1. MOTIVATION THEORY
(MASLOW AND HERZBERG)
Ujjwal Kumar Joshi
• Definition: Motivation is defined as the process
that initiates, guides and maintains goal-oriented
• Key elements to the definition:
– Direction/goal orientation
3. Links between Motivation and Performance
• Performance is an evaluation of the results of a person’s
behavior. It involves determining how well or poorly a
person has accomplished a task or done a job.
• Motivation is only one factor among many that contributes to
a worker’s job performance.
• Other contributing factors:
– Personality and ability
– Task difficulty
– Resource availability
– Working conditions
– Chance or luck
4. Basic motivational concepts
• Extrinsic Motivation— drive to action that (as opposed to
intrinsic motivation) springs from outside influences instead of
from one’s own feelings.
• Intrinsic Motivation— stimulation that drives an individual
to adopt or change a behavior for his or her own internal
satisfaction or fulfillment.
• Reward— a thing given in recognition of service, effort, or
• Extrinsic rewards— a reward that is expected by an
individual and does not lead to his or her greater satisfaction.
• Intrinsic rewards— an outcome that gives an individual
personal satisfaction such as that derived from a job well done.
5. Theories of Motivation
• Content Theories
need, existence, relatedness, growth, achievement, hygiene
and motivating factors.
– Need theories, ERG theory, Need and Achievement
theory, Two- factor theory.
• Process Theories
– recognize variables that go into motivation, and their
– Expectancy theory, Reinforcement theory, Goal- setting
7. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
• Physiological Needs: Basic needs for things such as food,
water, and shelter that must be met in order for an
individual to survive.
• Safety Needs: Needs for security, stability, and a safe
• Belongingness Needs: Needs for social interaction,
friendship, affection, and love.
• Esteem Needs: The need to feel good about oneself and
one’s capabilities, to be respected by others, and to
receive recognition and appreciation.
• Self-Actualization Needs: The need to realize one’s full
potential as a human being.
8. Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory
Hygiene Factor - work condition related to
dissatisfaction caused by discomfort or pain
– maintenance factor
– contributes to employee’s feeling not dissatisfied
– contributes to absence of complaints
Motivation Factor - work condition related to the
satisfaction of the need for psychological growth
– job enrichment
– leads to superior performance & effort
9. Herzberg’s Two Factors Theory
Hygiene Factors Job Satisfaction
•Quality of supervision
•Company Policies Motivation Factors
•Physical Working Conditions
•Relation with others •Promotion Opportunities
•Job Security •Recognition
•Opportunities for personal
• The basic similarity between these two Theories is that they
both assume that specific needs affect behavior.
• Maslow’s physiological and safety needs is equal to Herzberg’s
hygiene factor whereas Maslow’s esteem, social and self
actualization needs are equal to Herzberg’s Motivational
Criteria Maslow’s Herzberg
Type Descriptive Prescriptive
Order of Needs Hierarchy of needs No Hierarchy
•Satisfaction Unsatisfied Needs Need causes Performance
•Performance Energizes behavior .i.e.
•Relationship this behavior causes
Effect of Need Satisfaction A satisfied need is not a A Hygiene Need is not a
Motivation except Self- motivator other
actualization motivational needs are
View of Motivation Macro View Micro View
Worker Level Related to all worker Related to the
levels professional job holders.