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North Korea Situation

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North Korea Situation

  1. 1. Crisis In North Korea Yukiko Yano, Misaki Takano, and Eri Furukawa
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Official name of the country : Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, abbreviated as DPRK </li></ul><ul><li>Capital : Pyongyang </li></ul><ul><li>Government : Juche Communist Dictatorship </li></ul><ul><li>The Crisis </li></ul><ul><li>The Nuclear Crisis </li></ul><ul><li>Malnutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Refugees. </li></ul><ul><li>International human rights organizations, such as the Human Rights Watch, have accused North Korea of having one of the worst human rights records of any state. </li></ul>
  3. 3. History
  4. 4. How North Korea Came To Be… <ul><li>The Korean Peninsula Under Japanese Control (1910~1945) </li></ul><ul><li>Formally an independent country until the late 19 th century </li></ul><ul><li>19 th century </li></ul><ul><li>China, Russia, and Japan fight over the peninsula in want of commercial gains </li></ul><ul><li>Competition produces the Sino-Japanese War and the Russo-Japanese War </li></ul><ul><li>Japan successfully wins both, colonizing the Korean Peninsula by 1910 </li></ul><ul><li>Koreans were forced to replace their traditions with the Japanese culture </li></ul><ul><li>Japan modernized the Korean industry and bureaucracy for their own benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Koreans bred a strong feeling of nationalism and were left with a lasting negative impression of the outside world </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>After WWⅡ Japan gave up their control over Korea to the United States and Russia </li></ul><ul><li>The Korean peninsula split into two occupation zones at the 38 th parallel </li></ul><ul><li>Southern part: under the U.S. occupation </li></ul><ul><li>Northern part: under the Russian occupation </li></ul><ul><li>Establishment of the two nations </li></ul><ul><li>Aug 15, 1948 </li></ul><ul><li>The Republic of Korea (South Korea) </li></ul><ul><li>Sep 9, 1948 </li></ul><ul><li>The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea) </li></ul><ul><li>with the leadership of Kim Il Sung </li></ul>The Split of the Korean Peninsula
  6. 6. The Korean War (1950~1953) <ul><li>June 25, 1950 </li></ul><ul><li>Massive surprise attack and invasion of South Korea by the north </li></ul><ul><li>Kim Il Sung wanted to unify the two Koreas under a single Communist government </li></ul><ul><li>His goal was to liberate South Korea from the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>But it turns out he had underestimated the loyalty of the Americans toward South Korea </li></ul><ul><li>South Korea: supported by the U.S. troops and 16 other troops from the UN </li></ul><ul><li>North Korea: supported by the Chinese “People’s Volunteers” </li></ul><ul><li>July 27, 1953: an armistice is signed </li></ul>
  7. 7. After the Korean War <ul><li>South Korea was guaranteed support from the U.S., but North Korea had no one to count on. </li></ul><ul><li>Juche Socialism (1955~) </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes the idea of self-sufficiency </li></ul><ul><li>It was actually a way of carrying out military build up and heavy industry at the same time </li></ul>Principles of Juche Socialism Independence in politics Self-sustenance in the economy Self-defense in national defense
  8. 8. Kim Il Sung <ul><li>Ruled from the year 1948 when the country was established until his death in July 1994 </li></ul><ul><li>The savior who liberated North Korea </li></ul><ul><li>The love and admiration for him by the people is real and genuine </li></ul><ul><li>He is considered as “ forever president ” </li></ul><ul><li>Was also the Secretary General of the Korean Workers’ Party </li></ul><ul><li>The Korean Workers’ Party still continues to control the government of the country </li></ul>
  9. 9. Foreign Relations After the War <ul><li>The bitterness aroused from the Korean War still continues to linger to this day </li></ul><ul><li>North Korea has tried to develop economic ties with South Korea but has also been criticizing South Korea’s relationship with the United States </li></ul><ul><li>No communications were made after the war until 1971 </li></ul><ul><li>North Korea’s relationship with other countries worsened dramatically since Kim Il Sung’s death </li></ul>
  10. 10.        Kim Jong Il <ul><li>Assumed automatic inheritance of supreme power after Kim Il Sung died </li></ul><ul><li>Became the Secretary General of the Korean Workers’ Party in 1997 </li></ul><ul><li>Became the Chairman of the National Defense Commission and was named the “ highest office of state ” in 1998 </li></ul><ul><li>Has never had decent education </li></ul><ul><li>has never served in the army although he is the Supreme Commander </li></ul>
  11. 11. Under the Rule of Kim Jong Il <ul><li>Kim Jong Il’s interpretation of Juche Socialism </li></ul><ul><li>North Koreans are to live in seclusion and sacrifice themselves in absolute piety towards Kim Il Sung </li></ul><ul><li>Led to the denial of freedom of expression and movement of the citizens </li></ul><ul><li>To gain control over even the elite and the military, Kim Jong Il uses transactional leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Transactional leadership: when you strike a deal with your followers promising them they will be rewarded and kept free from punishment if they keep supporting you </li></ul>
  12. 13. Nuclear Crisis
  13. 14. NUCLEAR CRISIS-TABLE OF CONTENTS <ul><li>Things to know before hand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>North Korea’s intentions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The IAEA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>North Korean and South Korean relations </li></ul><ul><li>The Beginning of the Crisis : 1993 North Korea’s statement </li></ul><ul><li>North Korea and U.S relations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1994 Agreed Framework </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growing tensions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Bush Administration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breakdown of the Agreement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Piracy actions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Withdrawing from the NPT </li></ul><ul><li>Six Party talks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How it began, Its goal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It’s agreements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>North Korea’s nuclear weapons program </li></ul>
  14. 15. Introduction <ul><li>The intentions of North Korea on building Nuclear weapons </li></ul><ul><li>- defense against other countries </li></ul><ul><li>A way for North Korea to keep up with the Arms race. Both in order to protect itself and attack against other countries </li></ul><ul><li>- a political tool </li></ul><ul><li>A bargaining tool for North Korea to receive aid </li></ul><ul><li>The IAEA : The International Atomic Energy Agency ( IAEA ) </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes the peaceful use of nuclear energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Inhibits its use for military purposes. </li></ul><ul><li>Often referred to as &quot;the UN's Nuclear Watchdog“ </li></ul>
  15. 16. North Korea and South Korea <ul><li>Late 1991 : Joint Declaration on the Denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula ⇒ came into effect February 1992 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Signed by South Korea and North Korea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The two sides shall not test, manufacture, produce, receive, process, store, deploy or use Nuclear Weapons” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For inspection, a North-South Nuclear Control Commission (JNCC) was organized </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. The Beginning of the Nuclear Crisis <ul><li>IAEA asks for permissions to inspect </li></ul>March 1993 : North Korea refuses, also announcing it’s intention on pulling out of the The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons . <ul><li>~~The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons~~ Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) </li></ul><ul><li>North Korea signed it in the December of 1985. </li></ul><ul><li>The goal is to limit the spread of nuclear weapons. </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of 3 pillars </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-Proliferation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disarmament </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The right to peacefully use nuclear technology </li></ul></ul>North Korea later on backs out on its intentions Suspicions that North Korea has Nuclear Weapons
  17. 18. North Korea and U.S relations- The 1994 Agreed Framework <ul><li>Graphite moderated power plants (plutonium nuclear weapons could be easily produced) ⇒ Light Water Reactor plants (LWR) </li></ul><ul><li>North Korea was to receive oil while the plants were to be built. </li></ul><ul><li>North Korea and U.S was to safely store the spent fuel from a five-megawatt reactor </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>*not involve reprocessing in North Korea* </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>North Korea would implement the 1992 Joint Declaration </li></ul><ul><li>North Korea would remain a member of the NPT </li></ul><ul><li>North Korea was to come to a safety agreement with the IAEA </li></ul><ul><li>The U.S would get rid of the economic sanctions they have had since the Korean War. </li></ul>North Korea and U.S talks leads to the signing of the 1994 Agreed Framework
  18. 19. North Korea and U.S relations :The 1994 Agreed Framework Cont. <ul><li>In order to fund oil shipments and LWR plant projects, the Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization (KEDO) was made. </li></ul><ul><li>U.S, South Korea, Japan, and those who implement energy related sections of the framework </li></ul><ul><li>North Korea was to repay KEDO over a 20 year interest-free period after the completion of LWR plants. </li></ul><ul><li>Extra note: </li></ul><ul><li> North Korea's leader Kim Il-sung had recently died </li></ul><ul><li>“ Clinton administration officials have privately said that they agreed to the plan in 1994 only because they thought the North Korean government would collapse before the project was completed .” (South Dakota Politics) </li></ul>
  19. 20. North Korea and U.S relations : Growing Tension <ul><li>U.S Congress </li></ul>Delay of shipments North Korea Threats of resuming nuclear research Permission to inspect the “underground site In return for aid in food Finds no evidence LWR project finally starts in 2000 Allegations concerning an underground site Irritated
  20. 21. North Korea and U.S relations : Growing Tension <ul><li>President George W. Bush and his administration – In 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>Allegations that North Korea had an Uranium Enrichment Program ⇒   State of the Union Address – “Axis of Evil” </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>October 2002 – U.S Assistant Secretary of State James A. Kelly – </li></ul><ul><li>About the supposed “Uranium Enrichment Program” </li></ul><ul><li>U.S : North Korea admitted to such program </li></ul><ul><li>North Korea : Stated that </li></ul><ul><li>“ an independent state such as North Korea had every right to produce nuclear weapons for defense, although they DID NOT possess such weapon at the time” </li></ul>North Korea did not come out with any evidence, and rejected IAEA’s inspection ~“The U.N nuclear watchdog was abetting U.S policy towards North Korea” ~
  21. 22. North Korea and U.S relations : The Breakdown of the Agreement <ul><li>U.S ~ No longer intend to fund oil shipments when North Korea had evidently violated the 1994 Agreed Framework. </li></ul><ul><li>In December, KEDO halts the the oil shipments until a resolution is reached. </li></ul><ul><li>This is the breakdown of the 1994 Agreed Framework </li></ul><ul><li>Both countries blamed each other for this breakdown. </li></ul><ul><li>Each stating that the other refused to keep up on its side of the Framework. </li></ul><ul><li>The U.S had failed to ease economic sanctions </li></ul><ul><li>North Korea had not disabled its nuclear programs </li></ul>
  22. 23. North Korea and U.S relations : “Actions of Piracy” December 2002 – The U.S intervention on a shipment leaving North Korea for Yemen. Shipment contained Scud Missiles U.S stopped the ship from leaving North Korea for 2 days, The U.S had no right to stop the ship North Korea called it an “Act of Piracy”
  23. 24. Leaving the NPT <ul><li>January 10 th 2003 – announces its intentions on withdrawing from the NPT </li></ul><ul><li>On April 10th, it becomes official ⇒ North Korea becomes the first state to withdraw form the treaty </li></ul>Nuclear Programs resume in North Korea North Korea restarted its plutonium-based nuclear facilities and removed IAEA’s monitoring equipment. “ Deterrent force in the face of U.S threats and its hostile policy”
  24. 25. The Six Party Talks-how they began <ul><li>In 2003, the idea of a multilateral talk was proposed. </li></ul>In April 2003, North Korea agrees to three-party talks with China and the United States to be held n Beijing. After the meeting, North Korea finally agreed to the six party talks and the first round was held in August 2003.
  25. 26. The Six Party Talks <ul><li>The contentions of the six party talks </li></ul><ul><li>Security guarantee </li></ul><ul><li>The Construction of Light Water Reactors </li></ul><ul><li>Peaceful use of Nuclear Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Diplomatic relations </li></ul><ul><li>Financial / Trade normalization </li></ul><ul><li>'Verifiable' and 'Irreversible' disarmament </li></ul>Since then, the six parties, U.S, South Korea, China, Japan, Russia, and North Korea have had numerous talks in order to reach an agreement on the nuclear crisis.
  26. 27. The Six Party Talks <ul><li>The six party talks have led to agreements between the six parties concerning : </li></ul><ul><li>Denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula </li></ul><ul><li>North Korea rejoining the NPT </li></ul><ul><li>North Korea’s peaceful use of nuclear energy </li></ul><ul><li>Normalization of North Korea’s relationship with the other five countries </li></ul><ul><li>Through these six party talks, other countries have agreed to give aid in return for shutting down nuclear facilities. However, Japan has refused to aid North Korea because of its abduction issues with the country. </li></ul>
  27. 28. Heavy Military in North Korea <ul><li>Kim Jong Il spends more money on the army than on sustaining the lives of the people in his own country </li></ul><ul><li>Kim Jong Il devotes as much as 1/4 of the country’s national income on the army </li></ul><ul><li>central task of state: military build up </li></ul><ul><li>Has the fourth largest army in the world </li></ul>
  28. 29. Possession of Nuclear Weapons <ul><li>North Korea’s possession of nuclear weapons is causing international tension </li></ul><ul><li>Why North Korea Holds Nuclear Weapons </li></ul><ul><li>National defense </li></ul><ul><li>To use as a threat against other countries to obtain aid </li></ul><ul><li>Mid 1960s An atomic energy research center was built in Yongbyon </li></ul><ul><li>This was the beginning of the development of nuclear energy </li></ul><ul><li>The people of North Korea suffer from lack of food because the government is too busy using up all the money on maintaining the army and feeding the elites </li></ul>
  29. 30. <ul><li>Late 2002 North Korea’s stunning confessions </li></ul><ul><li>1. The government acknowledged it had kidnapped about a dozen Japanese in the 1970s and the 1980s to train North Korean spies </li></ul><ul><li>2. Admitted having violated a 1994 agreement to freeze their nuclear weapons program but had in fact been developing nuclear bombs </li></ul><ul><li>February 2007 North Korea once again made an agreement to dismantle nuclear facilities and allow inspectors in exchange for $400 million dollars </li></ul><ul><li>September 2007 North Korea declared it would close all nuclear programs by the end of the year 2007 </li></ul>
  30. 31. North Korea’s Major Nuclear Facilities <ul><li>Pyongyang </li></ul><ul><li>Uranium core concentration plant. </li></ul><ul><li>Pyongyang </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear Physics laboratory </li></ul><ul><li>Equipment of plutonium extraction. </li></ul><ul><li>Pakchon </li></ul><ul><li>Uranium core concentration plant. </li></ul>Yongbyon A 5-Megawatt experimental nuclear power plant Nuclear fuel rod fabrication plant Fuel reprocessing facility. Taechon A 200-Megawatt nuclear power plant under construction. Simpo Possible location for three 635-Megawatt reactors.
  31. 32. <ul><li>In whole, the North Korean government has spent much of its money for its military. This has lead to not only the nuclear crisis, but also a crisis among its people. </li></ul><ul><li>Now, North Korea is also trouble by malnutrition among its people, and also refugees, who are fleeting for their lives. </li></ul><ul><li>Most people in North Korea however are unaware of their true state. With Kim Jong Il as their “great general,” the greatest problem with North Korea may not be how to handle their Nuclear Weapons, but how to rescue its citizens. </li></ul>
  32. 33. Malnutrition and Refugees
  33. 34. Malnutrition and Refugees Crisis Table of Contents <ul><li>Malnutrition Crisis </li></ul><ul><li>- Cause </li></ul><ul><li>- Nutrition Survey </li></ul><ul><li>- The World Food Program </li></ul><ul><li>- How it aids North Korea </li></ul><ul><li>Refugees Crisis </li></ul><ul><li>- Cause </li></ul><ul><li>- 1951 Refugee Convention </li></ul><ul><li>- Refugees in China </li></ul><ul><li>- China’s reaction concerning the refugees </li></ul><ul><li>- Problem over China’s reaction </li></ul><ul><li>- Incident between Japan and China caused by North Korean refugees </li></ul>
  34. 35. <ul><li>The population suffers from prolonged malnutrition and poor living conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Causes: </li></ul><ul><li> * political and economical mismanagement </li></ul><ul><li> * severe summer flooding followed by dry weather conditions </li></ul><ul><li>The South Korean non-governmental organization reported in July 2007 that famine deaths are on the increase in the North </li></ul><ul><li> * 10 people dying daily of starvation in five of the poorest </li></ul><ul><li> northern provinces </li></ul>MALNUTRITION
  35. 36. NUTRITION SURVEY <ul><li>The most recent large-scale nutrition survey in North Korea was conducted in 2004 by the WFP, UNICEF and the government. It found that </li></ul><ul><li>37% of children </li></ul><ul><ul><li>chronically malnourished </li></ul></ul><ul><li>33% of mothers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>malnourished and anemic </li></ul></ul>
  36. 37. The World Food Program <ul><li>The WFP is the United Nations frontline agency in the fight against global hunger. Operations aim to: </li></ul><ul><li>Save lives in refugee crisis and other emergencies </li></ul><ul><li>Improve nutrition and quality of life of world’s most vulnerable people at critical times in their lives </li></ul><ul><li>Enable development by helping people build assets that benefit them directly and promoting the self-reliance of poor people and communities   </li></ul>
  37. 38. <ul><li>Food shortages in North Korea did not improve because: </li></ul><ul><li>* the scale of emergency food program was reduced </li></ul><ul><li>* the food went primarily to the elite and to the military , not to the citizens who really need them. </li></ul>The WFP and North Korea 1995~ The UN World Food Program provided substantial emergency food assistance to North Korea. 2005 The North Korean Government suspended the WFP emergency program. 2006 North Korea Government has permitted the WFP to resume operations on a greatly reduced scale. We have enough food to feed our people.
  38. 39. REFUGEES <ul><li>Many North Koreans have fled to neighboring countries because of: </li></ul><ul><li>* food shortages </li></ul><ul><li>* political, ideological, and economical reasons </li></ul><ul><li>Many are caught during the attempted defection. If they are caught, they will be: </li></ul><ul><li>* repatriated back to North Korea </li></ul><ul><li>* considered as rebels </li></ul><ul><li>* face years of punishment or even death in North Korean        prison camps </li></ul>
  39. 40. The 1951 Refugee Convention and 1967 Protocol <ul><li>The 1951 Refugee Convention and its 1967 Protocol safeguards the rights and well-being of refugees. It ensures that everyone can exercise the right to: </li></ul><ul><li>seek asylum </li></ul><ul><li>find safe haven in another state </li></ul><ul><li>not to be forcibly returned </li></ul>
  40. 41. North Koreans in CHINA <ul><li>North Koreans usually cross the border into Northeast China before fleeing to a third country. </li></ul>China refuses to grant North Korean defectors refugees status and considers them illegal economic migrants. <ul><li>North Koreans who are caught in China are forcibly returned to North Korea, where they are subjected to brutal treatments, including torture, and placement in work camps. </li></ul><ul><li>China deported about 1,800 North Korean refugees in a year , and North Korea may have executed some of them. </li></ul>
  41. 42. China and Human Rights Watch <ul><li>The arrest and instances of refoulement* of North Koreans by the Chinese government raise serious questions about China’s compliance with the 1951 Convention. </li></ul>*the expulsion of persons who have the right to be recognized as refugees “ Given the appalling human rights situation in North Korea, China needs to provide protection to North Koreans on its territory, not send them back. The Chinese government must not try to evade its international legal responsibility by categorizing North Korean asylum seekers and refugees as illegal immigrants.” ---Brad Adams, executive director of the Asia Division of Human Rights Watch
  42. 43. Japan-China Incident <ul><li>On May 8, 2002, Chinese police guards seized and removed five North Korean asylum seekers from the Japanese Consulate General in China. </li></ul>“ I think it is a violation of the Vienna Convention, and that’s why we are protesting.” ---Junichiro Koizumi China claims the officers were only trying to guard the consulate and that consulate staff consented to their entry. Japan claims it never gave any permission and says China's actions violated the Vienna Convention stipulating the inviolability of diplomatic missions.
  43. 44. <ul><li>The Foreign Ministry in Tokyo demanded an apology from China and that it hand over the five to Japan. </li></ul>Japan caved in and let China decide the fate of the five without having Japanese officials interview them. <ul><li>China revealed that: </li></ul><ul><li>A vice consul was handed a letter from the North Korean family stating their request for asylum, but that the diplomat returned it to them. </li></ul><ul><li>Another official shook hands with the leader of the Chinese police and telephoned Chinese authorities shortly after the incident. </li></ul>&quot;The two governments will try to foster good relations on the surface, but the incident gave an enormous boost to anti-China feeling deep down in the hearts of the Japanese people.“ --- Liberal Democratic Party veteran Takami Eto
  44. 45. <ul><li>The Malnutrition in North Korea is one that cannot be left to deal with on its own. It has reached a point where thousands have lost their lives due to its countries inability to give them a proper environment. Also, North Korea’s refugee crisis is not only a crisis with in the county. It has led to problems over the border as well. </li></ul>
  45. 46. Group Conclusion <ul><li>The people of North Korea are oblivious to life other than their own. Their imagination can only go as far as what they’re given, and their knowledge is restricted to what the government allows. Loyalty to the government is not of fear but of true belief that what they are given is more than good. They lack in the basic premises of humanity, and is given no reason to criticize the government. </li></ul><ul><li>We as a group have felt, throughout making this presentation that North Korea is not one that easily abides to other countries, and therefore seems to be one of the hardest nations to deal with. In every crisis, nations have tried to give aid to North Korea. From oil to food, the UN has tried to deal with nuclear problems as well as the malnutrition and refugee crisis. However, it seems apparent that aid has done nothing to even coming close to a resolution. </li></ul><ul><li>North Korea has made it hard for people on the outside to offer solutions. This is why the North Korean crisis is one that requires every possible nation to take part in coming up with a more better way to come to an agreement. “The Hermit Kingdom,” under the dictatorship of “ the playboy wearing platform shoes and a khaki jumpsuit” needs to be dealt with in the most quickest and peaceful way possible. </li></ul>
  46. 47. Works Cited <ul><li>http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2792.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.refinti.org/context/country/detail/2945 </li></ul><ul><li>http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/1976702.stm </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_Korean_defectors </li></ul><ul><li>“ North Korea’s Malnourished Generation.” Takayama, Hideko. </li></ul><ul><li>https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/kn.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.wfp.org/english/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://portal.unesco.org/shs/en/ev.php-URL_ID=4145&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://hrw.org/english/docs/2004/03/08/nkorea8076.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/np20020523a4.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_Korea </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_Korea_and_weapons_of_mass_destruction </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2006_North_Korean_missile_test </li></ul>
  47. 48. Works Cited Continued <ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Six-party_talks </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agreed_Framework_between_the_United_States_of_America_and_the_Democratic_People's_Republic_of_Korea </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/world/dprk/nuke.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://news.yahoo.com/s/afp/20071110/pl_afp/usmkoreannuclearintelligence_0711 </li></ul><ul><li>http://news.yahoo.com/s/nm/20071110/wl_nm/usa_korea_nuclear_dc_1 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0107686.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/international/countriesandterritories/northkorea/index.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.mtholyoke.edu/~avbogusk/classweb/northkorea/history.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.pbs.org/independentlens/seoultrain/timeline.html </li></ul>