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A Brief Introduction to OSH/ISH, Background of OSH/ISH, Benefits, Pakistan Industries: Types, Number of Accidents in Local Industries, Occupational Hazards and Injuries, Discussion on selected Industries,Labor Laws and Rights in Pakistan
1.7 million0.6 million1.05 million
When cotton seeds are grounded in grinding machines, cotton dust is produced
Again no local data is available to measure the presence of these chemicals in the work environment, and no data is present of the employees who have suffered.
When you need to shout to talk for a distance of 3 feet away, the noise levels are more than 85dB and you need to have hearing protection equipment
1 foot candle = 10.752 Lux
A sprain is an injury to a ligament, the tough, fibrous tissue that connects bones to other bone. Ligament injuries involve a stretching or a tearing of this tissue.A strain is an injury to either a muscle or a tendon, the tissue that connects muscles to bones.
(announced by Prime Minister on 1st May, 2012).
Pakistan industries and health hazards
Session onOccupational Safety & Health
Flow of the Presentation Introduction to OSH/ISH Background Benefits Pakistan Industries Accidents Occupational Hazards Discussion Labor Laws
What is ISH/OSH• It is the inter-relationship between the people at work, the tasks they do and the environment in which the tasks are carried out• It is the field that ensures – Workers safety and healthy being – The related laws and regulations are enforced
Background• During and after World War I, Industrial Revolution occurred – rapid introduction of new industries – Increasing demand of products and production activities – Indiscriminate hiring of workers to run the manufacturing processes• This brought about – Poor and unsafe working conditions – serious dangers not anticipated – exposure to various occupational diseases and serious accidents aggravated by endemic diseases like malnutrition, worm infestation, malaria and others• Hence the origin of Occupational Health as means of protecting the health and welfare of employees
Benefits• A safe work place ensures less accidents• Keeps the workers focused on the tasks rather than worry about chances of mishaps• Increases productivity and efficiency of workers• Managing the work force becomes easy and the workers remain motivated• A healthy and sound worker is an asset and contributes towards economic development of organisation
Types of Industries in Pakistan• Agriculture – 17,518,204 labor force employed• Manufacturing – 6,005,487 workers• Service – 10,586,309 working 31% 51%• Statistics as of year 2011 18%
Accidents – Sector wise 60 49.8 50 40 30 20 16.8 14 11.3 10 8.1 0 Agriculture Manufacturing Construction wholesale retail & transport & trade communicaton• Pakistan Board of Statistics (PSB): Labor Force Report FY 2010-11
Occupational Hazards & Injuries• Agriculture• Manufacturing• Services Industry
Types of Occupational Hazards• Biological – biohazard means those infective agents presenting a risk of death, injury or illness to employees• Physical – External environmental factors that directly affect the physical well being of employees• Chemical• Ergonomic
Agriculture – Some basic info• Agriculture has an est. 45% of the total work force population – 66% are females – 25% are children• GDP contribution – 21% (2011-12)• They are made to do work in the most abject of conditions – No proper safety procedures are followed – Mostly illiterate so don’t have awareness of occupational hazards
Agricultural Health Hazards• Biological hazards – Diseases transmitted by animals during caring and handling of animal products and wastes • Examples of such health problems include: anthrax, brucellosis, bovine tuberculosis, bird flu – Parasitic diseases • malaria, skin rashes – Allergic diseases • asthma, byssinosis from cotton dust, bagassosis from sugar cane bagasse
Agricultural Health Hazards• Physical Hazards – Prolonged exposure to heat and sunlight – dust and fumes – puncture wounds from sharp instruments and woods, cuts, bruises and lacerations
Agricultural Health Hazards• Chemical Hazards – Excessive use of fertilizers cause skin irritation and digestive problems to farmers – pesticides and insecticides contain carcinogen and toxic materials that directly affect the farmers and indirectly us – Inhalation of these chemicals causes respiratory problems, gastro-intestinal issues and also affect the nervous system
Agricultural Health Hazards• Ergonomic • Backache resulting from prolonged bending, heavy load and wrong posture • Strained joints – very highly repetitive hand work (clipping, cutting) • Poorly designed tools and equipment • Noise of vehicles, grinding, milling
Manufacturing – Basic Info• GDP contribution – 25.8% (as of 2011)• Employment contribution – 20.1% (2010-11)• Main industries are – Textile – Cement – Fertilizer – Sugar – Food processing – Oil & Gas
Textile Manufacturing• Contributes 9.5% to GDP• Employs 38% of the total manufacturing force• Abysmal working conditions• Employees face several hazards
Hazards in Textile Manufacturing• Cotton Dust – often present in the air during cotton handling and processing – Cotton dust may contain many substances including ground-up plant matter, fiber, bacteria, fungi, soil, pesticides – Exposure to it causes respiratory disorders like chronic bronchitis, byssinosis
Dust Measurement• Industrialists and Employers are required to measure every six months – or whenever there are any changes in equipment or work practices• Procedure to measure – A vertical elutriator or an equivalent instrument must be used to measure cotton dust – Measurements must be representative of an eight-hour period – Measurements must be performed for each shift and in each work area – If the levels are above OSHA standards, employers must list in a notice to employees the steps they will take to correct problems. – Warning signs must be posted in work areas where the cotton dust level is higher than the OSHA limit
Controlling Dust• Installing adequate ventilation systems• Cleaning and repairing the equipment regularly• Have a Dust Control Program – cleaning floors with a vacuum or another method that cuts down the spreading of dust – disposing of dust in such a way that as little dust scatters as possible – using mechanical methods to stack, dump or otherwise handle cotton or cotton waste, when possible – checking, cleaning, and repairing dust control equipment and ventilation systems
Chemical Hazards• Activities of dyeing, printing and finishing involve the use of chemicals based on – benzidine, optical brighteners, crease-resistance agents, formaldehyde and antimicrobial agents• Studies have revealed links between these chemicals and diseases like – nasal cancer, lung cancer, brain cancer, respiratory difficulty and eczema
Ergonomic• Too much noise in the work environment – Workers often have impaired hearing and later on suffer from hearing loss – Leads to stress, fatigue, absenteeism, anxiety, reduction in efficiency, sleep disorders – The Recommended Exposure Limit (REL) is 85dB to 90dB for a 8-hour work shift
Other Ergonomic Issues• Dark and poor lighting• Improper furniture, work stations lead to Musculoskeletal disorders – like carpal tunnel syndrome, forearm tendinitis, lower back pain, neck pain, shoulder pain, and osteoarthritis of the knees• Lack of essential safety practices
Minimum Illumination IntensitiesFoot Candles Lux Area of Operation 5 53.76 General construction area lighting General construction areas, concrete placement, excavation and waste areas, access ways, active storage 3 32.256 areas, loading platforms, refueling, and field maintenance areas 5 53.76 Indoors: warehouses, corridors, hallways, and exitways 5 53.76 Tunnels, shafts, and general underground work areas General construction plant and shops (e.g., batch plants, screening plants, mechanical and electrical equipment 10 107.52 rooms, carpenter shops, rigging lofts and active store rooms, mess halls, and indoor toilets and workrooms.) 30 322.56 First aid stations, infirmaries, and offices
Cement Manufacturing• GDP contribution – 10% to 12%• Employment – 5% of the total employed force• Potentially a fatal industry
Cement Dust• High levels of dust can be produced when cement is handled – for example when emptying or disposing of bags• Contact with cement dust can lead to Skin disease, e.g. Dermatitis – Irritant dermatitis is caused by the physical properties of cement that irritate the skin mechanically – Allergic dermatitis is caused by sensitization to the hexavalent chromium (chromate) present in cement
Cement Dust• Diameter of cement particles range from 0.05 to 5.0 micrometer – They are respirable in size – Inhalation of these particles lead to • chronic cough, • impairment of lung function • carcinoma of lung, stomach and colon • laryngeal cancer
Physical Hazards and Injuries• Sprains and strains – particularly to the back, arms and shoulders from lifting and carrying cement bags, mixing mortar etc. – More serious damage to the back can be caused in the long term if workers are continually lifting heavy weights• Slipped, tripped or fell on the same level
Occupational Diseases• Other diseases suffered in industries include – vibration problems and white finger diseases. – Traumatic deaths, amputations, fracture and eye loses. – Cardiovascular diseases (including myocardial nifarction, stroke and hypertension). – Neurotoxic illnesses – Dermatologic problems (including dermatoses, burns, and lacerations). – Psychological disorders
The Dilemma• Majority of the workforce in Pakistan is illiterate and not trained in occupational safety and health• Moreover OSH is not included in any curricula in Pakistan• The number of occupational health physicians and nurses is far less compared to the total workforce in Pakistan – This means that occupational health system is not established in the country (career opportunity)
Number of Industrial Accidents by Nature Nature of 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Accidents Total 354 404 415 438 460 449 326 Fatal 32 34 38 50 85 108 45 Serious 103 68 101 106 130 92 62 Minor 219 302 276 282 245 239 219Source: Report on Labour & Human Resource Statistics 2000 - 2010Government of Pakistan, Dept. Ministry of labour and manpower (HRD wing)
Pakistan Labor and Human Resource Statistics• The number of industrial accidents increased from 354 to 449 during 2000 to 2008 27 %• In year 2011 alone, the reported number of fatal accidents went up to 101
Labor Laws• The only legislation on health and safety is the ‘Hazardous Occupation Rule 1963’ under the Factories Act 1934.• Practically, the above mentioned laws are obsolete and do not conform to international practices – It does not give coverage to the workers in the agriculture sector, informal/house-based and seasonal workers
Factories Act 1934• This act consolidates and amends the laws relating to the regulation of labour in factories in the country• It includes preliminary including definitions, role of labour inspection, restrictions on the working hours, holidays with pay, special provisions for adolescents and children, penalties and procedure• This act also contains a chapter (Chapter III) on health and safety of workers and hygiene conditions at the workplaces• Chapter III of this act provide factory inspections, hygienic conditions (ventilation and temperature, dust and fumes, artificial humidification, lighting, overcrowding, drinking water, sanitary facilities), precaution in case of fire, machine guarding, pressure vessels, precautions against dangerous fumes, eye protection, safety of building, machinery and manufacturing process and so on
Labour Policy 2010• Objectives – Promotion of employee’s social security and social insurance programme – Adequate security of jobs should be available to the workers – Conditions should be created so that workers and employers are committed to enhancing labour productivity – Promotion of higher jobs be ensured at all levels based on suitability and merit – Forced labour in all its forms to be eliminated – Just and humane conditions of work be guaranteed to all workers
Labour Policy 2010• Initiatives – The government has increased the minimum wages from Rs.7,000 to Rs.8,000 per month – Consolidation of labour laws is underway – Mine workers, whether contracted or permanent, will be provided with the same protection as other workers – Elimination of gender discrimination – Special emphasis on education of workers children – Regulate and control child labour
• Pakistan has ratified the ILO Labour Inspection Convention, 1947 (No. 81) in 1953• Under this convention Pakistan is bound to educate and inform employers and workers on their legal rights and obligations concerning all aspects of labour protection and labour laws, advice employers and workers to comply with the requirements of the law and enable inspectors to report to superiors on problems and defects that are not covered by laws and regulations.
Your Suggestions• How to improve the current situation?