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Domain Name Basics
What is WHOIS?
WHOIS is a protocol to query databases, such as domain names, IP
addresses or autonomous system (AS) and is documented in
Request for Comment (RFC) 3912.
WHOIS has its roots in 1982, when Internet Engineering Task Force
(IETF) published a protocol for a directory service for ARPANET users.
The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) runs a WHOIS
service as a starting point and references to Regional Internet
Registries (RIR) and Domain Name Registries.
All gTLD and most of ccTLD Registries are running a WHOIS service
for their Top-Level-Domains (TLD).
Two WHOIS models
The two common models to run a WHOIS are often characterized as
‘thin’ or/and ‘thick’:
A thin registry only includes technical data sufficient to identify the
sponsoring registrar, status of the registration, and creation and
expiration dates for each registration (e.g. .com, .net).
Thick registries maintain the registrant’s contact information and
designated administrative and technical contact information, in
addition to the sponsoring registrar and registration status
information (e.g. .club, .org).
ICANN accredited Registrars are maintaining a WHOIS service for
their sponsoring gTLD domains, if the operating Registry is ‘thin’.
Almost all gTLDs have a thick WHOIS.
How is WHOIS working?
Source: https://whois.icann.org/en/dns-and-whois-how-it-works - Effective 03/2016
WHOIS has been in the spotlight
It can create privacy issues which are tied to free speech and
anonymity. According to law enforcement it is an important tool to
investigate spam and phishing, and to track down the domain name
Registries and Registrars are restricting the access to their WHOIS
and especially ccTLD registries are protecting the data by disclosing
only the bare minimum of information, while gTLD registries and
registrars are bound by ICANN contracts to provide complete and
validated contact details.
Therefore many Registrants are willing to use WHOIS Privacy and
Proxy Services to hide there data from the public.
Accuracy of Information
ICANN is enforcing Registrars to provide complete, validated and
verified WHOIS data for gTLD domains. This includes the presence of
data for all fields in a proper format and to verify either the email
address or the telephone number of the domain name holder.
Many ccTLDs Registries are also imposing Registrars to do the same
that they are doing for gTLDs, however some ccTLDs are preforming
their own checks, such as local address databases.
If WHOIS information found to be inaccurate, registrant are compelled
to update their data. If this fails because the registrant is not reachable
then this could lead to a suspension.
Future of WHOIS
The ICANN Expert Working Group recommended 2013 that WHOIS
should be scrapped and proposed a system that keeps information
secret from most Internet users, and only discloses information for
In 2015 the IETF standardized the Registration Data Access
Protocol (RDAP) and it should become a successor to WHOIS.
It is yet to be determined if RDAP will succeed to fully replace WHOIS,
because there are still open security and privacy questions, a lot of
services are built on WHOIS and it will probably take a long time to