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# Quad Tree Composite Tiling for Web Mapping (in English)

Explains a novel vector tilling method for constructing efficient Web Mapping Systems and explains its application to SVGMap in English.

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### Quad Tree Composite Tiling for Web Mapping (in English)

1. 1. Quad Tree Composite Tiling / SVGMap Effective vector raster mixed tiling Satoru Takagi
2. 2. Purpose of tiling
3. 3. Map tiling • Enable to load only part of a large map according to display area Viewport
4. 4. Pyramid of tiles • To be able to read efficiently according to zooming View port View port View port Zoom=0 Zoom=1 Zoom=2 Zoom=3 View port
5. 5. Quad Tree Composite Tiling Exploring the issues of vector tiling and its countermeasure
6. 6. Tile generation issues • As long as data is not thinned out or summarized, the data size of the tile for small scale increases. • If the location dependency of the data density is significant, Tile size vastly fluctuates Manifestation of issues • Bit image: Since the upper limit is fixed by resolution, the issue is "not so much" manifested • Vector data: it is often fatal as manifested
7. 7. Quad Tree Tiling Recursively divide into 4 equal parts until it becomes below the threshold. In this example, the threshold is 2 points or less Especially for vector data, it is effective for homogenizing data size per tile.
8. 8. Quad Tree Tiling However, with this method alone, the appropriate zoom range is determined by the obtained tile size. Viewport This does not make sense
9. 9. Viewport This makes sense Quad Tree Tiling However, with this method alone, the appropriate zoom range is determined by the obtained tile size. References on Quad Tree Tiling: • http://www.mdpi.com/2220-9964/5/11/215 • http://engblog.yext.com/post/geolocation-caching • https://robots.thoughtbot.com/how-to-handle-large- amounts-of-data-on-maps • https://www.slideshare.net/totipalmate/tiling-51301496
10. 10. Pyramid of Quad Tree Tiling [Quad Tree Composite Tiling] Zoom=0 Zoom=1 Zoom=2 Zoom=3 Vector tile generation: Always use this vector tile at zoom levels higher than this zoom level Raster tile generation: Use this tile at this zoom level only Note: thinned out or summarized vector tiles are also acceptable No tile generation: Use Vector Tiles at a lower zoom levels than it
11. 11. Zoom=0 Zoom=1 Zoom=2 Zoom=3 Viewport For this part, the generated vector tile at the lower zoom level is used Vector tile generation: Always use this vector tile at zoom levels higher than this zoom level Raster tile generation: Use this tile at this zoom level only Note: thinned out or summarized vector tiles are also acceptable No tile generation: Use Vector Tiles at a lower zoom levels than it Pyramid of Quad Tree Tiling [Quad Tree Composite Tiling]
12. 12. Benefits of Quad Tree Composite Tiling • Tile size can be homogenized • When considering the pyramid, we can reduce the total number of tiles • We can use vector data as a tile • We can distinguish between advantages of raster and vector • In small scales and dense state of data, it is outlined by raster • When individual data is expanded until it can be identified, detailed verification by vector Challenge: Since it is a heterogeneous method, there is a hurdle in implementation
13. 13. Application to SVGMap
14. 14. Existing web mapping framework • Industry standard such as TMS, or dedicated tiling method is incorporated • All of these schemes have existing uniform tiling pyramid structures • In addition, the core architecture of the framework depends heavily on this scheme ⇒ Introduction of Quad Tree Composite Tiling is close to building a new framework
15. 15. SVGMap / SVG： • There is no built-in tiling method But there are functional features to build it What is SVGMap? • JIS: X.7197 (One of a Japan Industrial Standard (de jure standard) for Web Mapping) https://webdesk.jsa.or.jp/books/W11M0090/index/?bunsyo_id=JIS%20X%207197:2012 • Extended specification based on SVG SVG: Scalable Vector Graphics： http://w3.org/svg • Standardization work in W3C https://www.w3.org/Submission/2011/04/
16. 16. Features of SVGMap related to tiling: • Specification to embed arbitrary data in arbitrary rectangular area (svg2:iframe, svg1.2T:animation, svg1.1:image) Index.svg <Image x=“x0” y=“y0” width=“w0” height=“h0” xlink:href=“tile0.svg” /> <Image x=“x1” y=“y1” width=“w1” height=“h1” xlink:href=“tile1.svg” /> <Image x=“x2” y=“y2” width=“w2” height=“h2” xlink:href=“tile2.svg” /> tile1.svg tile0.svg tile2.svg
17. 17. Features of SVGMap related to tiling: • Specification for controlling the display state of arbitrary data according to arbitrary scale range Index.svg <Image x=“x0” y=“y0” width=“w0” height=“h0” xlink:href=“tile0.svg” visibleMaxZoom=“400” /> <Image x=“x1” y=“y1” width=“w1” height=“h1” xlink:href=“tile1.svg” visibleMinZoom=“100” /> <Image x=“x2” y=“y2” width=“w2” height=“h2” xlink:href=“tile2.svg” visibleMaxZoom=“200” visibleMinZoom=“50”/> tile1.svg tile0.svg tile2.svg
18. 18. Features of SVGMap related to tiling: • Specification for loading data that needs to be displayed as required And, various tiling can be realized by combining these features Index.svg tile1.svg tile0.svg tile2.svg Display:none because it is out of zoom range For display Viewport It is outside the Viewport so this tile is not subject to loading Since it is in a non-display state, this tile is not subject to loading Since this tile is in the display state and Viewport, this tile is subject to loading
19. 19. • "Basically" create inline expanded content using the image elements X0,y0 w h <svg> <image x=“x0” y=“y0” width=“w” height=“h” href=“t00.png”/> <image x=“x0+w” y=“y0” width=“w” height=“h” href=“t10.png”/> <image x=“x0+2w” y=“y0” width=“w” height=“h” href=“t20.png”/> <image x=“x0+3w” y=“y0” width=“w” height=“h” href=“t30.png”/> <image x=“x0” y=“y0+h” width=“w” height=“h” href=“t01.png”/> <image x=“x0+w” y=“y0+h” width=“w” height=“h” href=“t11.png”/> <image x=“x0+2w” y=“y0+h” width=“w” height=“h” href=“t21.png”/> <image x=“x0+3w” y=“y0+h” width=“w” height=“h” href=“t31.png”/> <image x=“x0” y=“y0+2h” width=“w” height=“h” href=“t02.png”/> <image x=“x0+w” y=“y0+2h” width=“w” height=“h” href=“t12.png”/> <image x=“x0+2w” y=“y0+2h” width=“w” height=“h” href=“t22.png”/> <image x=“x0+3w” y=“y0+2h” width=“w” height=“h” href=“t32.png”/> <image x=“x0” y=“y0+3h” width=“w” height=“h” href=“t03.png”/> <image x=“x0+w” y=“y0+3h” width=“w” height=“h” href=“t13.png”/> <image x=“x0+2w” y=“y0+3h” width=“w” height=“h” href=“t23.png”/> <image x=“x0+3w” y=“y0+3h” width=“w” height=“h” href=“t33.png”/> </svg> t00.png t33.png t30.png t03.png Tiling on SVGMap
20. 20. <svg> <g visibleMaxZoom=“200”> <image x=“x0” y=“y0” width=“w0” height=“h0” href=“z0_t00.png”/> </g> <g visibleMinZoom=“200” visibleMaxZoom=“400”> <image x=“x0” y=“y0” width=“w1” height=“h1” href=“z1_t00.png”/> …. </g> <g visibleMinZoom=“400”> <image x=“x0” y=“y0” width=“w2” height=“h2” href=“z2_t00.png”/> …. </g> </svg> X0,y0 w0 h0 z0_t00.png X0,y0 w2 h2 z2_t00.png z2_t33.png z2_t30.png z2_t03.png X0,y0 w1 h1 z1_t00.png z1_t11.png z1_t10.png z1_t01.png • Attach the visibleMin/MaxZoom attribute to inline expanded tiles Pyramid of tiles at SVGMap
21. 21. SVGMap / SVG： Therefore, without changing the architecture, Quad Tree Composite Tiling can be easily installed However, Do all the tiling have to do "inline expansion"? No, SVG has a <script> element. The existing uniform tiling pyramid can be easily implemented by creating a sequence DOM generation function. (About 100 steps) Example: view-source:http://www.svgmap.org/devinfo/devkddi/tutorials/tutorial5/dynamicOSM_r10.svg
22. 22. Quad Tree Composite Tiling / SVGMapTools： As an implementation, there is a tool to generate "inline expanded" static content as Quad Tree Composite Tile at the time of content creation SVGMapTools: Generate SVGMap content from csv and shapefile https://github.com/svgmap/svgMapTools Demo: Visualize worldcities (Cities in the world (3.17 million points) from MaxMind) http://svgmap.org/devinfo/devkddi/lvl0.1/demos/demo0.html#visibleLayer=worldcities Back-end computer WebBrowserWebServer CSV, shapefile SVGMap Tools SVGMap Tiles SVGMap. js HTML 5 Internet

Explains a novel vector tilling method for constructing efficient Web Mapping Systems and explains its application to SVGMap in English.

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