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Infection control practices Standard precautions • Standard precautions are the basic level of infection control that should be used in the care of all patients all of the time Hand hygiene Gloves, gowns, masks, face shield, & eye protection Patient care equipment 1:10 bleach solution for accidental infectious fluid/blood spills
Post Exposure Prophylaxis A bloodborne pathogen is a pathogenic microorganismss that are transmitted via human blood and cause disease in humans. They include, but are not limited to, hepatitis B virus, and human immunodeficiency virus. Although a number of pathogens can be transmitted percutaneously, HIV remains the most common. Mosbys Medical Dictionary, 8th edition, 2009, Elsevier
What is the Occupational Safetyand Health Administration(OSHA)? Created in 1970 to ensure a safe and healthy workplace. In 1991 the Bloodborne Pathogen standard was created. In 2001 the Needlestick Prevention Act required employers to select safer devices. All institutions are required to develop and implement a bloodborne pathogen exposure control plan.
Types of Bloodborne PathogenExposures Needlestick injuries are wounds caused by needles that accidentally puncture the skin. Sharps Injury scalpels Splash Cutaneous Exposure
Exposure These situations require consideration of treatment with HIV antiretroviral therapy: • Post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) Average risk of HIV transmission following percutaneous exposure to • Infected blood: 0.3% • Mucous membrane exposure: 0.09% • After skin exposure: unknown • Following exposure to fluids or tissues other than blood: unknown Risk of transmission of hepatitis B virus after a large bore needle stick is approximately 5% while to hepatitis C virus is 1.8%
Post Exposure Management Clean exposed area with soap and water Apply first aid Supervisor Assistance – follow instructions located in UM Student Handbook (located on-line). Counseling to determine
Post Exposure ManagementPost Exposure drug management dependent upon severity of injury: – Percutaneous – Mucous membrane – Skin
Resources National Clinicians’ Post-Exposure Hotline (PEPLine): 888-448-4911 Post-Exposure Prophylaxis Registry for Health Care Workers: 888-737- 4448 (888-PEP-4HIV) CDC (for reporting HIV seroconversion in health care workers who received PEP): 404- 638-6425
National Post-Exposure Prophylaxis Hotline: 888-HIV-4911 Florida/Caribbean AIDS Education & Training Center: www.FCAETC.org