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B 737 NG Ground School.
See the aircraft study guide at www.theorycentre.com
The information contained here is for trainin...
FIRE PROTECTION
CONTROLS & INDICATORS
Engine Fire Protection
Engine fire protection consists of these systems:
• engine overheat and fire detection powered by t...
Loop A Pressure switch

Loop B Pressure switch
TYPICAL FIRE DETECTOR ASSEMBLY
TYPICAL FIRE DETECTOR

Sealed gas pressure line

Pressure switch.
Low pressure = Fault
Increased pressure = Overheat
Highe...
The three pressure switches sense these conditions:
Overheat
Fire
Fault (loss of gas pressure).
Gas pressure in the sense ...
Normal pressure

Gas filled line sealed
The indications of an engine overheat are:
• both MASTER CAUTION lights illuminate
• the OVHT/DET system annunciator light...
The indications of an engine fire are:
• the fire warning bell sounds
• both master FIRE WARN lights illuminate
• the rela...
Overheat and Fire detection.
Protect Engine and Pylon (Strut)
Dual loop Gas pressure detectors

APU Single loop gas pressu...
An OVHT DET switch for each engine, labelled A, B, and NORMAL, permits
selection of either loop A or B, or both A and B, a...
Engine Fire Extinguishing
The engine fire extinguisher system consists of two engine fire extinguisher
Bottles located in ...
The engine fire switches are normally locked down to prevent inadvertent
shutdown of an engine. Illumination of an engine ...
Pulling the engine fire switch up:
• closes both the engine fuel shutoff valve and the spar fuel shutoff valve
• closes th...
2 Fire extinguishing bottles for the engines located in the Left main wheel well
The engine fire extinguisher bottles are spherical. Each bottle contains halon and
nitrogen at a pressure of 800 psi at a ...
Fire extinguishing powered from the hot battery bus.

HOT BATTERY BUS
Each Fire extinguisher bottle has 2 squibs 1 Eng 1 and 1 for Eng 2
HOT BATTERY BUS

BOTTLE DISCHARGE light indicates LOW P...
APU Fire Protection
APU fire protection consists of these systems:
• APU fire detection powered by the battery bus.
• APU ...
APU fire detection powered from the Battery Bus

BATTERY BUS

Single loop gas pressure
detector. Fire detection Only.
APU Fire Detection
A single fire detection loop is installed on the APU. As the temperature of the
detector increases to a...
The two pressure switches sense for these conditions:
* Fire
* Fault (loss of gas pressure).
APU GROUND CONTROL PANEL

Located in the Right Main Wheel well
APU Fire
Warning Horn

APU bottle
discharge switch

APU Fir...
APU Fire Extinguishing
The APU fire extinguisher system consists of one APU fire extinguisher
bottle, an APU fire switch, ...
There is only 1 APU bottle squib. The Fire switch can be turned in either
direction to fire the squib.
One Fire extinguishing bottle for the APU located in the tail compartment
Main Wheel Well Fire Protection
Main wheel well fire protection consists of fire detection powered by the No. 2 AC
transfe...
The sensing element is a thermistor type with resistance inversely proportional to
temperature. As the element temperature...
Requires AC Power.

Number 2 AC Transfer Bus
Wheel well fire detection only.
CARGO FIRE PROTECTION
Cargo Compartment Fire Protection
Cargo fire protection consists of these systems:
• cargo compartment smoke detection pow...
Cargo Fire Control Panel
Cargo smoke & Heat Detection

4 detectors in FWD
compartment
2 Loop A DC BUS 1
2 Loop B DC BUS 2
Cargo smoke & Heat Detection

6 detectors in AFT
compartment
3 Loop A DC BUS 1
3 Loop B DC BUS 2
Cargo smoke & Heat Detection

1 or 2 Fire
extinguishing bottles
HOT BATTERY BUS
NORM Loops A & B active.
A or B only selected loop active
FWD & AFT RED lights Fire detected.
ARMED visible when selected.
Discharge light bottle
pressure is less than
250PSI.
A Fault exists in one or more
detector loops
TEST to test all detector and firing
circuits
Cargo Compartment Smoke and Heat Detectors

Detects Particles present in the air.
Or air temperature over 110 C
Normally r...
Cargo Compartment Fire Extinguishing
One or two fire extinguisher bottles are installed in the air conditioning mix bay on...
Halon 1301 Fire extinguishing Agent
Pressurised with Nitrogen.

1 Bottle gives a fire suppression
time of 60 minutes.

Loc...
Bottle 2 is on a 60 minute timer.
Discharge is controlled through a metering valve
Operates if still in Air mode.
Inhibite...
LAVATORY SMOKE DETECTION & FIRE PROTCTION
Lavatory Fire Protection
Lavatory fire protection consists of these systems:
• lavatory smoke detection
• lavatory fire ex...
Some aircraft have a lavatory smoke light on the FWD overhead panel.

SMOKE DETECTOR
Lavatory Fire Extinguisher System
A fire extinguisher system is located beneath the sink area in each lavatory.
When a fir...
Lavatory Fire Extinguisher
Heat Sensitive discharge nozzle which discharges agent into waste bin

Heat Activated Nozzles
B...
Lavatory Fire Extinguisher

Temperature indicators change to black
at 180⁰ F 200⁰ F 230⁰ F and 250⁰ F
The indication that a lavatory fire extinguisher has been discharged is;
a) The heat activated nozzle will be black.
b) Th...
The indication that a lavatory fire extinguisher has been discharged is;
a) The heat activated nozzle will be black.
b) Th...
The power source for fire extinguishing is;
a) Transfer bus No 1.
b) The switched hot battery bus.
c) The hot battery bus....
The power source for fire extinguishing is;
a) Transfer bus No 1.
b) The switched hot battery bus.
c) The hot battery bus....
Pulling the engine fire switch up cause what 8 things to happen?
Pulling the engine fire switch up cause what 8 things to happen?
1.

ARMS 1 EXTINGUISHER SQUIB ON EACH BOTTLE.

2.

CLOSES...
How many fire extinguisher bottles are there for the engines?
How many fire extinguisher bottles are there for the engines?
Fire Protection.
Now take the test at www.theorycentre.com
For more information info@theorycentre.com
Fire protection
Fire protection
Fire protection
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Fire protection

An overview of the B737 NG Fire detection and protection systems.

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Fire protection

  1. 1. B 737 NG Ground School. See the aircraft study guide at www.theorycentre.com The information contained here is for training purposes only. It is of a general nature it is unamended and does not relate to any individual aircraft. The FCOM must be consulted for up to date information on any particular aircraft.
  2. 2. FIRE PROTECTION
  3. 3. CONTROLS & INDICATORS
  4. 4. Engine Fire Protection Engine fire protection consists of these systems: • engine overheat and fire detection powered by the battery bus • engine fire extinguishing powered by the hot battery bus. Engine Overheat and Fire Detection Each engine contains two overheat/fire detector loops. Each loop provides both fire and overheat detection. As the temperature of a detector increases to a predetermined limit, the detector senses an overheat condition. At higher temperatures, the detector senses a fire condition. Normally, both detector loops must sense a fire or overheat condition to cause an engine overheat or fire alert. The ENG OVERHEAT light or engine fire switch remains illuminated until the temperature drops below the onset temperature. General Description Each engine has eight detectors. The detectors monitor four sections of the engine. In each section, two detectors attach to a support tube and make an assembly. An assembly has one detector from loop A and one from loop B. Location These are the locations of the engine fire detectors: * Two on the upper fan case section * Two on the lower fan case section * Two on the left core section * Two on the right core section.
  5. 5. Loop A Pressure switch Loop B Pressure switch TYPICAL FIRE DETECTOR ASSEMBLY
  6. 6. TYPICAL FIRE DETECTOR Sealed gas pressure line Pressure switch. Low pressure = Fault Increased pressure = Overheat Higher pressure = Fire.
  7. 7. The three pressure switches sense these conditions: Overheat Fire Fault (loss of gas pressure). Gas pressure in the sense tube holds the fault pressure switch in the closed position. The other two pressure switches close when the gas pressure increases because of an overheat or fire condition. The overheat and fire signals go to the engine and the APU fire detection module. This module supplies overheat or fire indication in the flight compartment. If the pressure in the sense tube decreases, the fault switch opens. This switch sends the fault signal to the engine and APU fire detection module.
  8. 8. Normal pressure Gas filled line sealed
  9. 9. The indications of an engine overheat are: • both MASTER CAUTION lights illuminate • the OVHT/DET system annunciator light illuminates • the related ENG OVERHEAT light illuminates. Gas filled line sealed
  10. 10. The indications of an engine fire are: • the fire warning bell sounds • both master FIRE WARN lights illuminate • the related engine fire switch illuminates • all related engine overheat alert indications illuminate. Gas filled line sealed
  11. 11. Overheat and Fire detection. Protect Engine and Pylon (Strut) Dual loop Gas pressure detectors APU Single loop gas pressure detector. Fire detection Only.
  12. 12. An OVHT DET switch for each engine, labelled A, B, and NORMAL, permits selection of either loop A or B, or both A and B, as the active detecting loops. The system contains a fault monitoring circuit. If one loop fails with the OVHT DET switch in NORMAL, that loop is automatically deselected and the remaining loop functions as a single loop detector. There is no flight deck indication of single loop failure. If both loops fail on an engine, the FAULT light illuminates and the system is inoperative. If the OVHT DET switch is positioned to A or B, the system operates as a single loop system. The non–selected loop is not monitored. If the selected loop fails, the FAULT light illuminates and the system is inoperative.
  13. 13. Engine Fire Extinguishing The engine fire extinguisher system consists of two engine fire extinguisher Bottles located in the Left main wheel well, two engine fire switches, two BOTTLE DISCHARGE lights, and an EXT TEST switch. Either or both bottles can be discharged into either engine. APU bottle has one squib. The green APU light will illuminate in test position 1 and 2
  14. 14. The engine fire switches are normally locked down to prevent inadvertent shutdown of an engine. Illumination of an engine fire switch or ENG OVERHEAT light unlocks the engine fire switch. The switches may also be unlocked manually. Normal Locked Fire switch illuminated Solenoid unlocks. Or manual unlock Button located under the fire switch.
  15. 15. Pulling the engine fire switch up: • closes both the engine fuel shutoff valve and the spar fuel shutoff valve • closes the engine bleed air valve resulting in loss of wing anti–ice to the affected wing and closure of bleed air operated pack valve • trips the generator control relay and breaker • closes the hydraulic fluid shutoff valve. The engine driven hydraulic pump LOW PRESSURE light is deactivated • disables thrust reverser for the related engine. • allows the engine fire switch to be rotated for discharge • arms one discharge squib on each engine fire extinguisher bottle. Rotating the engine fire switch electrically “fires” a squib, discharging the extinguishing agent into the related engine. Rotating the switch the other way discharges the remaining bottle. The L or R BOTTLE DISCHARGE light illuminates a few seconds after the engine fire switch is rotated, indicating the bottle has discharged. Turning either number 1 or 2 fire switch clockwise fires the right bottle squib for that engine.
  16. 16. 2 Fire extinguishing bottles for the engines located in the Left main wheel well
  17. 17. The engine fire extinguisher bottles are spherical. Each bottle contains halon and nitrogen at a pressure of 800 psi at a temperature of 21C (70F). If the bottle temperature increases to 130C, (266F) the safety relief port ruptures. This releases halon into the wheel well. The discharge tubing fittings from the two fire extinguisher bottles are different size. Also the tubing has coloured tape, yellow for engine 1 and blue for engine 2. When an engine fire extinguisher bottle pressure is less than 250 psi, the bottle pressure switch closes. The related BOTTLE DISCHARGED amber light on the overheat/fire protection panel comes on.
  18. 18. Fire extinguishing powered from the hot battery bus. HOT BATTERY BUS
  19. 19. Each Fire extinguisher bottle has 2 squibs 1 Eng 1 and 1 for Eng 2 HOT BATTERY BUS BOTTLE DISCHARGE light indicates LOW Pressure
  20. 20. APU Fire Protection APU fire protection consists of these systems: • APU fire detection powered by the battery bus. • APU fire extinguishing powered by the hot battery bus.
  21. 21. APU fire detection powered from the Battery Bus BATTERY BUS Single loop gas pressure detector. Fire detection Only.
  22. 22. APU Fire Detection A single fire detection loop is installed on the APU. As the temperature of the detector increases to a predetermined limit, the detector senses a fire condition. The APU fire switch remains illuminated until the temperature of the detector has decreased below the onset temperature. The system contains a fault monitoring circuit. If the loop fails, the APU DET INOP light illuminates indicating the APU fire detection system is inoperative. In this case the APU must not be operated as a fire condition would not be detected. The indications of an APU fire are: • the fire warning bell sounds • both master FIRE WARN lights illuminate • the APU fire switch illuminates • the APU automatically shuts down • the wheel well APU fire warning horn sounds, (on the ground only), and the wheel well APU fire warning light flashes.
  23. 23. The two pressure switches sense for these conditions: * Fire * Fault (loss of gas pressure).
  24. 24. APU GROUND CONTROL PANEL Located in the Right Main Wheel well APU Fire Warning Horn APU bottle discharge switch APU Fire control Handle Fire warning horn cut out switch APU Fire warning Light
  25. 25. APU Fire Extinguishing The APU fire extinguisher system consists of one APU fire extinguisher bottle, an APU fire switch, an APU BOTTLE DISCHARGE light, and an EXT TEST switch. The APU ground control panel located in the right main wheel well also contains an APU fire warning light, an APU BOTTLE DISCHARGE switch, an APU fire control handle and APU HORN CUTOUT switch. The APU fire switch is normally locked down to prevent inadvertent shutdown of the APU. Illumination of the APU fire switch unlocks the switch. The switch may also be unlocked manually. Pulling the APU Fire switch up: • provides backup for the APU automatic shutdown feature • deactivates the fuel solenoid and closes the APU fuel shutoff valve • closes the APU bleed air valve • closes the APU air inlet door • trips the APU generator control relay and breaker • allows the APU fire switch to be rotated for discharge • arms the APU fire extinguisher bottle squib. Rotating the APU fire switch in either direction electrically “fires” the squib discharging the extinguishing agent into the APU. The APU BOTTLE DISCHARGE light illuminates after a few seconds, indicating the bottle has discharged (less than 250psi).
  26. 26. There is only 1 APU bottle squib. The Fire switch can be turned in either direction to fire the squib.
  27. 27. One Fire extinguishing bottle for the APU located in the tail compartment
  28. 28. Main Wheel Well Fire Protection Main wheel well fire protection consists of fire detection powered by the No. 2 AC transfer bus. Note: The main wheel well has no fire extinguishing system. The nose wheel well does not have a fire detection system. Main Wheel Well Fire Detection A single fire detector loop is installed in the main wheel well. As the temperature of the detector increases to a predetermined limit, the detector senses a fire condition. The WHEEL WELL fire warning light remains illuminated until the temperature of the detector has decreased below the onset temperature. The indications for a main wheel well fire are: • the fire warning bell sounds • both master FIRE WARN lights illuminate • the WHEEL WELL fire warning light illuminates.
  29. 29. The sensing element is a thermistor type with resistance inversely proportional to temperature. As the element temperature increases, the resistance decreases. If any portion of the sensing element is above alarm temperature of 205C (400F), the element resistance decreases sharply. The single wire in the centre of the core is the power lead and the outside tube is electrically grounded. The insulating resistance of the core material decreases suddenly at the alarm temperature. Current flows through the core material to ground when alarm temperature is sensed. The sensing element has a single strand of nickel wire embedded in insulation. The insulation is impregnated with a salt compound and is in a tube. Outer case Ground Insulating Material Nickel wire +
  30. 30. Requires AC Power. Number 2 AC Transfer Bus Wheel well fire detection only.
  31. 31. CARGO FIRE PROTECTION
  32. 32. Cargo Compartment Fire Protection Cargo fire protection consists of these systems: • cargo compartment smoke detection powered by DC bus 1 and DC bus 2 • cargo compartment fire extinguishing powered by the hot battery bus. Cargo Compartment Smoke Detection The forward and aft cargo compartments each have smoke detectors in a dual loop configuration. Normally, both detection loops must sense smoke to cause an alert. In the event of a detector failure, the system can be manually converted to single-loop detection through the DETECT SELECT switch on the cargo fire control panel. In the event of a power failure in one loop the system automatically converts to single-loop detection. Cargo Compartment Fire Warning The indications of a cargo compartment fire are: • the fire warning bell sounds • both master FIRE WARN lights illuminate • the FWD/AFT cargo fire warning light(s) illuminates.
  33. 33. Cargo Fire Control Panel
  34. 34. Cargo smoke & Heat Detection 4 detectors in FWD compartment 2 Loop A DC BUS 1 2 Loop B DC BUS 2
  35. 35. Cargo smoke & Heat Detection 6 detectors in AFT compartment 3 Loop A DC BUS 1 3 Loop B DC BUS 2
  36. 36. Cargo smoke & Heat Detection 1 or 2 Fire extinguishing bottles HOT BATTERY BUS
  37. 37. NORM Loops A & B active. A or B only selected loop active
  38. 38. FWD & AFT RED lights Fire detected. ARMED visible when selected.
  39. 39. Discharge light bottle pressure is less than 250PSI.
  40. 40. A Fault exists in one or more detector loops
  41. 41. TEST to test all detector and firing circuits
  42. 42. Cargo Compartment Smoke and Heat Detectors Detects Particles present in the air. Or air temperature over 110 C Normally requires 1 detector in loop A and 1 In group B to detect a Fire. Can be configured Automatically or Manually for Single Loop operation.
  43. 43. Cargo Compartment Fire Extinguishing One or two fire extinguisher bottles are installed in the air conditioning mix bay on the forward wing spar. Detection of a fire in either the forward or aft compartment will cause the FWD or AFT cargo fire warning light to illuminate. The extinguishers are armed by pushing the appropriate cargo fire ARMED switch. Once armed, the first bottle is discharged by pushing the cargo fire DISCH switch. This results in the total discharge of the first bottle contents into the selected compartment. The second bottle discharge is metered to discharge at a reduced flow into the selected compartment. Discharge of the second bottle may be disabled if the system is disarmed. The cargo fire DISCH light illuminates when a bottle is discharged. It may take up to 30 seconds for the light to illuminate. On landing, if the first bottle was discharged and the system remains armed, the second bottle discharge is inhibited.
  44. 44. Halon 1301 Fire extinguishing Agent Pressurised with Nitrogen. 1 Bottle gives a fire suppression time of 60 minutes. Located in Air conditioning distribution bay. Behind the Aft wall of FWD cargo compartment
  45. 45. Bottle 2 is on a 60 minute timer. Discharge is controlled through a metering valve Operates if still in Air mode. Inhibited in Ground mode. Bottle 1 suppresses Fire for 60 minutes. 2 bottles offer a total of 180 minutes of Fire suppression. 2 Bottle installation
  46. 46. LAVATORY SMOKE DETECTION & FIRE PROTCTION
  47. 47. Lavatory Fire Protection Lavatory fire protection consists of these systems: • lavatory smoke detection • lavatory fire extinguishing (heat activated). This is aircraft dependent with variations! The lavatory smoke detection system monitors for the presence of smoke. When smoke is detected: • an aural warning sounds • the red alarm indicator light on the lavatory smoke detector panel illuminates and the appropriate amber lavatory call light will flash • the amber lavatory SMOKE light on the forward overhead panel illuminates. Amber Lavatory call light
  48. 48. Some aircraft have a lavatory smoke light on the FWD overhead panel. SMOKE DETECTOR
  49. 49. Lavatory Fire Extinguisher System A fire extinguisher system is located beneath the sink area in each lavatory. When a fire is detected: • fire extinguisher operation is automatic • flight deck has no indication of extinguisher discharge. The extinguisher bottle has two discharge ports. The ports have eutectic plugs. These plugs melt at high temperatures. When there is an overheat or fire condition, this occurs: * Temperature indicators change colour (white to black) * Eutectic plug melts * Extinguisher releases halon to stop the fire. Eutectic Definition Mixture of two or more components in such proportion that their combined melting point is the lowest attainable in some cases as low as 60 C (140 F). Eutectic alloys are fusible: upon cooling they convert from liquids to intimately mixed solids. Solder that is made of 63% tin and 37% lead. Eutectic solder is also known as 63/37 solder will go directly from a solid to liquid state when melted.
  50. 50. Lavatory Fire Extinguisher Heat Sensitive discharge nozzle which discharges agent into waste bin Heat Activated Nozzles Both nozzles discharge toward the towel disposal container. Flat black – normal condition. Aluminum – indicates extinguisher has discharged.
  51. 51. Lavatory Fire Extinguisher Temperature indicators change to black at 180⁰ F 200⁰ F 230⁰ F and 250⁰ F
  52. 52. The indication that a lavatory fire extinguisher has been discharged is; a) The heat activated nozzle will be black. b) The bottle exterior surface will be an aluminium colour. c) The heat activated nozzle will be an aluminium colour. d) The bottle pressure gage will indicate zero pressure.
  53. 53. The indication that a lavatory fire extinguisher has been discharged is; a) The heat activated nozzle will be black. b) The bottle exterior surface will be an aluminium colour. c) The heat activated nozzle will be an aluminium colour. d) The bottle pressure gage will indicate zero pressure. Heat Activated Nozzles Both nozzles discharge toward the towel disposal container. Flat black – normal condition. Aluminum – indicates extinguisher has discharged.
  54. 54. The power source for fire extinguishing is; a) Transfer bus No 1. b) The switched hot battery bus. c) The hot battery bus. d) Transfer bus No 2.
  55. 55. The power source for fire extinguishing is; a) Transfer bus No 1. b) The switched hot battery bus. c) The hot battery bus. d) Transfer bus No 2. Engine Fire Protection Engine fire protection consists of these systems: • engine overheat and fire detection powered by the battery bus • engine fire extinguishing powered by the hot battery bus.
  56. 56. Pulling the engine fire switch up cause what 8 things to happen?
  57. 57. Pulling the engine fire switch up cause what 8 things to happen? 1. ARMS 1 EXTINGUISHER SQUIB ON EACH BOTTLE. 2. CLOSES BOTH THE SPAR AND ENGINE FUEL VALVES. 3. CLOSES THE HYDRAULIC PUMP SHUTOFF VALVE. 4. CLOSES THE ENGINE BLEED AIR VALVE. 5. DISABLES THE THRUST REVERSER. 6. TRIPS THE GENERATOR CONTROL BREAKER. 7. INHIBITS THE EDP HYDRAULIC LOW PRESSURE LIGHT. 8. ALLOWS THE SWITCH TO ROTATE TO FIRE THE SQUIB.
  58. 58. How many fire extinguisher bottles are there for the engines?
  59. 59. How many fire extinguisher bottles are there for the engines?
  60. 60. Fire Protection. Now take the test at www.theorycentre.com For more information info@theorycentre.com

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