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Arts in Human Development
• Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a
theory in psychology as postulated in his
paper, "A Theory of Human Motivation."
Maslow extended the idea to include his
observations on human's innate curiosity. His
theory contends that as humans meet basic
needs, they seek to successively satisfy
"higher needs" that occupy a set hierarchy.
• In the real world, people do not work
successively through these levels. They are
much less structured in the way they satisfy
their needs. On the other hand, different
people from diverse cultures and in various
situations may have different hierarchical
Morality, Creativity, Spontaneity, Problem-
solving, Lack of prejudice, Acceptance of
Self – esteem, Confidence, Achievement,
Respect of others, Respect by others
Family, Friendship, Sexual intimacy
Security of body, of employment, of
resources, of morality, of the family, of health,
Breathing, food, water, sex, sleep,
Maslow's Hierarchy of
• Artists, philosophers, anthropologists,
psychologists, and programmers use the
notion of art in their respective fields. Artists
are either the creation or the performers.
• Arts is a person's way of expressing his/her
ideas and feelings through his/her creation
and non-graphic expression.(Estolas et al.,
• Dr. Howard Gardner, an education professor
at Harvard University, postulated the theory
of multiple intelligences in 1983.
• This theory suggests that the traditional
notion of intelligence, based on I.Q. testing,
is far too limited.
• Dr. Gardner proposes the following eight (8)
realms of intelligence to account for a
broader range of human potential in children
Multiple Intelligences by Dr. Howard Gardner
• Linguistic or languages (word-smart)
• Logical-mathematical intelligence
• Spatial intelligence (picture-smart)
• Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence (body-smart)
• Musical intelligence (music-smart)
• Interpersonal intelligence (people-smart)
• Intrapersonal intelligence (self-smart)
• Naturalistic intelligence (nature-smart)
• Dr. Gardner states that schools and culture focus most of
their attention on linguistic and logical-mathematical
• Articulate or logical people are highly respected in Philippine
• Dr. Gardner adds that equal regard should be given to
individuals who show gifts in the other intelligence such as;
artists, architects, musicians, naturalists, designers,
dancers, therapists, entrepreneurs, and others who enrich
the world in which we live.
• The theory of multiple intelligences espouses a major
transformation in the way our schools are run and subjects
are taught. It suggests that teachers nowadays must be
trained to present their lessons creatively using multimedia.
The study of arts is related to the judgment of
aesthetic value. Aesthetics examines the affective
domain's response to an object of phenomenon.
Immanuel Kant opines: "Everyone has his own
sense of taste. The case of beauty is different from
mere agreeableness because if he proclaims
something to be beautiful, then he requires the same
liking from others; he then judges not just for himself
but for everyone, and speaks of beauty as if it were a
property of things."
Activity: Mind Exercise
• How would you define beauty?
• Give examples of what you consider
• What do you associate with beauty?
WHAT IS AESTHETICS?
- Aesthetics is the subfield of philosophy
concerning beauty and art. It spans all areas of
artistic endeavor. The word derives from the
Greek aisthetikos, meaning “of sense
- It refers to the forms and psychological
effects of arts.
Aesthetics and Beauty
• Aesthetics originated from the Greeks and
has something to do with the appreciation of
art and beauty.
• Beauty is the quality of things as perceived by
the person judging the objects.
• Determining whether something is beautiful
depends on the faculty of sight and a person's
own sentiments for beauty which vary in
Aesthetics, Taste, Beauty
• Aesthetics – appreciation of art and beauty.
– “Aisthetikos” – of sense of perception.
– refers to the forms and psychological effects of arts.
• Beauty – is the quality of things as perceived by the
person judging the objects.
– Contemporary beauty – is based not on innate
qualities but rather on cultural specifics and
• Taste varies according to class, cultural background,
• Interpretations of art and beauty posses two
concepts of value: AESTHETICS and TASTE.
• Aesthetics is the philosophical notion of
• For Kant, beauty is objective and universal;
thus, certain things are beautiful to everyone.
• Taste varies according to class, cultural
background, and education.
• In appreciating beauty, the critic should be
able to recognize or give his/her opinion on
the work of the artist.
• Constructive criticism makes the artist more
creative as he/she tries to improve his/her
form or style in creating a work of art.
How an Artist Should Express
• The artist can be considered sensitive and
creative. He/She can see and feel what an
ordinary person cannot.
• His/Her imagination can extend far beyond the
thoughts of an ordinary person.
To be an artist, one must express himself
using the following:
• Skill - learned capacity to carry out pre-
• Talent - natural capacity to do something.
• Motivation - driving force.
BASIC QUESTIONS IN AESTHETICS
1. What is art and what is non art?
2. What do the various arts have in common
3. What, if anything makes some art good or bad?
4. Can art be evaluated objectively, or only
subjectively (that is, are aesthetic
properties merely "in the eye of the beholder" or
"matters of taste")?
5. What is the importance of art, to whom, and for
6. What effects can a work of art have on the
7. How does one interpret a work of art?
8. What is beauty and what is its relationship to art?
9. Why do we find certain things beautiful?
10. What is the role of emotion in the appreciation of
11. What is the role of the artist's intention in
interpreting a work of art?
12. What is the connection between art and ethics?
Understanding the Humanities and the
• Artist – a person engaged in one or more activities related to
creating art, practicing the arts, and/or demonstration an art.
• Affective learning – the effect and the acquisition of
behaviors involved in expressing feelings, attitudes,
appreciation, and values.
• Creativity – the act of a person who, through imagery,
makes something new such as a product, a solution, or a
work of art that has some kind of value.
• Gustatory Art – also called food decorating or food plating,
gustatory arts refer to the visual content and aesthetic
presentation of food.
• Independence – the value of freedom and acting on one’s
own will and capacity.
Understanding the Humanities and the Arts
• Interdependence – the value of being mutually and
physically responsible for others, and sharing a common set
of principles with them (i.e. classmates, team members,
• Modern Teacher – describes the new breed of
unconventional, creative instructors and facilitators who
deviate from the norms of teaching based on books and
• Multimedia – refers to today’s media using a combination of
different tools and form which include text or print, audio-
visual presentation, animation, documentary, the Internet,
photographs, and the like.
• Practical Approach – a method of teaching which instills
learning through action and participation
• Theories – refer to the coherent group of general
propositions used as principles of explanation for a class of