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Kalgoorlie race riots

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The story of the 1934 kalgoorlie Race Riots

Publicada em: Educação
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Kalgoorlie race riots

  1. 1. Kalgoorlie
  2. 2. HANNAN STREET, KALGOORLIE, CA. 1900
  3. 3. CROWD IN HANNAN STREET, KALGOORLIE, CA. 1905
  4. 4. HANNAN STREET FROM INSIDE CLOCK TOWER
  5. 5. RAILWAY REACHED KALGOORLIE IN 1896
  6. 6. GOLDFIELDS WATER SUPPLY - 1903
  7. 7. KALGOORLIE PUBLIC BUILDINGS 1899
  8. 8. JANUARY 30TH 1934 Kalgoorlie Race Riots Introduction On three notable occasions, the gold-mining town of Kalgoorlie was the scene of anti - southern European rioting in 1916, 1919 and 1934.
  9. 9. JANUARY 30TH 1934 Kalgoorlie Race Riots
  10. 10. JANUARY 30TH 1934 Kalgoorlie Race Riots
  11. 11. IMMIGRATION POLICY
  12. 12. SONS OF GWALIA MINE - GWALIA
  13. 13. HISTORY OF GWALIA MINE •Started by Thomas Tobias a Coolgardie Storekeeper in 1896 •Lease transferred to G W Hall in 1897 and Sons of Gwalia was born •Started with a 10 head stamp battery and 110 men •Miners had to provide their own accommodation and the area was soon sprinkled with corrugated iron and hession cottages. •Seeking additional capital Hall started negotiations with London firm Bewick Moreing who sent out 23 year old Herbert Hoover to inspect the mine. •Hoover recognised the potential of the mine and recommended that Bewick Moreing buy it. •In 1898 Sons of Gwalia was launched on the London stock exchange with Bewick Moreing having the controlling interest , Herbert Hoover
  14. 14. HERBERT HOOVER •An amazing young man. General manager of Gwalia mine development at age 24 years •Introduced new work practises at Gwalia. Shift changes at the face. No overtime on weekends. Employed Italian miners •Became a partner in Bewick Moreing at age 27 years. •Elected 31st President of the USA in 1929. Served only one term
  15. 15. SOUTHERN EUROPEAN MINERS Employed by Herbert Hoover at the Sons of Gwalia mine. Hoover said they worked harder for less money and conditions of employment were
  16. 16. HOOVER RECRUITS SOUTHERN EUROPEAN MINERS  Hoover recruited a number of Italian workers whom he regarded as his allies against the unions: "I have a bunch of Italians coming up ... and will put them in the mine on contract work. If they are satisfactory I will secure enough of them to hold the property in case of a general strike and ... will reduce wages." By the early 1900s and up to the closure of Sons of Gwalia Mine in 1963, a large proportion of
  17. 17. ITALIAN MINERS UNDERGROUND AT GWALIA
  18. 18. GWALIA MINERS HUTS
  19. 19. GWALIA – NEVER GAZETTED AS A TOWN •State Govt said it was too close to Leonora – only 3.4km •Electric tram ran between Leonora and Gwalia •Gwalia continued throughout it’s life as a shanty town although the state govt built a state hotel •Not so for Herbert Hoover who oversaw the construction of a magnificent mine managers residence, still there, fully restored.
  20. 20. GWALIA STATE HOTEL
  21. 21. HOOVER HOUSE
  22. 22. HOOVER HOUSE DINING ROOM
  23. 23. GWALIA MINERS COTTAGE
  24. 24. PATRONIS GUEST HOME
  25. 25. KALGOORLIE – HANNAN ST – MARITANA ST
  26. 26. VIEW FROM PALACE HOTEL VERANDA
  27. 27. LABOUR DAY HOLIDAY KALGOORLIE – 19OO’S
  28. 28. KALGOORLIE BETWEEN THE WARS: A MINE OF RACISM? The 1916 campaign against ‘enemy subjects’ In December 1916, inflammatory reports in the Kalgoorlie press blamed the King of Greece for the deaths of British and French soldiers at the hands of Greek troops. In revenge, some Kalgoorlie residents, led by returned soldiers, damaged and looted more than twenty Greek- run businesses.
  29. 29. KALGOORLIE BETWEEN THE WARS: A MINE OF RACISM? The 1919 Kalgoorlie race riots In 1919, there was a considerable level of street violence in Australia, as returned soldiers expressed their dissatisfaction regarding the political and industrial situation they found at home. Migrant workers who were deemed to be taking returned soldier jobs particularly angered them. In one such incident in Kalgoorlie, a 22 year old returned soldier, Thomas Northwood, was fatally stabbed in an altercation with an Italian man. A bell-ringer was sent through the streets to summon a general roll-up of returned Soldiers. Although Northwood and his companions had instigated the altercation, returned servicemen led riots against southern Europeans. They organised a march of townspeople to various Italian-owned businesses in the area, which were ransacked one by one. The protesters demanded that all non - Britishers be ejected from the goldfields in order to ensure that sufficient
  30. 30. KALGOORLIE – HANNAN ST – MARITANA ST •The Depression hardened community attitudes against immigrants. Racism surfaced under the guise of protecting Australian jobs and businesses. •Anti-foreigner riots occurred on the Kalgoorlie goldfields in 1916, 1919 and 1934 •These were followed by strikes demanding preferential employment for Australian-born workers (Britishers). Immigrants in the 1920s and 30s maintained contact, where possible, with families and homelands. •This was especially important when many were made to feel unwelcome.
  31. 31. GOLD PRICE SPIKE DURING THE DEPRESSION 1934 $35.00 1933 $32.32 1932 $20.67 1931 $20.67 1930 $20.67 1929 $20.67 1928 $20.67 1927 $20.67
  32. 32. HOME FROM HOME HOTEL The bloody foreigners were attacking Australians in their own country. Tempers flared: volunteers were called for. Manning Clark on the 1934 Kalgoorlie riots, History of Australia1
  33. 33. HOME FROM HOME HOTEL An Italian barman, Claudio Mattaboni, 34, employed at the Home FromHome Hotel, is alleged to have struck a “Britisher” George Edward Jordon,29, who fell to the pavement and suffered a fractured skull. He died as a consequence
  34. 34. KALGOORLIE WINE SALOON BURNT A youth threw a stone through a window of the Kalgoorlie Wine Saloon and full-scale rioting ensued
  35. 35. THE ALL NATIONS HOTEL DESTROYED BY FIRE. THIS WAS A BOARDING HOUSE AS THE HOTEL WAS DELICENSED. LOOTED AND DESTROYED BY FIRE
  36. 36. THE FUNERAL OF TED JORDAN OVER WHOSE DEATH ALL THE FRACAS OCCURRED. OVER 100 CARS FOLLOWED HIS REMAINS AND OVER 9000 PEOPLE VIEWED THE FUNERAL.
  37. 37. TED JORDON FUNERAL  One local resident Nancy Crisp described her sisters impression of the funeral procession that accompanied Jordan’s coffin  “I’m not suggesting there wasn’t the usual grief and sorrow from his own family and friends but Norah told us when she came home that the cars going along at the tail end of this cortege were full of sightseers and almost merry makers and she was rather disgusted about it”  Reporter Gavin Casey blamed the elaborate funeral and subsequent alcohol consumption for the second night of rioting
  38. 38. FULL SCALE RIOT The scene of the shooting on 31/1/34. The trench at the foot of the bridge is where the Italians held force with their homes immediately behind. When the "mob" got control the Italians ran for safety to the dumps in the background only to see their houses looted and burned to the ground. 70 homes were destroyed
  39. 39. FULL SCALE RIOT KALGOORLIE, Jan. 31.— At Boulder last night miners who were concerned in the riot on Monday night came into savage conflict with the foreigners who defended their homes and property with rifles and knives and home bombs. Rioters looted and obtained firearms and ammunition Rioters were alcohol fuelled and unrestrained looting occurred MURDER, PILLAGE AND INCENDIARISM Night Battle With Rifles and Bombs MILE LONG LINE OF BURNING SHACKS POLICE REINFORCEMENTS RUSHED FROM PERTH – 150 special Constables held back due the ongoing volatility.
  40. 40. ITALIANS RETREATED TO THE DUMPS – 70 HOMES BURNT
  41. 41. DINGBAT FLAT – PROPERTIES BURNT Scene of the destruction on what is known as "Dingbat Flat". Chimneys in background "Left" are of Kalgoorlie Electric Power and Lighting Corporation, Boulder . Reported that 250 Slav homes were destroyed
  42. 42. SLAVONIC DANCE HALL, BOULDER WRECKED. THIS WAS NOT BURNED OWING TO BEING SURROUNDED ON ALL SIDES BY BRITISHERS
  43. 43. JACK OSMETTI AND TED JORDON WERE MATES
  44. 44. CORNWALL HOTEL TODAY
  45. 45. PITMAN – WALSH MURDERS - 1926
  46. 46. AFTERMATH OF THE KALGOORLIE RIOTS - LAUNCESTON HOSTEL RUN BY THE ERCEGOVICH FAMILY AFTER RIOTS IN KALGOORLIE
  47. 47. THE AFTERMATH
  48. 48. THE AFTERMATH
  49. 49. THE AFTERMATH KILLED. STOKES, CHARLES (27), of 14 Cheetham Street, Kalgoorlie. KATICH, JOSEPH (33), single, a Dalmatian. WOUNDED. SHACKLES, William (28), of 16 MoranStreet, Boulder. KING, WILLIAM (26), married, of 26George-street, Kalgoorlie. BROWN, M. (17), of 186 Forrest Street,Kalgoorlie. AUERN, FRANK (25), single, of 10 President-street, Kalgoorlie. MAONAMABA, JAMES (17), single, of 95Boulder-Road. BARBIE, SAMUEL (36), married, of Boulder.
  50. 50. THE FUNERAL OF JOSEPH KATICH. NOTICE ALL THESE MEN ARE WITHOUT COATS. MOST OF THESE PEOPLE HAD ALL THEIR BELONGINGS DESTROYED BY FIRE BARRING THOSE THEY ARE STANDING UP IN
  51. 51. THE AFTERMATH •In time, eighty-six people were arrested on a variety of charges in connection with the riots – twenty-two charges of stealing, fifty-five for unlawful possession, four for vagrancy, seventeen for rioting (one absconded from bail) and four for possession of unlicensed firearms. •The police were able to secure eighty-three convictions and fourteen men received gaol sentences. •The records do not, however, support the common contention that the rioters were predominantly miners. •Alcohol and mob rule were key drivers
  52. 52. KALGOORLIE HOTELS – ONE EVERY 50 YARDS YORK AND ORIENTAL EXCHANGE
  53. 53. THE CAUSES  The town was no more disturbed than usual, during the late summer weeks, but the undercurrents were deep underground until one single incident brought them gushing to the surface.  Gavin Casey – Journalist and author 1934
  54. 54. CONTRIBUTING FACTORS
  55. 55. THE PROTAGONISTS The belief that foreigners were getting preference was indirectly fuelled by members of the Chamber of Mines. They made it abundantly clear that the foreign-born miner was an example which Britisher miners would do well to emulate – docile, hard- working and uninfected by trade unionism – an easily recognisable ‘divide and rule’ tactic. Although the mine managers insisted that they observed a policy of Britisher employment preference, pointing out the advantages of migrant labour confirmed their commitment to ‘freedom of contract’
  56. 56. THE PROTAGONISTS The RSL leadership’s position on immigration was contradictory. On one level, they supported the employers’ right to search for the cheapest labour. At the same time, their commitment to a ‘White Australia’ encouraged opposition to all but British immigration. As a result, their stance helped to marginalise southern Europeans in Kalgoorlie, while not effectively limiting their arrival. At both state and federal level, the Kalgoorlie RSL leadership promoted motions demanding an end to southern European immigration; calling for the more strict enforcement of language tests; and scaremongering about the social dangers of non-British immigration.
  57. 57. THE PROTAGONISTS The AWU leadership occupied a contradictory position between the Chamber of Mines and its own membership. Although it sought peaceful and bureaucratic negotiations with management, it also sought to build a union in an industry where management denied any concessions, using every possible means to reduce wages and conditions and to weaken trade unionism. The union had been unable to resist the Chamber of Mines’ push towards greater employment competition, and blaming migrants for poor conditions either went unchallenged or became a convenient scapegoating exercise
  58. 58. COMPENSATION • Payment of compensation agreed upon by the State Government • Rolling out of compensation was prolonged with general dissatisfaction • Eventually 6,500 pounds worth of corrugated iron and timber were made available along with carpenters to rebuild housing. •Encouraged to build in Boulder away from “Dingbat Flat” for better integration •Business people were also compensated for destroyed premises’ fittings and furniture.
  59. 59. SUMMARY  There was a community wide lack of sympathy with the rioters and a subsequent feeling of shame and guilt  Local Australian residents had good relations with immigrants and helped them during and after the riots by storing their valuables in their homes and giving them food and clothing  Large numbers of Australian born kids of migrants had been to local schools and played sport with Australian kids.  There was a lack of racism at this community level
  60. 60. SUMMARY  The Osmetti brothers were outstanding sportsmen and popular in Boulder  Charlie played for East Fremantle and Jack was a champion footballer with Mines Rovers and became a state bowls champion in later years.  The Epis family were also great sportsmen and Alex played 184 games for Essendon in later years.  Many Italian and Yugoslavian offspring became leaders in the business, cultural, community and sporting life of the Goldfields  The current Mayor of Kalgoorlie is Ron Yuryevich  Matt Turich and Danny Sheehan ran the Kalgoorlie two- up game for years
  61. 61. KALGOORLIE TWO UP RING
  62. 62. KALGOORLIE RACE RIOTS 1934

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