgrade their facilities to property accommodate it . Initially
named Airbus A3XX , the aircraft was designed to challenge
Boeing’s monopoly in the
large-aircraft market , the
A380 made its first on 27
April 2005 and began commercial
service in October 2007 with
Singapore Airlines. The A380
upper deck extends along the
entire length of the fuselage
with a width equivalent to a
wide-body aircraft . This allows for an A380-800’s cabin with 478
square meters and provides seating for 525 people in a typical
three-class configuration or up to 853 people in all economy class
Compare of Airbus A380 & Boeing 747 :
Airbus A380 :
Engines : Four Rolls-Royce Trent 900 turbofans or four
General Electric/Pratt & Whitney GP-7200 turbofans
Typical cruising speed : Mach 0.85(850 km/h)
Range : 14,800 km (8,000 nm)
Max takeoff weight : 560,000 kg (1,234,600 lb)
Wingspan :79.8m (261 ft 10 in)
Length : 72.75m (238 ft 8 in)
Passenger seating : 555 passengers on two decks in a
three-class arrangement , and up to 800 passengers in
a one-class arrangement.
Cost : About $250 million US
Boeing 747 :
Engines : Four Genx-2B67 turbofans
Typical cruising speed : Match 0.855(855 km/h)
Range : 14,815 km (8,000 nm)
Max takeoff weight :435,456 kg (960,00 lb)
Wingspan : 68.5 m (224 ft 9 in)
Length : 74.2 m (243 ft 6 in)
Passenger seating : 450 passenger in a typical three-class
Cost : About$ 205 million US
The A380 can seat many more passengers than the 747-8- the
most of any commercial airline ever created . The running
costs are also expected to be lower than brand-new features
that make the A380 seem like less of a cramped , commercial
airliner and more like a luxurious cruise ship – lounger , bars
,gymnasiums , duty – free stores and even a salon .The seats
are also more spread –out , even for economy class.
The 747-8’s price is also considerably lower than the
A380’s – but for the extra $10 million or so airliners
will be able to get a lot more , and their passengers
will have a much more comfortable flight.
Overall, passengers will prefer to fly on the A380
more than they will prefer to fly on the 747 -8 ,
even if it means spending a little longer in the
Case study of Air crash
Air France Flight 447 :
: 1 June 2009
Passengers : 216
Fatalities : 228
Survivors : 0
Aircraft type: Airbus A330-203
Operator : Air France
Registration : F-GZCP
Flight origin : Rio de janeiro-Galeo Int’1 Airport
Destination : Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport
Air France Flight 447 was a scheduled commercial flight from
Galeao international Airport in Rio de janeiro , Brazil to
Charles de Gaulle international Airport in Paris , France. On 1
June 2009 , the Airbus A330-200 airline service the flight
crashed into the Atlantic Ocean , Killing all 216 passengers
and 12 aircrew . The accident was the deadliest in the history
of Air France and has been described as the worst accident in
both French and Brazilian aviation history . It was the second
fatal accident involving an Airbus A330 , the first while in
commercial passenger service , and the deadliest for this
aircraft type .
The aircraft crashed following an aerodynamic
stall caused by inconsistent airspeed sensor readings , the
disengagement of the autopilot , and the pilot making noseup inputs despite stall warnings, causing a fatal loss of
airspeed handling of approach to stall and stall recovery at
high altitude , this was not a standard training required at the
time of the accident .
The reason for the faulty airspeed reading is unknown , but it is
assumed by the accident investigators to have been caused by the
formation of ice inside the pitot tubes, thereby depriving them of
forward – facing air pressure .Pitot tube blockage has contributed
to airliner crashes in the past such as Northwest Airlines Flight
6231 in 1974 and Birgenair Flight 301 in 1996 .
The investigation in to the accident, which continued for three
years after the disaster , was initially hampered by the lack of
eyewitness evidence and radar tracks , as well as by difficulty in
finding the aircraft’s black boxes , which were finally located and
recovered from the ocean floor in May 2011 , nearly two years
after the accident . The final report was released at a news
conference on 5 July 2012 . It states that the accident resulted
from a succession of events temporary inconsistency between the
airspeed measurements, probably following an obstruction of the
pitot tubes by ice crystals , that caused the autopilot to disconnect
, inappropriate control inputs that destabilized the flight path and
led to a stall , and pilot misunderstanding of the situation leading
to a lack of control inputs that would have made it possible to
As for me it was an accident, yes, the pilot had not
received specific training but there is inconsistency
of the airspeed measurements and the probably
obstruction of the pitot tubes by ice crystals, that
caused autopilot to disconnect and inappropriate
controls inputs that destabilized the flight path and
the pilot had misunderstanding the situation due to
lack of control inputs .