Motivation is the process that
accounts for an individual’s
intensity, direction and persistence
of efforts towards attaining a goal.
3. There Are Three Aspects Of Motivation And
They Are As Follows.
• Effort is the measure of intensity or
• Direction relates to what a person is
trying to do.DIRECTION
• Persistence concerns the duration of
4. Importance Of Motivation
• Lead to profitable operation
• High level of productivity
• Best remedy for resistance to change
• Effective use of human resources
• Satisfaction of employees
• Minimize disputes and strikes
• Basis of coordination
• Stability of workforce
• Minimizes supervision cost
• Achievement of organization goals
5. The Motivation Theorise Are Commonly
Classified Into Two Categories.
The content theories are
concerned about what
behaviour of work.
The process theories are
concerned about how the
content of motivation
6. CONTENT THEORIES
• Maslow’s Hierarchy of
• Herzberg’s Two Factor
• Alderfer’s ERG Theory
• Vroom’s expectancy Theory
• Equity Theory
8. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
•Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a theory
in psychology proposed by Abraham Maslow in
•Maslow has proposed that motivation of people
depends on their needs. He identified the
hierarchy of five needs which he suggested exists
within all human being.
10. The needs have been classified into the
following in order:
1. Physiological needs- These are the basic needs of an
individual which includes food, clothing, shelter, air, water, etc.
These needs relate to the survival and maintenance of human
2. Safety needs- These needs are also important for human
beings. Everybody wants job security, protection against
danger, safety of property, etc.
11. 3. Social needs - These needs are related to belongingness of
people at work, acceptance by others, working in harmonious
groups. These needs include need for love affection and sense
4. Esteem needs - These needs relate to desire for self-respect,
recognition and respect from others.
5. Self-actualization needs - These are the needs of the highest
order and these needs are found in those person whose
previous four needs are satisfied. This will include need for
social service, meditation.
12. Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory
In 1959, Frederick Herzberg, a behavioral scientist
proposed a two-factor theory or the motivator-hygiene
theory. According to Herzberg, there are some job
factors that result in satisfaction while there are other
job factors that prevent dissatisfaction. According to
Herzberg, the opposite of “Satisfaction” is “No
satisfaction” and the opposite of “Dissatisfaction” is
13. HYGINE FACTORS
Hygiene factors are those job factors which are essential for
existence of motivation at workplace. These do not lead to
positive satisfaction for long-term. But if these factors are
absent , then they lead to dissatisfaction. In other words,
hygiene factors are those factors which when reasonable in a
job, pacify the employees and do not make them dissatisfied.
These factors are extrinsic to work. Hygiene factors are also
called as dissatisfiers or maintenance factors as they are
required to avoid dissatisfaction.
14. MOTIVATIONAL FACTOR
According to Herzberg, the hygiene factors
cannot be regarded as motivators. The
motivational factors yield positive
satisfaction. These factors are inherent to
work. These factors motivate the employees
for a superior performance. Employees find
these factors intrinsically rewarding.
17. Alderfer’s ERG Theory
The psychologist Clayton Alderfer developed
a new model to explain the simultaneous
nature of Maslow's five needs. Called the
ERG Theory of motivation, he first published
it in a 1969 article titled "An Empirical Test of
a New Theory of Human Need."
19. • It includes all needs related to physiological
and safety aspects of an individual.EXISTENCE NEEDS
• It includes all those needs that involve
relationship with the other people whom
• It involves the individual making creative
efforts to utilize full potential in the existing
21. Equity Theory
Equity theory of motivation was formulated by J.S.
Adams. It is based on the assumption that members of
an organization experience strong expectation of
justice, balance and fairness in treatment by the
organization. When a person feel that. He is being
treated unfairly by the organization, these feelings can
have a variety of adverse effects on the persons
motivation and performance on the job.
22. The equity theory of motivation helps in
understanding both the causes and the likely
consequences of felling of inequitable treatment
among organization members.
According to equity theory , two variables are
important , i.e., INPUT and OUTCOMES. Input are
the efforts and skills which a member of an
organization perceives that he put into his job.
Outcome are the rewards which the member
receives from the organization and job.
23. Various Types Of Inputs And Outcomes
Training Personal development
Ability Friendship opportunity
24. Vroom’s Expectancy Theory
Vroom has criticized the content theories of
motivation which are based on the needs of people
and their priority. According to him, people will be
motivated to do things to achieve some goals to be
extent that they expect that certain actions on their
part will help to achieve the goals. Vroom’s theory
is built around the concepts of valence,
instrumentality and expectancy and therefore, this
model is referred to as VIE theory.
• Valence means
the strength of an
preference on a
• Instrumentality is
the first level
• Expectancy is the
probability that a
will lead to a