A survey of Insect Vectors Associated with Solid Refuse Dumpsite in Urban Katsina, Nigeria
Refuse dumps refer to areas or land sites where material wastes from several sources
and processes are deposited. Refuse dumps include both municipal solid wastes and industrial
wastes including liquid effluents containing heavy metals (Olanrewaju, 2002). Refuse dumps
provide a rich source of microorganisms most of which are pathogenic (Odeyemi et al.,
2011). This is usually as a result of the attraction of rodents and vector insects for which the
dump serves as shelter and food source (Donderski et al., 2000).
Many countries in Africa do not have efficient waste collection and disposal services,
which often results in both environmental and health problems for the people. In Nigeria, the
sources of solidwaste are commercial, industrial, household, agricultural and educational
establishments (Babayemi and Dauda, 2009). Proper waste management is not only regarded
as a political tool and an indicator of good government policy, it is also an important element
for good health (Oyedele, 2009). The consequences resulting from improperly managed
wastes include its serving as reservoir for pathogens, habitat for pests such as rats, flies and
mosquitoes, reduction of usable land area of the society, obstruction of motorable roads and
general nuisance and societal problems in residential areas (Oyedele, 2009). Other negative
aspects associated with unmanaged solid waste include negative impact on the value of
properties surrounding it, acid rain and contamination of aquifers or water table. These
wastes are aesthetically unpleasant, constitute eyesores, produce unpleasant odour especially
when their organic compositions are acted upon by putrefying bacteria. These refuse dumps
thus constitute a habitat for vector and other nuisance organisms capable of transmitting or
causing diseases such as typhoid, infantile diarrhea and cholera in humans and animals (Siboe
et al., 2006). A good percentage of these infections are caused by insects which are largely
found in solid refuse dumps which may later serve as vectors of many diseases. Activities
involving the disposal of solid wastes even if properly controlled with proper precautionary
measures adopted may have adverse impact on the environment especially air since most of
the dumps are open.
The generation of urban solid wastes in Nigeria is on the increase owing largely to
accelerated rural-urban migration, industrialization, poverty, decreasing standard of living,
poor governance, population growth and low level of environmental awareness(Adewumi, et
al., 2005; Anonymous, 2012). The quantity of the wastes generated is enormous, with an
average household rate of0.44-0.66kg per capita (Solid Waste Report, 2004; Ogwueleka,
2009). In Oyo State, Afon and Okewole (2007) estimated that 50.90ton of waste was
generated daily while Ogwuleke (2009) estimated higher quantities of 8518 ton/day for
Lagos, 5222 ton/day for Kano, 4513 ton/day for Ibadan, 3418 ton/day for Kaduna, 3927
ton/day for Port Harcourt, 808 ton/day for Makurdi, 2804 ton/day for Onitsha, 400 ton/day
for Nsukka and 492 ton/day for Abuja. When studying the impacts of poor management of
waste in Nigeria enumerated by many workers, the emphasis has been mainly on microbial
fauna, risk of heavy metal transfer to the ground and above vegetation (Onwughara et al.,
2010), environmental problems related to clogging of drainage pipes (Folorunsho and
Awosika, 2001), contamination of gaseous environment by toxic substances and contact with
smoke from burning of solid wastes in dumpsites (Babayemi and Dauda, 2009, Oyelola et al.,
2009). Only isolated reports have been made on entomological aspects despite the significant
role that the insect vectors found in such surroundings play in public health. As a result, our
knowledge of the biology, ecology and the relationship of insect vectors to various diseases
are scanty. With the realization that it is practically impossible to maintain a strict sanitary
condition in Katsina town with the current rapid growth in population of the city, inventory of
filth flies will be taken from selected refuse dumps in Katsina town and discussed in relation
to the diseases they are known to transmit. Understanding the epidemiology of diseases
depends on the knowledge of the biology and ecology of the insect vectors implicated in the
transmission of such diseases.
The used tires and water holding containers in the refuse dumps form breeding
grounds for mosquitoes especially during the rainy season and these mosquitoes cause great
suffering and economic loss because of their blood sucking habits and disease transmission.
The spread of Aedes albopictus in the United States has been reported to be facilitated by
used and waste tires (Novak, 1995). Food remains from homes and commercial stores found
in the refuse attract rats and other rodents, which harbor ectoparasites such as ticks and fleas
that are vectors of dangerous diseases as relapsing fever and plague. Also, the rodents attract
vermin and snakes to the sites making refuse dumps very hazardous to human health. Most of
the urban centers in Nigeria are virtually littered with garbage and refuse dumps and the
government and the people seem very unconcerned.
1.1 Scope of the Study
This research work entails to cover insect vectors associated with solid waste
dumpsites in urban Katsina, Katsina State, Nigeria.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Urban Katsina, the capital of Katsina State, has been experiencing a population
growth since the creation of the State in 1987. As such the simultaneous increase in
population and settlement expansion of the town has a direct effect on the increase in solid
waste generation which turns to serve as habitat for many vectors especially insects.
Consequently, these insect vectors associated with refuse dumps have caused series of
diseases evolving and affecting the lives and health of humans residing within the locality of
the deposited solid waste dumpsites. Therefore it has become necessarily to look into this
menace affecting the health of the nation’s populace, in other to reduce disease transmission
through various insect vectors and to maintain the healthy living of the people.
1.3 Justification of the Research
The alarming rate at which heaps of solid waste occupy most of Nigerian cities,
coupled with the fact that 78% of Nigerians use method of adjudged as insanitary, has not
only constituted visual blight and odor nuisance, but also encourage the breeding of insect
vectors such as mosquitoes, cockroaches, houseflies, etc., rodents, and other pests of public
health importance with their attendant disease outbreak (Ministry of Environment, 2005). The
increase in commercial, residential and infrastructural development due to the population
growth and urban expansion of urban Katsina is directly affecting the amount of solid wastes
generated in the area which consequently has a direct effect on the public health. The high
incidence of improper waste management related diseases such as cholera, Typhoid, diarrhea,
malaria, etc., are common in urban areas.
In view of the above problems, it is important to conduct a survey of the insect
vectors associated with solid waste dumpsites in urban Katsina with a view of identifying
them, study their relative abundance in the studied area, suggest the public implication of the
study and finally suggesting possible ways of controlling them. Since this is likely to be the
first research conducted at the study area by a project student on insect vectors associated
with solid waste dumpsites, it may open door for more research work so as to find more
proper way of getting ride or dealing with these insect vectors associated with solid waste
dumpsites. And findings of this research will likely assist in solving the above problems
caused by insect vectors to public health in the study area.
1.4 Aim and Objectives
This work is aimed at surveying insect vectors associated with solid waste dumpsites
in urban Katsina with a view to identifying the insect vectors breeding in solid waste
1.4.1 Objectives of the Research Work
The specific objectives of this study include:
• To identify and study some undisposed refuse dumps within Katsina municipality
To identify insect of public health interest breeding in the undisposed refuse dumps
• To study the relative abundance of various insect vector species
• Possible ways of controlling these insect vectors found in the study area.
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Biology of Insect Vectors
Insects belong to the phylum Arthropod, class Insecta. The name arthropod is derived
from two Greek words, arthron (joint) and podos (feet) and refers to the jointed appendages.
Arthropods also include spiders, lobsters, centipeds and shrimps. (Encyclopedia Britannica,
The term vectors are derived from the latin words, vehere meaning to carry or carrier.
In Biology, a vector denotes an organism usually insects that carries and transmits disease
causing microorganisms. (John et al,. 1981)
Insect have been enormously successful, with approximately 750,000 described
species and some Zoologist (Miller and Harley, 1996) estimated that there may be as many as
30 million species of insects. Most of the undescribed species are found in tropical rainforest.
The described species of insects comprise three quarter of all the living animals. Obviously,
the total number of insects that has not been described dwarfs all other kinds of living
organisms. Although there are numerous fresh water and parasitic species, the success of
insects has largely been due to their ability to exploit terrestrial habitats (Miller and Harley,
The oldest fossils of ancestral insect forms are believed to be some 350 million years
old. Insects appeared on earth long before the advent of humans or the earliest mammals. The
first insect probably evolved from primitive ringed worms, these insect ancestors were
wingless and develop without metamorphosis as do today’s silver fish. About 10,000 species
of insects have been classified as pest, some as disease carriers afflicting and often killing
humans, many preys upon domestic animals, others eat human food, clothing and other
possessions, and still others in their quest for food or lodging destroy trees, wood and paper.
(Encyclopedia Britannica, 2006)
According to Bishop et al., (1952) that through the centauries people have been
plagued by insects and have died by millions from disease carried by them and they added
that housefly has shared man’s food and develop in his waste and those of his domestic
animals since the world was young. Housefly breeds in animal matter and other filth habits
without which they cannot exist despite a high reproductive capacity.
Blowflies often called green bottles or blue flies mainly in carcasses of dead animal
and in garbage. They are rarely as numerous as houseflies but carry many of the same disease
producing organisms. The larvae of blowflies also develop in wound or natural opening of
the body and cause myiasis. Some species, true parasites develop in the tissue of living
animals, other maggots may continue to grow in the digestive tract and produce severe
irritation, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea (Bishop et al., 1952).
According to Skiife (1953), many flies are of great economic importance because they
are pest of crops, parasites of domestic animals and transmitters of disease.
The ubiquitous Musca domestica has been the subject of the most attempts to
incriminate calyptrate flies in disease transmission. (Greenberg, 1971), more than 100
different pathogens and parasites have been isolated from Musca domestica and it has been
suggested that fly transmits 65 of them. These infectious agents include polio, hepatitis and
trachoma viruses, cholera, salmonella, shigella, haemolytic streptococcus, pathogenic
Escharichia coli, anthrax, diphtheria, tuberculosis, leprosy and yaws bacteria, Entamoeba
histolytica, protozoan and helminthes Trichiris and Ancylostoma and he further explained
that Musca domestica is not a biological vectors of some helminthes Thelazia, species, eye
worms but M. domestica could act as a mechanical vector of viruses of bacteria and even
eggs of helminthes (Greenberg, 1971).
2.1.2 Structure of Insect Vectors (Mosquito)
The insect body is divided into head, thorax and abdomen. The mosquito, a typical
example, is shown in Figure 1. The head has a pair of eyes, antennae, and mouth equipped
with sucking or biting parts. The thorax has three joined segments, three pairs of legs, and
one or two pairs of wings, although some insects are wingless.
Fig 1 Structure of Insect Vector’s Body (Mosquito)
Insects generally have segmented bodies supported by exoskeletons, the hard outer
covering made mostly of chitin. The segments of the body are organized into three distinctive
but interconnected units, or tagmata: a head, a thorax and an abdomen (Nebraska, 2009). The
head supports a pair of sensory antennae, a pair of compound eyes, and, if present, one to
three simple eyes (or ocelli) and three sets of variously modified appendages that form the
mouthparts. The thorax has six segmented legs one pair each for the prothorax, mesothorax
and the metathorax segments making up the thorax and, none, two or four wings. The
abdomen consists of eleven segments, though in a few species of insects, these segments may
be fused together or reduced in size. The abdomen also contains most of the digestive,
respiratory, excretory and reproductive internal structures (Gullan and Cranston, 2005).
The insect outer skeleton, the cuticle, is made up of two layers: the epicuticle, which
is a thin and waxy water resistant outer layer and contains no chitin, and a lower layer called
the procuticle. The procuticle is chitinous and much thicker than the epicuticle and has two
layers: an outer layer known as the exocuticle and an inner layer known as the endocuticle.
The nervous system of an insect can be divided into a brain and a ventral nerve cord.
The head capsule is made up of six fused segments, each with a pair of ganglia, or a cluster of
nerve cells outside of the brain (Lloyd and James, 1984).Many species of insects have
reduced numbers of ganglia due to fusion or reduction (Tracey et al., 2003). Some
cockroaches have just six ganglia in the abdomen, whereas some insects, like the house fly
Musca domestica, have all the body ganglia fused into a single large thoracic ganglion.
The main structure of an insect’s digestive system is a long enclosed tube called the
alimentary canal, which runs lengthwise through the body. The alimentary canal directs food
unidirectional from the mouth to the anus. It has three sections, each of which performs a
different process of digestion. In addition to the alimentary canal, insects also have paired
salivary glands and salivary reservoirs. These structures usually reside in the thorax, adjacent
to the foregut (Brewer, 2008). Some insects, like flies, have extra oral digestion. Insects
using extra oral digestion expel digestive enzymes onto their food to break it down. This
strategy allows insects to extract a significant proportion of the available nutrients from the
food source (James, 2001). The gut is where almost all of insects' digestion takes place. It
can be divided into the foregut, midgut and hindgut
There are many different patterns of gas exchange demonstrated by different groups
of insects. Gas exchange patterns in insects can range from continuous and diffusive
ventilation, to discontinuous gas exchange (Gullan and Cranston, 2005). Some species of
insect that are submerged also have adaptations to aid in respiration. As larvae, many insects
have gills that can extract oxygen dissolved in water, while others need to rise to the water
surface to replenish air supplies which may be held or trapped in special structures (Richard
et al., 2007).
2.1.3 Life Cycle of Insect Vectors
Most insects follow one of two main modes of reproduction. Winged insects, such as
the housefly, undergo four stages of development: egg, larva, pupa and adult (Fig 2). There
may be several larval stages. Wingless insects, such as lice, undergo three stages: egg, larva
Fig 2 Life Cycle of an Insect Vectors (Mosquito)
The life cycles of insects vary (from one day to a few years), but most insects hatch
from eggs. Insect growth is constrained by the inelastic exoskeleton and development
involves a series of molts. The immature stages can differ from the adults in structure, habit
and habitat, and can include a passive pupal stage in those groups that undergo complete
metamorphosis. Insects that undergo incomplete metamorphosis lack a pupal stage and adults
develop through a series of nymphal stages (Vincen, 2012)
2.1.6 Classification of Insect Vectors
Fig 3 Classification of Insects of Insect Vectors
2.1.7 Economic / Medical Importance of Insect Vectors
Arthropods form a major group of disease vectors with mosquitoes, flies, sand flies,
lice, fleas, ticks and mites transmitting a huge number of diseases. Many such vectors are
haematophagous, which feed on blood at some or all stages of their lives. When the insect’s
blood feed, the parasite enters the blood stream of the host. This can happen in different
The Anopheles mosquito, a vector for Malaria, Filariasis and various arthropod borne
viruses (arboviruses), inserts its delicate mouthpart under the skin and feeds on its host's
blood. The parasites the mosquito carries are usually located in its salivary glands (used by
mosquitoes to anaesthetise the host). Therefore, the parasites are transmitted directly into the
host's blood stream. Pool feeders such as the sand fly and black fly, vectors for Leishmaniasis
and Onchocerciasis respectively, will chew a well in the host's skin, forming a small pool of
blood from which they feed. Leishmania parasites then infect the host through the saliva of
the sand fly. Onchocerca force their own way out of the insect's head into the pool of blood.
Aedes mosquitoes are vectors of avian malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever and
chikungunya (Vojtech et al., 2002), Aphids are the vectors of many viral diseases in plants
(Erwin et al., 1997). Fleas such as the human flea, Pulex irritans and the Oriental rat flea,
Xenopsylla cheopis, transmit bubonic plague, murine typhus and tapeworms (Browne, 1994).
Mosquitoes of the Anopheles genus transmit human Malaria and Elephantiasis (Brian et al.,
2011). Phlebotomine sand flies transmit leishmaniasis, bartonellosis and pappataci fever
(Grimaldi and Engel, 2005). Tsetse flies several genera are vectors of human African
trypanosomiasis also known as African sleeping sickness (Stein, 2005).
2.2.4 Mode of Disease Transmission by Insect Vectors
There are two ways that vector borne diseases are transmitted:
Mechanical transmission takes place when a vector simply carries pathogenic
microorganisms on their body and transfers them to food, which we then consume. Flies and
cockroaches are in this category. Flies like to rest on faecal matter and then may move on to
fresh food. They can carry infectious agents through their mouth and on their legs and other
body parts. They deposit these agents on ready to eat foods and the recipient gets infected if
they consume the contaminated food (Brewer, 2009).
Biological transmission involves the multiplication and growth of a disease causing
agent inside the vector’s body.
Malaria is a good example of biological transmission. The female mosquitoes take the
malaria infectious agent (Plasmodium) from an infected person with a blood meal. After
sexual reproduction in the gut of the mosquito, the infectious agent migrates into the salivary
gland of the insect, where it grows in size, matures and becomes ready to infect humans.
When the mosquito next bites a human the saliva is injected into the skin and transfers the
infection in doing so. The methods of transmission for some known vectors are shown in
Table 1 Important Vector and Their Disease Transmission Mechanisms.
Vector Diseases Mechanism
Housefly Diarrhoeal diseases, TB, polio, worms, food poisoning, infective
Mosquito Malaria, yellow fever, filariasis, dengue fever Biological
Flea Plague, murine typhus/endemic typhus Biological
Sandfly Leishmaniasis Biological
Blackfly Onchocerciasis Biological
Bedbug Dermatitis, Chagas disease Biological
Cockroach Diarrhoeal diseases Mechanical
Tsetse fly Sleeping sickness (trypanosomiasis) Biological
2.2.1 Biology of Housefly (Musca domestica)
The housefly (also house fly, house-fly or common housefly), Musca domestica, is a
fly of the suborder Cyclorrhapha. It is the most common of all domestic flies, accounting for
about 91% of all flies in human habitations, and indeed one of the most widely distributed
insects, found all over the world. It is considered a pest that can carry serious diseases.
Even though the order of flies (Diptera) is much older, true houseflies are believed to
have evolved some 65 million years ago (Bernstein et al., 1992). They are thought to have
originated in the southern Palearctic region, particularly the Middle East. Because of their
close, commensally relationship with humans, they probably owe their worldwide dispersal
to co-migration with humans (Anthony, 1986).
The house fly, Musca domestica Linnaeus, is a well known cosmopolitan pest of both
farm and home. This species is always found in association with humans or activities of
humans. It is the most common species found in dumpsites, houses and almost everywhere.
Not only are house flies a nuisance, but they can also transport disease causing organisms. It
is commonly associated with animal feces, but has adapted well to feeding on garbage, it is
abundant almost anywhere people live.
2.2.2 Structure of Housefly
House fly is larger insect, 6-7 mm long, greyish with blackish markings and with a
wing span of 13-15 mm and having two wings, posterior wings modified in a pair of halters
or balancers. Wings when folded over the abdomen at rest diverge posteriorly. Mouth parts
are sponging type or haustellate, which are adapted to feed on liquid diet only. When they
have to feed on solids such as sugar crystals, they first vomit the contents of stomach over it
and dissolve food in it before swallowing. Eyes are very large, covering major part of the
head and antennae small aristate. They are very agile and expert fliers, capable of landing
upside down on the roof. They can fly up to 80 feet high. Adult longevity is generally 2-3
months but may be reduced to 2-3 week in hot weather.
Like other Diptera (meaning two winged), houseflies have only one pair of wings; the
hind pair is reduced to small halteres that aid in flight stability. Characteristically, the media
vein fourth long vein of the wing shows a sharp upward bend.
Fig 4 Structure of Housefly
2.2.3 Life cycle of Housefly
Each female fly can lay approximately 9,000 eggs in a life time, in several batches of about
75 to 150 (Stuart, 2003). The eggs are white and are about 1.2 mm in length. Within a day,
larvae (maggots) hatch from the eggs; they live and feed on (usually dead and decaying)
organic material, such as garbage or feces. They are pale-whitish, 3–9 mm long, thinner at the
mouth end, and have no legs. Their life cycle ranges from 14 hours to 36 hours (Fig 5). At the
end of their third instar, the maggots crawl to a dry, cool place and transform into pupae,
coloured reddish or brown and about 8 mm long. The adult flies then emerge from the pupae.
(This whole cycle is known as complete metamorphosis.) The adults live from two weeks to a
month in the wild, or longer in benign laboratory conditions. Having emerged from the
pupae, the flies cease to grow; small flies are not necessarily young flies, but are instead the
result of getting insufficient food during the larval stage (Anthony, 1986).
Some 36 hours after having emerged from the pupa, the female is receptive for mating.
The male mounts her from behind to inject sperm. Copulation takes a few seconds to a couple
of minutes (Anthony, 1986). Normally, the female mates only once, store the sperm to use it
repeatedly for laying several sets of eggs. .
Fig 5 Life Cycle of Housefly
The flies depend on warm temperatures; generally, the warmer the temperature, the faster
the flies will develop. The entire life cycle may be completed in 8-16 days.
2.2.4 Classification of Housefly
Species: M. domestica
2.2.5 Economic / Medical Importance of Housefly
The housefly is a very common and cosmopolitan species which transmits diseases to man.
The organisms of both amoebic and bacillary dysenteries are picked up by flies from the faeces of
infected people and transferred to clean food either on the fly's hairs or by the fly vomiting during
feeding. Typhoid germs may be deposited on food with the fly's faeces. The house fly cause the
spread of yaws germs by carrying them from a yaws ulcer to an ordinary sore. Houseflies also
transmit poliomyelitis by carrying the virus from infected faeces to food or drink. Cholera and
hepatitis are sometimes fly borne. Other diseases carried by houseflies are Salmonella,
tuberculosis, anthrax, and some forms of ophthalmia. They carry over 100 pathogens and transmit
some parasitic worms. The flies in poorer and lower hygiene areas usually carry more pathogens.
Some strains have become immune to most common insecticides.
2.2.6 Mode of Disease Transmission By Housefly
Housefly transmits diseases mechanically in two ways:
External carriage: When housefly sits on filth and dung etc. pathogenic organisms get attached
onto the lower side of oral disc, hairs of tibia and tarsi and on abdomen. When the same fly sits on
food items meant for human consumption, the pathogens are release into it and get into the human
system through contamination.
Internal carriage: In this mode pathogens are swallowed and retained in the gut. Housefly has a
habit of regurgitating stomach contents on the food material before swallowing it. It also defecates
frequently in the form of fly specks. As the alimentary canal of house fly contains pathogens, in
both ways it releases pathogens in the articles of human consumption. Even utensils containing fly
specks can transmit pathogens if not washed properly.
2.2.7 2.2.7 Control of Houseflies
The more commonly used control measures for house flies are sanitation, use of traps, and
insecticides, but in some instances integrated fly control has been implemented. The use of
biological control in fly management is still at a relatively early stage.
2.3.1 Biology of Mosquito
Mosquitoes are members of a family of nematocerid flies, the Culicidae (from the Latin
culex, genitive culicis meaning midge or gnat (Edmund, 1959). The word mosquito (formed by
mosca and diminutive ito) is from the Spanish or Portuguese for little fly (Lesley, 1993). In
particular, the females of many species of mosquitoes are blood eating pests and dangerous vectors
of diseases, whereas members of the similar looking Chironomidae and Tipulidae are not. Many
species of mosquitoes are not blood eaters, and many of those that do create a high to low pressure
in the blood to obtain it do not transmit disease. Also, in the bloodsucking species, only the
females suck blood. Furthermore, even among mosquitoes that do carry important diseases, neither
all species of mosquitoes, nor or all strains of a given species transmit the same kinds of diseases,
nor do they all transmit the diseases under the same circumstances; their habits differ. For
example, some species attack people in houses, and others prefer to attack people walking in
2.3.2 Structure of Mosquito
Mosquitoes have slender bodies with three segments; head, thorax and abdomen. The head
has eyes and a pair of long, many segmented antennae. The antennae are important for detecting
host odors, as well as odors of breeding sites where females lay eggs. The compound eyes are
distinctly separated from one another. Their larvae only possess a pit eye ocellus. The compound
eyes of adults develop in a separate region of the head (Harzsch and Hafner, 2006). New. The head
also has an elongated, forward projecting stinger like proboscis used for feeding, and two sensory
palps. The maxillary palps of the males are longer than their proboscises, whereas the females’
maxillary palps are much shorter. In typical bloodsucking species, the female has an elongated
The thorax is specialized for locomotion. Three pairs of legs and a pair of wings are attached
to the thorax. The insect wing is an outgrowth of the exoskeleton. The Anopheles mosquito can fly
for up to four hours continuously at 1–2 km/h (Kaufmann and Briegel, 2004), traveling up to
12 km (7.5 mi) in a night. Males beat their wings between 450 and 600 times per second
The abdomen is specialized for food digestion and egg development; the abdomen of a
mosquito can hold three times its own weight in blood (Safari, 2011). This segment expands
considerably when a female takes a blood meal. The blood is digested over time, serving as a
source of protein for the production of eggs, which gradually fill the abdomen.
Fig 6 Structure of Mosquito
2.3.3 Life Cycle of Mosquito
Like all flies, mosquitoes go through four stages in their life cycle: egg, larva, pupa,
and adult or imago. In most species, adult females lay their eggs in stagnant water; some lay
eggs near the water's edge; others attach their eggs to aquatic plants. The first three stages
egg, larva and pupa are largely aquatic. These stages typically last 5–14 days, depending on
the species and the ambient temperature, but there are important exceptions.
Eggs hatch to become larvae, which grow until they are able to change into
pupae. The adult mosquito emerges from the mature pupa as it floats at the water surface.
Bloodsucking mosquitoes, depending on species, gender, and weather conditions, have
potential adult lifespan ranging from as little as a week to as long as several months. Some
species can overwinter as adults in diapauses (Jonida, 2003).
Fig 7 Life Cycles of Mosquito
The period of development from egg to adult varies among species and is strongly
influenced by ambient temperature. Some species of mosquitoes can develop from egg to
adult in as little as five days, but a more typical period of development in tropical conditions
would be some 40 days or more for most species.
2.3.4 Classification of Mosquito
2.3.5 Economic / Medical Importance of Mosquito
Mosquitoes can act as a vector for many disease causing viruses and parasites.
Infected mosquitoes carry these organisms from person to person without exhibiting
symptoms themselves. Mosquito borne diseases include:
Viral diseases, such as yellow fever, dengue fever and Chikungunya, transmitted
mostly by Aedesa egypti. The parasitic diseases collectively called malaria, caused by various
species of Plasmodium, carried by mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles.
Lymphatic filariasis (the main cause of elephantiasis) which can be spread by a wide
variety of mosquito species (Toma et al., 2006).
Various species of mosquitoes are estimated to transmit various types of disease to
more than 700 million people annually in Africa, South America, Central America, Mexico,
Russia and much of Asia, with millions of resultant deaths. At least two million people
annually die of these diseases, and the morbidity rates are many times higher still.
2.2.4 Mode of Disease Transmission By Mosquito
Mosquito transmit disease pathogens biologically. Malaria is a good example of
biological transmission. The female mosquitoes take the malaria infectious agent
(Plasmodium) from an infected person with a blood meal. After sexual reproduction in the
gut of the mosquito, the infectious agent migrates into the salivary gland of the insect, where
it grows in size, matures and becomes ready to infect humans. When the mosquito next bites
a human the saliva is injected into the skin and transfers the infection in doing so.
2.2.5 Control and Prevention of Mosquito
Methods used to prevent the spread of disease, or to protect individuals in areas where
disease is endemic, include:
1. Vector control aimed at mosquito control or eradication
2. Disease prevention, using prophylactic drugs and developing vaccines
3. Prevention of mosquito bites, with insecticides, nets and repellents
Since most such diseases are carried by elderly female mosquitoes, some scientists have
suggested focusing on these to avoid the evolution of resistance (CDC, 2006). Many methods
are used for mosquito control. Depending on the situation, the most important usually
1. Source reduction (e.g. removing stagnant water)
2. Biocontrol (e.g. importing natural predators such as dragonflies)
3. Trapping, and/or insecticides to kill larvae or adults
4. Exclusion (mosquito nets and window screening)
3.0 MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1 Study Area
The study was conducted in Urban Katsina between May to July, 2013.Urban Katsina
is the capital of Katsina state; it is located between latitude 120 451N and130 151N, and
Longitude 70 301 and 80 00E. The location is at the extreme part of Northern Nigeria, some
30Km from the Nigeria-Niger border. Katsina State is bordered with Kaduna state to the
South, Niger Republic to North, and Zamfara state to the East. Urban Katsina comprises of
two Local Government Areas, i.e. Katsina and some parts of Batagarawa Local Government
Areas (Zayyana, 2010). The main ethnic groups are the Hausa and Fulani. The Fulani are
primarily settled or semi settled cattle herders, and sometimes with some limited crop
production activities. The Hausa are largely crop cultivators, but who also often keep some
animals, other ethnic groups with lower, but still significant importance in Katsina town as
social and economic development include Igbo, Yoruba, Nupe, Kanuri, Tiv and others
The volume and composition of solid waste generated in urban Katsina change
considerably with the change of season. Moreover, solid waste collection points situated very
close settlements or other forms human activities are in most cases very disturbing because of
the bad odour associated with wetness, and it also make human movement difficult.
Lying within the Northern Sudan savanna, the vegetation is dominated by fine leaved
Acacia spp. and their associates. These trees include Adonsonia digitata, Parkia bigloboza,
Anogeissum leiocarpus, Afrormosia laxiflora, Bombax costatum, Boswellia dalzielii, Burkea
Africana etc. The common shrub and shrubby species include Annona senegalensis, Bridelia
ferruginea, Gardenia spp, Grewia mollis, Hymenocardia acida, Lannea kerstingii, May tenus
senegalensis, Nauclea latifolia, Pillostigma thonningii etc. The trees characteristically grow
long tap roots and thick barks both of which make it possible for them to withstand the long
dry season and bush fires. The grass cover is mostly perennial, with durable roots, which
remain underground after stalks are burnt away or wilted in the dry season only to germinate
with the first rains.
Urban Katsina has a fairly large population, enjoys Sub Sahara African rate of
population increase with average birth and death rates of 4.2% and 1.6% respectively (Zango,
2010). As of 1952 census, the population figure was 52,672 and rose to 223,644 in 1991, by
then it had already acquired the status of a state capital. The population figure after the 2006
census was recorded to be 327,376 (National Population Commission, 2006). The settlement
pattern has characterized by two categories base on population density. The first category is
the high to medium density settlements which include the Cikin Birni (Old City) with their
peripheral areas respectively. While the second category is the low density settlements of
Government Reservation Areas (GRA), Kofar Marusa Low Cost and the New Layout among
3.2 Study Sites
The field investigations were carried out in fifteen (15) sites(Figure 8); these are
Chake (Chake junction), Tashar gagare (magama junction), Galadanchi (behind court), Daki
Tara (near UBE primary school), Rafindadi (Tanki), Kamitawa (Kamitawa), Goriba housing
estate, Inwala (Behind ATC), Unguwar Yari (CPS junction), Kofar Bai (Behind township
stadium), GRA (Behind Labo Tarka house),Dutsen safe low cost, Layout (Abuja crescent),
Tudun Wada and Layout (Kurfi street).
3.3 Selection of Solid Refuse Dumps
Katsina, a densely populated town with numerous human activities has several refuse
dumps scattered around the town with differences in their age, size and composition. Some
are large deposits of refuse accumulated over the years while others are smaller but more
recent roadside dumps. From all these refuse dumps, fifteen (15) strategic sites were selected
for the purpose of this field observation with respect to their volumes, location and
3.4 Methods of Vector Collection
Four types of sampling devices were used to collect insects from the different survey
sites, namely sweep nets, sticky traps, water traps (Onyido et al., 2009) and hand picking
while visual observation was employed to closely study the refuse dumps to understand their
3.4.1 Sticky Traps
The sticky traps were used for trapping smaller insects and cockroaches. The sticky
trap was designed with plywood of about 60 cm length, 40 cm breadth and 2 cm thickness.
The surface of the plywood was covered with bright coloured piece of cloth to attract insect
vectors and pinned with thumbtacks. Castor oil and grease were applied on the surface of the
trap. The sticky traps were then placed in horizontal and vertical positions in the refuse
dumps. The insects were caught when they crept onto or alighted on or blown onto the sticky
surfaces by wind.
3.4.2 Water Traps
The water traps were designed using plastic buckets of 5 L, which were three quarter filled
with water. Detergent was added to the water to reduce surface tension and enhance wetting
of the insects.
3.4.3 Sweep Net
This was used for catching mosquitoes, housefly and other flying insects. The sweep
net was made with mosquito net, a quarter inch iron rod to form the rim and a handle. The
sweep net method involves the use of the sweep net in catching flying insects and sweeping
through the dumpsites to catch the insects. As emphasized by Chori (2003), that sweeping net
should be done at the time when the place of the collection is perfectly dry and preferably
when the wind is low because traces of the dew will cause the net to become saturated and
the insects caught will be ruined. An average of about 20 sweeps was carried out on a dump
between 6.00am and 9.00am in the morning for a better catch. Insect caught were collected in
a fold of the net and placed in the killing bottles.
The minimum equipment necessary to collect insect is ones hand. Chori (2003), these
method was use to collect insects known to be harmless with the aid of forceps and hand
Cockroaches, houseflies and other insects were kept in specimen bottles containing
70% ethanol, while mosquitoes were kept in a Petri dish, on a filter paper, placed on moist
cotton wool. They were later sent to the Department of Biology Laboratory of Umaru Musa
Yar’adua University, Katsina, for identification and processing.
3.5 Sample Identification
Preliminary identification up to species level for the specimens was done using
published keys by lane and Crosskey (1993). Full identification was done at Institute for
Agricultural Research (IAR), Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria,
3.6 Statistical Analysis
Samples collected where analyzed using simple percentage and results were displayed
through tables and figures.
This field investigation showed that the study area (Urban Katsina) has a large
number of refuse dumps scattered all over the various districts. A total of 50 refuse dumps
were observed, out of which fifteen (15) were selected and closely studied within the study
area. The selection was based on the compositions, location, possible ages and areas where
vector host contacts were suspected by general observation to be high. Table 1 shows the
locations, description, composition and possible ages of the solid refuse dump sites studied.
The refuse dumps varied in both their compositions and probable ages according to human
activities in the area. Paper, vegetable, discarded food materials typical of domestic wastes
and faecal matter were common in some of the sites studied and were at various stages of
TABLE 2: THE LOCATION, DESCRIPTION, COMPOSITIONAND POSSIBLE AGES OF THE REFUSE SITES
Survey Sites Descriptions and Location Composition of Refuse Dump Possible Age of the
Located near Rafin yan wanki, its highly density
area, poor planning and poor drainages, inhabited by
traders, craftsmen, janitors, mechanics etc.
Used cans, vegetable matter, disposable cups,
pots and plates, broken bottles and dishes,
polythene bags, plastics, papers, spoiled food
remains, old tyres, faecal matter, sullage, dead
remains of animal, open defaecation in refuse.
Chake area is located near chake market along the
road side. It is high density area encroage by chake
market, blocked drainages and littered environment,
mosque, residential house and shops inhabited mostly
by traders and very few civil servants
Household garbage, empty cartons, pieces of
clothes, carton cans, broken bottle, polythene
bags, papers, faecal matter etc.
and Daki Tara
Site III, IV, V
High density areas by the roadsides with numerous
dumpsites. Blocked drainage and poor planning.
Schools, shops, stadium, roadside traders, civil
servants, students and businessmen and women etc.
Industrial waste as piece of metals, empty
tins, old tyres, faeces, food waste, cartons and
papers, polythene bags etc.
Located behind Labo Tarka residence. It’s an area
full of residential houses inhabited mostly by senior
civil servants, successful business men and women. It
Beverages tin, empty cartons and polythyne
bags, old shoes and clothes, broken bottles,
wooden furniture, plates, plants leaves etc
has good drainage system with numerous private and
public schools, super market, recreational parks etc
Sparsely populated area, good drainage system, few
dumpsites, modern residential settlement, schools etc.
inhabitants are mostly civil servants, successful
businessmen & women, students and few craftsmen
Discarded CD plates, old electronic parts,
vegetables matter, hairs and hair care
products, polythene bags etc.
Street & Abuja
Site VIII, IX
Located near old KTTV, well planned areas with
good drainage systems inhabited by civil servants,
students, businessmen, traders, roadside sellers,
supermarket, schools, bookshops, chemist, business
Household garbage, old electronic parts,
discarded CD plates, polythene bags,
vegetable matters, old furniture and clothes,
D/safe low cost
Moderate atea located near army barrack with few
dumpsites. Inhabitants are civil servant, students,
business men and few craftsmen.
Domestic garbage, beverages tin, discarded
shoes, clothes, vegetables, free roaming
domestic animal and polythene bags etc. 1-2 months
Site XI, XII
They are located along the roadside. The inhabitant
are mostly traders, businessman, civil servants and
Household garbage, dead animal remains,
beverage tins, spoiled vegetable matters,
polythene bags, old tyres, plastics and dead
Around human dwelling, a highly density area with
poor drainage and poor planning. Inhabitants are
mostly traders, students, and few civil servants
Domestic wastes such as used can, disposable
cups, broken bottles and dishes, plastics,
paper, vegetables matter, faecal matter and
Site XIII, XIV old furniture
Behind sharia court kofar soro, police station, market,
mosque, shops and road side seller.
Garbage, domestic waste, empty container,
discarded plates and cups, vegetable matter
TABLE 3 INSECT VECTORS COLLECTED IN VARIOUS LOCATION STUDIED
Insect type Site I Site
Blue bottle fly 5 8 6 3 _ 5 4 _ _ _ _ 3 6 7 2
Cockroach _ _ _ _ _ 1 _ 2 _ 1 _ _ _ _ _
Drain fly 4 _ _ _ 1 _ 2 _ _ _ 1 _ _ 3 _
Dung beetle 2 1 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 2 _
Green bottle fly 6 _ 3 2 7 5 3 6 2 _ _ _ 6 8 4
Housefly 25 21 15 20 14 16 22 14 17 13 9 21 16 18 13
Mosquito 3 6 _ _ 4 _ _ _ _ 6 _ 8 4 7 5
Total insect collected 41 36 24 25 26 27 31 22 19 20 10 31 32 45 24
Site I – Kamitawa Site VI – GRA Site XI – Magama Junction
Site II – Chake Site VII – Goriba Housing Estate Site XII – Tudun Wada
Site III – Kofar Bai Site VIII – Kurfi Street Site XIII - Dafindadi
Site IV – Unguwar Yari Site XI – Abuja Crescent Site XIV - Unwala
Site V – Daki Tara Site X – Dutsen Safe Lowcost Site XV – Galadanchi
TABLE 4 DIFFERENT INSECT VECTORS COLLECTED AND THEIR ABUNDANCE
Canthon pelularis (Dung beetle)
Periplanta americanus (Cockroach)
Musca domestica (Housefly)
Aedes species (Mosquito)
Clogmia albipunctatus (Drain fly)
Alliphora vomitoria (Blue bottle fly)
Lucilia sericata (Green bottle fly)
Table 5 INSECT VECTORS COLLECTED FROM DIFFERENT TRAPS AND THEIR RELATIVE ABUNDANCE
Insect Vectors Handpicking Sticky trap Sweep net Water trap Total %
Blue bottle fly - - 33 16 49 11.7%
Cockroach 3 1 - - 4 1.0%
Dung beetle 5 - - - 5 1.2%
Green bottle fly - - 42 10 52 12.4%
Housefly - - 177 77 245 60.8%
Drain fly - - 11 - 11 2.6%
Mosquito - - 24 19 43 10.3%
Total 8 1 291 118 418
% collected by trap 2.0% 0.2% 69.6% 28.2% 100% 100%
Kamitawa (Site I), one of the study areas, is a high density residential area. The
inhabitants were mostly traders, craftsmen and some little percentage of civil servants. The
refuse dumps gtconsisted essentially of such domestic wastes as vegetable matter, used tyres,
cans, disposable cups, plates and spoons. Others were broken dishes and household utensils,
polythene bags; plastics of all sorts, papers used tyres, faecal matter, sullage, dead remains of
animals and so on. The probable ages of the refuse heaps were about 2-3 months.
Chake area (Site II) is also a high density populated area than the Kamitawa Area. It is very
close to the Chake main Market, with shops, mosque and residential houses. Drainages were
available but blocked with refuse. The composition of the refuse include vegetable matter,
garbage, empty cartons and various types of wrapping papers, empty cans, broken bottles and
Kofar Bai (Site III), Unguwar Yari (Site IV), and Daki Tara (Site V) areas are equally highly
density areas located along the road sides. The inhabitants are mainly craftsmen, mechanics,
roadside traders, food vendors, and few Civil servants. The garbage in the area consisted of
domestic wastes like old clothes, discarded electronics, wrapping papers, old tyres, faecal
matter and food wastes.
The GRA (Site VI) is a low density area occupied by top civil servants and very
successful businessmen and women. It has good functional drainages, magnificent residential
buildings, shops and few supermarkets and retail provision stores. The refuse dumps contain
mainly beverage tins, empty cartons, polythene bags, old shoes, clothing and broken wooden
furniture. The ages of all the refuse dumps varied from 2 to 3 months.
Goriba road (Site VII) is sparsely populated area located in the government residential
area that is better planned like GRA areas. Inhabitants are mainly civil servants, successful
businessmen and women and few craftsmen. It has good functional drainages, magnificent
residential buildings, shops and few supermarkets and retail provision stores. The refuse
dump is composed mainly of discarded electronic materials including CD plates, and
electronic parts, vegetable matter, hair and hair-care products, animal and human dung.
Layout (Site VIII, IX) are moderately populated area most of which are civil
servants, successful business men and women, students and few roadside traders. The
composition of dumpsites are household garbage, discarded CD plates, vegetables, animal
manure etc. the ages of the dumpsites are 2-3 months old.
Dutsen Safe Low-cost (Site X) is also a moderate area located near army barrack with
few dumpsites. The compositions of the dump include household garbage, beverage tins,
broken bottles, discarded shoes, clothes, vegetables etc. Inhabitants are students, craftsmen,
politicians, successful business men and few civil servants. The ages of dumpsites are 1-2
Magama Junction, Tudun Wada (Sites XI, XII) were located along the roadsides.
Composition the dumpsites are mainly household garbage, discarded house utensils, old
tyres, vegetable matter, spoil foods materials etc. the ages of the dumpsites are 3-4 months
Rafindadi and Unwala (Sites XIII, XIV) are closely around human dwelling. They are highly
populated areas most of which are occupy by traders and businessmen with some few civil
servants. The composition of the dumpsites includes domestic garbage, disposable cup,
broken dishes, polyethene bags, vegetables and discarded utensil. The dumpsites are 4-6
Galadanchi (Site XV) is an area located behind Sharia court with numerous business centers
and shops. It’s very close to police station. The inhabitants engage in small scale business.
The possible ages of the refuse dumpsite are 2-3 months and its compositions are domestic
garbage, vegetable matters, empty containers and animal dung.
Mostly insect vectors belonging to the Muscidae (housefly),Calliphoridae (green bottle fly, blue
bottle fly), Blattidae (cockroach), Serabaediae (dung beetle), Fanniidae (Latrine fly) and the
Culicidae (mosquito) were caught. The houseflies were the most abundant with a total of 254
(60.7%). The green bottle flies were next in abundance with a total of 52 (12%), followed by the
blue bottle flies with a total of 49 (12%). Mosquito were next to the blue bottle fly 43(10.3%),
drain fly 11 (3.0%), dung beetle 5 (1.2%) and only 4 (1.0%) cockroaches were caught during the
survey by sticky trap and hand picking method (Table 2). The insect vectors collected with
different traps and their relative abundance were shown in Table 3. Sweep net collected 291
insect vectors (69.6%), water traps collected 118 (28.2%), handpicking collected 8 insects
(1.9%), and stick traps collected only 1 insect (0.2%) giving a total of 418 insect vector
5.0 DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The investigation reaffirmed that urban Katsina is littered with refuse dumps, an
indication that indiscriminate dumping of wastes is still prevalent in the city. All the 7 species of
insects encountered in this study are all closely associated with humans and human generated
waste, a situation that Wallace (1991) considers to increase the potential for mechanical
transmission of filth associated pathogens.
The negative effect of uncontrolled dumping of wastes in developing countries has been
summarized (Siboe et al., 1996, Guevart et al., 2006 and Onyido et al., 2009). Worth mentioning
are the reports of Lakshmikantha, (2006) from Bangalore who highlighted the danger of waste
disposal sites in the spread of diseases to people living in the immediate vicinity; Pukkala and
Ponka, (2001) who observed that waste increase the incidence of cancer and asthma in houses
built in sites that have been previously used as refuse dumps; Pach et al., (1996) who highlighted
a high frequencies of toxic methemoglobinemias in people living in the vicinity of refuse dumps.
A common observation in all the reports was that refuse dump sites constitute a habitat for
vectors and nuisance organisms that are capable of acting as transmitters of diseases.
The result of this survey therefore underlines the hazards associated with indiscriminate
dumping of refuse. Siboe et al. (1996) reported the potential human danger resulting from
moulds growing on crude garbage dumps. Other researches also highlighted the detrimental
effects of arbitrary refuse dumping in the cities (Pukkala and Ponka, 2001).
The ages of the refuse dumps were between 1 and 6 months. This shows that the refuse
dumps were not only unsightly but were decomposing and emitting odors to the inhabitants of
the areas. Colombi (1991) pointed out that the indiscriminate accumulations of refuse dumps in
cities are detrimental to both the inhabitants and the disposal industry operators. Wastes left
unattended to for a long time constitutes serious health hazard, causes offensive odor, and emits
poisonous gases to the atmosphere. Besides decreasing the aesthetic appearance and air quality,
refuse dumps can as well pollute underground water sources (Ojiegbe, 2005).
Seven insect species including M. domestica, P. americana, A. gambiae, C. pelularis ,
Lucilia sericata, Calliphora vonitoria and C. albipunctatus were collected from the dumpsites.
M. domestica, a notorious / mechanical transmitter of filth diseases especially cholera,
amoebiasis, typhoid and helminthiases (Onyido et al., 2009) was the most abundant species
collected. This indicates the probable endemicity of such diseases in the city as the
environmental conditions, aetiological sources of infection (faecal materials in the refuse) and
human population for the maintenance of infections abound.
P. americana, are among the medically important cockroaches out of over 4000 known
species. They are involved in the mechanical transmission and harborage of various pathogens,
viruses, bacteria, protozoa and helminthes (Service, 1980; Rivault et al., 1993).
Among the mosquitoes, A. aegypti are vicious indiscriminate biters responsible for the
transmission of arboviruses especially yellow fever virus (Bang et al., 1980; Onyido et al.,
2008). Out of the 7 families of insects encountered in this study house fly (Muscidae) is found in
all the 15 study sites. They are usually associated with decomposing substrate of solid urban
wastes (Morales & Wolff, 2010) which probably account for their dominance in this study. This
fly is known to be a vector of both zoonotic and non-zoonotic protozoan parasites such as
Sarcocystis spp (Markus, 1980), Taxoplasma gondii (Wallace, 1971), Isospora spp (Khan &
Huq, (1978), Giardia spp (Doiz et al., 2000; Graczyk et al., 2003; Kasprzak and
Majewska,1981; Szostakakowska et al., 2004), Entamoeba coli (Khan & Huq,1978), E.
histolytica dispar (Khan &Huq, 1978), Endolimax nana (Khan and Huq, 1978), Pentatric
homonashominis (Khan and Huq,1978), Hammondis spp (Khan and Huq, 1978) and
Cryptosporidium parvuum (Clavel et al., 2002; Graczyk et al., 1999; Graczyk et al., 2000;
Graczyk et al., 2003; Szostakakowska et al., 2004). Musca domestica are also implicated in the
transmission of bacteria such as Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter, Escherichia,
Enterococcus, Chlamydia and many other species that cause illness (Sanchez-Arroyo and
The cockroaches (Family Balttidae) occur in some of the sites visited. They are known to
feed on human faeces and transmit such diseases as amoebiasis caused by Entamoeba histolytica
(Rao et al., 1971) as well as Girdiasis (Kasprzak and Majewska, 1981) through dissemination of
cysts. Cockroaches are also capable of transmitting zoonotic Toxoplasma gondii that can induce
abortion in pregnant women. A study by Cotton et al., (2000) showed that exposure to cockroach
antigens may play an important role in asthma related health problems.
The species of beetles encountered in this survey, Canthon pelularis (Family Coleptera)
occur only in Kamitawa, Chake and Unwala areas. They are known to transmit oocysts of T.
gondi (Saitoh and Hagaki, 1990) and that of Isospora as well as the anthropozoonotic protozoan
Cryptosporidium parvum which they acquire from animal manure (Mathison and Ditrich, 1999).
Besides transmission of diseases, coleopterans are known improve the nutrient cycle of the soil
through burrowing and consumption of dung (Brown, et al., 2010).
The drain flies Clogmia albipunctatus were encountered in few studied sites. They do not
bite man or animals, but they do feed on a wide range of liquid substances and breed in garbage,
chicken droppings, livestock manure and other decaying organic matter. They are known to
transmit diseases mechanically by contaminating food and causing such infections as polio,
typhoid fever, dysentery, and food poisoning. The larvae is known to utilize the slime on the side
of bathroom and kitchen drains, sewage disposal beds, rain barrels, and garbage cans as their
preferred living and breeding grounds. Such places usually have low oxygen content. Although
these flies do not bite, they nevertheless harbour diseases that may possibly be transmitted to
humans. Their presence in large numbers has been reported to pose a hygienic problem,
especially in hospitals (Anonymous, 2006, Verheggen et al., 2008) and cause or exacerbate
bronchial asthma (Drain fly control, 2012).
The uncontrolled manner in which refuse is disposed of at different disposal sites creates
serious health problems to human, animals and the environment at large. This indiscriminate
waste disposal results into economic and other welfare loses. The sanitary state of an area is
largely influenced by proper handling of waste practices of the residents and the measures in
place for safe waste evacuation and disposal.
This study therefore calls for government attention to the public health dangers posed by
undisposed refuse dumps.
A good public health education is necessary to inform the inhabitants of urban Katsina on
the role of vectors in the transmission of parasitic diseases. This study recommends the practice
of waste reduction, re-use and recycling.
The following recommendations are suggested:
I. The State government should mount Health Education Campaign at the local government
areas on self method of refuse collection/disposal and other positive health habits such as waste
reduction, re-use, and waste separation at the grassroots level.
II. The government should re-introduce and empower the sanitary house to house inspection by
health officers and sanitary inspectors. The present monthly sanitation exercise is not adequate.
Abrokwah (1998) observed that ignorance, negligence and absence of law to punish sanitary
offenders are the major causes of waste management problems in Kumasi, Ghana.
III. It is concluded that the result from the present investigation is consistent with previous
reports in which similar insects capable of transmitting pathogens were identified in refuse
dumps (Vlcek, 1991). Since populations of synanthropic insects can grow rapidly within a short
time, control efforts directed against them should be continuous and sustained in order to keep to
the barest level the influence of these insects in the spread of diseases.
IV. Refuse dump in developed societies serves as good source of electricity through incineration
plants. Katsina State as a civilizing and developing community should endeavor to convert the
dumps all over the state into source of electricity to boost the people’s economy.
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