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Why? Online journalism is the future Newspaper/TV advertising revenues are down. A few newspapers in the world has already closed down its print edition while continuing the online edition. A media to stay! But, traditional media will not die! The history of media shows arrival of new media changes/ constrains the role of existing media
What? Define online journalism Strengths of online journalism Weaknesses of online journalism Citizen Journalism History of Online Journalism
Who? Cricket Nepal (www.cricket.com.np) United We Blog! (www.blog.com.np) Radio Free Nepal (freenepal.blogspot.com) Nepali Voices (www.nepalivoices.com) Republica (www.myrepublica.com) Tarun Weekly Nepal Samacharpatra The Kathmandu Post
Online Journalism The journalistic activities primarily conducted for disseminating information through internet Online Journalism is JOURNALISM. Online simply defines the method of delivery to the audience.
Online Journalism The Internet: The greatest advance for communication since the printing press An important information source — as important as other traditional media
What is NOT Online Journalism? Examples MYSANSAR.COM NAYAPATRIKA.COM NEPALUPCLOSE.COM
Strengths of Online Journalism Unlimited space Unlike traditional media, online media do not have space/time restraint Global Distribution Global reach is basic feature of online media Convergence Multimedia –convergence of text, graphics, audio and video
Strengths of Online Journalism Hypertext Text that links to other content Interactive Increased ability of the public to actively participate in the discussion and/or construction/control of content Internet provides a greater level of audience participation: PRODUCTION: Citizen journalism & UGC (user-generated content) CONSUMPTION: Discussion/comments/feedback
Strengths of Online Journalism Storage & retrieval Content are storable permanently which is easy to search And, most importantly, immediacy Publishing is quick and easy
Strengths of Digital Media Global reach Easy publication Interactivity Multimedia possibility Permanancy Timelessness Unlimited space
Types of Online Journalism Sites Sites associated with already existing media organizations Myrepublica.com, ekantipur.com, newsofnepal.com, thehimalayantimes.com Sites associated with local TV and radio stations Avenues.tv Sites that exist only on the Internet Nepalnews.com
Weaknesses Mushroom News sites, journalists and news/opinion Lack of Credibility It’s not easy to distinguish between good and bad news site Ethical Questions Privacy, accuracy vs speed, copyright and advertising Digital Divide The gap between haves and have-nots
Weaknesses of Digital Media Information overload Accuracy Credibility Opinion-based Individual Manipulative
Talking Positive Interactivity: Increased ability of the public to actively search for their own information and to interact online Increased public access to different forms and types of media; access to a greater diversity of content Reduced ‘gatekeeping’ powers of major news organizations; less power to set the news agenda or manipulate the public’s understanding of events New and powerful story-telling methods through multimedia technology Convergence means more resources to probe issues
Talking Negative Rise in journalism of assertion unsubstantiated opinion and rumor which harms journalistic credibility; lack of restraint among online writers Pressure to lower ethical standards and sensationalize stories Problems of personal privacy Who is a journalist? Questions on ethical values regarding news values, newsworthiness and credibility.
Citizen Journalism The concept of members of the public playing an active role in the process of collecting, reporting, analyzing and disseminating news and information. Also known as “public”, “participatory”, “democratic” or “street” journalism
Purpose of Citizen Journalism People without professional journalism training can use the tools of modern technology and the global distribution of the internet to create, augment or fact-check media on their own or in collaboration of others. To provide independent, reliable, accurate, wide- range and relevant information that a democracy requires.
Dangers of Citizen Journalism Significant number of unqualified people are doing journalism without permission from anyone. No authorities to enforce rules and codes. Susceptible to information overload.
1960s Ted Nelson, Harvard sociology student, conceptualize hypertext Gives a lecture which is covered in the student newspaper. The first print reference of “hypertext” appears, Feb. 3, 1965 ARPANET computer network, the forerunner of today’s Internet, created by the US Defense Department in 1969
1970s The BBC files for a patent on Teledata, the first teletext system in 1971 A loop of “pages” broadcast on TV Not interactive Service is limited to a few hundred available pages Slow
1970s British Post Office’s Research Laboratory demonstrates Viewdata (later Prestel) the first Videotext service in 1974 It’s interactive, supporting two-way communication You use your TV, hooked up to cable and a phone line You make entries using a keyboard, dedicated terminal or computer Menu-driven systems to browse Photo display
In 1974 Teletext Videotext Computers• Not interactive • Interactive • Interactive• Slow • Need cable • Very TV and an expensive• Need is a TV & a decoder box expensive • Poorly subscription networked • Almost no one has one
1981-82Early computer-basedonline dial-up servicesemerge Compuserve The Source Prodigy These are closed systems - only subscribers have access
1980s 1983: Time Magazine names the computer “Machine of the Year” 1984: Apple introduces the Macintosh computer. Cost: $2,495 US with built-in B&W monitor. Within 75 days, 50,000 are sold 1985: 22 nations involved in videotext and teletext 1986: Computers readily available in US universities Computers becoming cheaper and more powerful; first personal printers appear; ($7,000 US for an Apple LaserWriter) 1988: Internet Relay Chat (IRC) is developed by Finnish graduate student Jarkko Oikarinen DARPA makes the Internet public
1990s Hypertext Markup Language is invented by Tim Berners-Lee in 1990 1992 July: Lynx, a non- graphical Web and Gopher (FTP) is released 1992 November: 26 “reasonably reliable” servers
1993 August: Mosaic, first graphical Web browser for Windows, is released Sept. 25: CompuServe, Prodigy and AOL have a combined 3.9m subscribers October: First journalism site is launched at the University of Florida. 200 web servers in the world Dec. 8: First article about the web appears in the New York Times
1994 Jan. 19: The first newspaper to regularly publish on the Web, the Palo Alto Weekly in California, begins twice-weekly postings of its full content April: The Yahoo “Internet index” is started by Stanford PhD candidates David Filo and Jerry Yang
Internet in Nepal June 1994: Mercantile Office Systems began the commercial email system July 1995: Mercantile started providing full online access operating via a lease line through Nepal Telecom with it’s backbone in Singapore. By the end of 1995, Mercantile had 150 subscribers January 1996: WorldLink began internet services as around same time with duplex dial-up lines that dials in USA four times a day.
News Online October 1993: Nepalese in US began the publication of first online media– The Nepal Digest. (449 issues) September 1995: The Kathmandu Post went online on the University of Illinois website. It was joint effort of Mercantile Communications, the publication and Rajendra Shrestha, an engineering student in US. 1997: Himal Media started archiving it’s publication, Himal South Asia, in it’s own website himalsouthasia.com.
Online Journalism begins 1998: Mercantile established South-Asia.com which archived seven daily and weekly newspapers. 1999: Mercantile moved to NepalNews.com with news from its own sources. April 2000: Kantipur Publications established KantipurOnline.com December 2002: Kamana Group of Publications began newsofnepal.com.
Citizen Journalists in Scene October 2004: First blog of Nepal– United We Blog! – established by Dinesh Wagle and Ujjwal Acharya February 2005: Blogs (UWB! and Radio Free Nepal) became major source of information during media censorship
Nepal is closed friends On February 7, 2005 @ 4:26 pmDear friends world over, Nepal is closed for the time being. So we won’t be able to put our views here. But you are free to put your views. Please continue to use this blogging site
Radio Free Nepal February 8, 2005 King Gyandendra of Nepal has issued a ban on independent news broadcasts and has threatened to punish newspapers for reports that run counter to the official monarchist line. Given that any person in Nepal publishing reports critical of "the spirit of the royal proclamation" is subject to punishment and/or imprisonment, contributors to this blog will publish their reports from Nepal anonymously.