O slideshow foi denunciado.
Seu SlideShare está sendo baixado. ×

Role of organic inputs in maintaining soil health


Confira estes a seguir

1 de 32 Anúncio

Mais Conteúdo rRelacionado

Semelhante a Role of organic inputs in maintaining soil health (20)

Mais recentes (20)


Role of organic inputs in maintaining soil health

  1. 1. ROLE OF ORGANIC INPUTS IN MAINTAINING SOIL HEALTH Umesh Kumar Id No: A-12270/21 (M.Sc.(Ag) 1st Year , 2nd Sem.) Department of Soil Science & Agril. Chemistry Acharya Narendra Deva University of Agriculture and Technology Kumarganj, Ayodhya UP. (224229)
  2. 2. OUTLINE • Introduction • Organic Inputs a) Farmyard Manure b) Poultry Manures c) Vermicompost d) Green Manuring e) Biofertilizers • Organic special inputs • Role of Organic Inputs • Research Findings • Conclusion
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION • The agricultural production system have retain the fertility of the soil by adding organic inputs (compost, green manure, panchagavya, biofertilizers) is one of the best remedies. Through organic inputs the productivity can be optimised without use of the harmful chemicals in agriculture. • Ecologically and economically sustainable organic inputs is the required for enabling wider adoptability, secured livelihoods and ensuring affordability of the common men (Barik, 2017). • The practice of organic farming in India is from the ancient period, but due to the development of science and technology in agriculture, mainly due to green revolution most of the farmers have adopted the intensive farming practices by using different chemicals and synthetic fertilizers in last century.
  4. 4. • Soil and water are two most important natural resources to agriculture. Due to the enormous use of synthetic fertilizers, plant protection chemicals and growth regulators these natural resources are getting polluted and becoming less efficient. • The inherent fertility of the soil is reducing and it is becoming barren. The main reason behind all these problems is higher demand of food to feed the increasing human population. • Due to increase in population, demand for food is increasing but the natural resources for production like area of land is limited and fixed, which can’t be increased. So, from the fixed area the production is to be increased and for to solve this problem the only solution is to improve the productivity. • The productivity can be increased by using improved crop varieties, use of agrochemicals and synthetic fertilizers. Therefore, global population growth is a major threat to the sustainability of the agricultural production system.
  5. 5. • To save the agricultural production system and retain the fertility of the soil, organic farming is one of the best remedies. Through organic farming the productivity can be optimized without use of the harmful chemicals in agriculture. Purohit 2020,Agriculture& Food E-News Letter
  6. 6.  Organic inputs It is estimated that 300, 375 and 16.5 million tonnes of crop residues, livestock dung and human excreta per annum, respectively are available in the country as organic sources. Of this, around one third of crop residues and half of the livestock dung and 80% of human excreta are available for usage in agriculture.  The greater use of these materials in agriculture can ensure better soil fertility and sustained high productivity. The availability of these organic sources is likely to increase in future. It is 178 estimated that every million tonne increase in food grain production will produce 1.2-1.5 million tonnes of crop residue and every million increase in cattle population will provide additional 1.2 million tonnes of dry dung per annum.  Thus the estimated NPK supply from all the wastes including crop residues is 5.0, 6.25 and 10.25 million tonnes, respectively during 1991, 2011 and 2030.  A greater use of organic input has the potential to decrease the expected negative balance since greater availability of alternative fuel such as LPG in rural households in future may make the more organics available for use in agriculture. However, the potential benefits of some of the organic inputs are highlighted below ORGANIC INPUTS Ramanjaneyulu et al 2017
  7. 7. Organic inputs Special inputs Bio fertilizers Green manure Vermico mposting Poultry manure FYM
  8. 8.  Farmyard manure refers to the decomposed mixture of dung and urine of farm animals along with litter and left over material from roughages or fodder fed to the cattle.  It contains all nutrients such as macro (N, P, K), secondary (Ca, Mg, S) and micro- nutrients (Fe, Mn, Zn, B, Cu, Mo) but in small quantities. On an average well decomposed farmyard manure contains 0.5 per cent N, 0.2 per cent P2O5 and 0.5 percent K2O.  Results of several field experiments have clearly shown that 25-50% of fertilizer requirement of rainy season (kharif) crops and about 25% of the winter (rabi) crops can be easily saved through use of FYM without causing any adverse effect on productivity. Further, it improves soil health and productivity. FARMYARD MANURE Ramanjaneyulu et al 2017
  9. 9.  Poultry manure contains all 13 of the essential plant nutrients that are used by plants. These include nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sulphur (S), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), chlorine (Cl), boron (B), iron (Fe), and molybdenum (Mo). Plant nutrients originate from the feed, supplements, medications, and water consumed by the animals.  Poultry manure contains all solid and liquid portions of excretions of poultry birds. This manure should not be exposed to sun due to quick decomposition rate resulting in 50% ‘N’ loss in a month time. It contains 3.5% ‘N’, 1.2% P2O5 and 0.5% K2O. POULTRY MANURE Ramanjaneyulu et al 2017
  10. 10.  Aristotle called worms the “intestines of the earth” and Charles Darwin wrote a book on worms and their activities, in which he stated that there may not be any other creature that has played so important a role in the history of life on earth (Bogdanov, 1996) and called them as ‘unheralded soldiers’ of mankind and ‘friends of farmers’.  Vermiculture is the production or culture of earthworms. On the other hand, vermicomposting is the process by which worms are used to convert organic materials (usually wastes) into humus like material known as vermicompost. The most common earthworm species used is Eisenia foetida. Nutrients in vermicompost are often much higher than traditional garden compost. VERMICOMPOSTING Ramanjaneyulu et al., 2017
  11. 11. CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF GARDEN COMPOST AND VERMICOMPOST PARAMETER GARDEN COMPOST VERMICOMPOST PARAMETERS GARDEN COMPOST VERMICOMPOST pH 7.80 6.80 EC(dsm-1) 3.60 7.11 Total Nitrate Nitrogen(ppm) 156.5 902.2 Phosphorus ((%) 0.35 0.47 Potassium ((%) 0.48 0.78 Calcium (%) 2.27 4.40 Sodium ((%) 0.01 0.02 Iron ((ppm) 11690.0 7563.0 Zinc ((ppm) 128.0 278.0 Manganese ((ppm) 414.0 475.0 Copper ((ppm) 17.0 27.0 Boron ((ppm) 25.0 34.0 Aluminium ((ppm) 7380.0 7012.0 George et al 1994
  12. 12.  The crop or plant (generally leguminous) grown and ploughed in situ is called a ‘green manure’.  The modern agricultural technology has brought-in the concept of chemical fertilizers and further, intensified cropping system and did not leave any time lag for raising or incorporation of green manures, thus farmers green manuring was almost given up.  The declining soil fertility over the years, there is a renewed interest on this concept. Now, green manuring is practiced in India in about 2.7 m ha (Chanda et al., 2011).  Green manuring helps to improve soil fertility and protect soil health. The crops most commonly used for green manuring in India are dhaincha (Sesbania aculeata), 180 sunhemp (Crotolaria juncea), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), wild indigo (Tephrosia purpurea) etc. GREEN MANURING Ramanjaneyulu et al 2017
  13. 13.  Dhaincha is an ideal for rice based cropping system and is versatile, drought and flood tolerant green manure crop that can be adapted to varying soil and climatic conditions.  Green leaf manure crops may be leguminous or non-leguminous in nature that is generally grown on bunds or wastelands with the prime objective of utilizing their foliage as green manure. The important green leaf manure crops are glyearicidia (Glyearicidia maculeata), Karanj (Pongamia glabra), neem (Azadirachta indica) and calotropis (Calotropis gigantea).
  14. 14. Nutrient content of important green manure and green leaf manure crops Crop Nutrient Content (% on dry weight basis) N P K Nitrogen accumulation (kg ha-1) Green manure Sesbania aculeate 3.3 0.7 1.3 130-185 Crotolaria juncea 2.6 0.6 2.0 80-130 Tephrosia purpurea 2.4 0.3 0.8 70-115 Phaseolus trilobus 2.1 0.5 - 85-125 Green leaf manure Glyearicidia maculeata 2.9 0.5 2.8 - Pongamia glabra 3.2 0.3 1.3 - Azadirachta indica 2.8 0.3 1.3 - Calotropis gigantean 2.1 0.7 3.6 - Ramanjaneyulu et al 2017
  15. 15.  Bio-fertilizers are defined as preparations containing living cells or latent cells of efficient strains of micro- organisms that promotes growth by increasing the supply or availability of nutrients or uptake of nutrients by their interactions in the rhizosphere to the host plant when applied through seed, soil or plant surface (Vessey, 2003).  Bio-fertilizers add nutrients through the natural processes of nitrogen fixation, solubilizing and mobilizing phosphorus, and stimulating plant growth through the synthesis of growth-promoting substances.  Bio-fertilizers can be expected to reduce the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. They are ecofriendly and cheaper than organic inputs. They can be grouped in different ways based on their nature and function. BIO-FERTILIZER
  16. 16. S.No Groups Examples N2 fixing Biofertilizers 1. Free-living Azotobacter, Beijerinkia, Clostridium, Klebsiella, Anabaena, Nostoc. 2. Symbiotic Rhizobium, Frankia, Anabaena azollae 3. Associative Symbiotic Azospirillum ‘P’ Solubilizing Bio-fertilizers 1. Bacteria Bacillus megaterium var. phosphaticum, Bacillus subtilis Bacillus circulans, Pseudomonas striata 2. Fungi Penicillium sp, Aspergillus awamori ‘P’ Mobilizing Bio-fertilizers 1. Arbuscular mycorrhiza Glomus sp. ,Gigaspora sp., Acaulospora sp., Scutellospora sp. & Sclerocystis sp. 2. Ectomycorrhiza Laccaria sp., Pisolithus sp., Boletus sp., Amanita sp. 3. Ericoid mycorrhizae Pezizellaericae Ramanjaneyulu et al 2017
  17. 17. SPECIAL ORGANIC INPUTS Panchagavya is an efficient plant growth stimulant that enhances the biological efficiency of crops. It is used to activate soil and to protect the plants from diseases and also increase the nutritional quality of fruits and vegetables. It is used as a foliar spray, as soil application along with irrigation water, seed or seedling treatment etc. 3% Panchagavya is an ideal concentration for the foliar spray.  Jeevamrit promotes immense biological activity in soil and makes the nutrients available to crop and jeevamrit protect the crop from soil borne and seed borne pathogens and it improves seed germination also. (Devakumar et al., 2008)  Biochar is black carbon produced from biomass sources [i.e., wood chips, plant residues, manure or other agricultural waste products] for the purpose of transforming the biomass carbon into a more stable form (carbon sequestration). Black carbon is the name of the range of solid residual products resulting from the chemical and/or thermal conversion of any carbon containing material (e.g., fossil fuels and biomass) (Jones et al., 1997). Biochar does not refer to a singular product with a given set of chemical and physical characteristics. Rather, biochar spans the spectrum of black carbon forms (Spokas, 2010) and it is chemically and physically unique as a function of the feedstock, creation process (pyrolysis unit), cooling, and storage conditions. agritech.tnau.ac.in
  18. 18. Chemical composition of Panchgavya pH 5.45 EC (dS/m) 10.22 Total N (kg/ha) 229 Total P (kg/ha) 209 Total K (kg/ha) 232 Sodium 90 Calcium 25 IAA (ppm) 8.5 GA (ppm) 3.5 Jeevamrit Composition agritech.tnau.ac.in
  19. 19.  The main characteristics of organic farming include protecting the long-term fertility of soils by maintaining organic matter levels.  Nurturing soil biological activity, careful mechanical interference, nitrogen self-sufficiency by using the legumes and biological nitrogen fixation, efficient recycling of organic matters including crop residues and livestock wastes and management of weeds, diseases and pest primarily through crop rotations, natural predators, crop diversification, organic manuring and resistant varieties.  Nutrient sources like FYM, vermicompost, compost from domestic waste, livestock shed waste, crop residue, green manure etc. are used to fertilize the soil for crop production.  These organic sources supply many micronutrients and growth regulators besides supplying the primary plant nutrients. ROLE OF ORGANIC INPUTS IN ENHANCING SOIL FERTILITY Ramanjaneyulu et al 2017
  20. 20.  Role of organic inputs like vermicompost in improving the physical, chemical and biological properties thus soil fertility is proved well beyond doubt. Its’ application increases soil porosity in the range of 30-50 µm and 50-500 µm size thus improves aeration (Lunt and Jacobson, 1994), decreases particle and bulk density (Singh et al., 2007; Gopinath et al., 2008).  Parthasarathy et al., 2008; Gonzalez et al., 2010), improvement in hydraulic conductivity by 8% and six fold increase in water holding capacity (Lee, 1985).  Development of good soil structure, increase in infiltration and resistance to erosion (Rose and wood, 1980) as compared to inorganic fertilizer application.  Gopinath et al., (2008), Drinkwater et al., (1995) and Bhaskaran et al., (2009) reported significant increase in soil pH in vermicompost added soils as compared to FYM or mineral fertilizer added soils.Bhaskaran et al., (2009) noticed perceptible increase in cationic exchange capacity, C/N ratio and available N, P and K in vermicompost amended soils. Ramanjaneyulu et al 2017
  21. 21.  Increased availability of nutrients in enriched vermicompost especially ‘P’ would have enhanced root proliferation which helped in more uptake of ‘K’. Higher amounts of ‘Ca’ and other bases present in worm casts. Maximum ‘Ca’ and ‘Mg’ uptake was recorded by plants treated with enriched vermicompost.  The higher content of these cations present in plants treated with enriched vermicompost may be due to increased uptake through enhanced availability from the soil. When compared to FYM treated plots, vermicompost treated plots showed an enhanced micronutrient uptake (Sailaja Kumari and Usha Kumari, 2002).  Vermicompost provides nourishment for the growth of several micro-organisms, hence, is used as a carrier medium for bio-fertilizers. Its’ incorporation into agricultural fields enhanced the soil microbial biomass carbon (Ramanajaneyulu et al., 2013; Singh et al., 2007), enzymatic activity of phosphatase and dehydrogenase (Ramanajaneyulu et al., 2013; Bhaskaran et al., 2009; Gopinath et al., 2008. Murmu et al 2013
  23. 23. Ganti S (2018) Vermicomposting. Int J Waste Resour Vermicomposting features of different worms
  24. 24. Bio-fertilizer effect on crop yields Abd El-Lattief, 2016
  25. 25. Nutrient contents of green manuring and green leaf manuring plants Kumar & Adholeya 2016
  26. 26. Improvement in biochar surface property by different modification methods Rajapaksha et al 2016
  27. 27.  Organic farming is the best option, in which quality food can be produced by maintaining the soil health in a sustainable way.  It is eco-friendly and doesn’t deteriorate the soil quality rather improves it by adding different macro and micro nutrients to the soil nutrient pool along with beneficial micro- organisms. Due to the slow release of nutrients from the sources in organic farming, it improves the use efficiency and reduces loss of different nutrients.  India is endowed with various types of naturally viable organic form of nutrients across different agro-climatic regions of the country which will be helpful in organic cultivation of crops. Besides, India has a strong traditional farming system with innovative farmers, vast drylands and least use of chemicals.  In fact, the rainfed tribal, North-East and hilly regions of the country where negligible chemicals are used in agriculture, have been practicing subsistence agriculture for a long period and such areas are organic by default. CONCLUSION
  28. 28.  Soil and climatic conditions in India’s drylands make them particularly well suited to organic agriculture.  These are actually better suited to low-input farming systems that make ample use of the biodiversity.  Organic farming with its central focus on maintaining and improving soil health, its avoidance of pollutants, and its reliance on local inputs and labour, can materially advance the economic and ecological health of the drylands, as well as people who live there.  Semi-arid and arid dryland soils typically are poor in water-holding capacity as well as organic matter. In some areas, depth of the soil is another limiting factor for agricultural production.