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A comprehensive description on modern ultrasonography.

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  1. 1. SEMINAR ONULTRASOUND Tharanath PP India Ultrasound
  2. 2. Ultrasound Basic Idea – Send waves into body which are reflected at the interfaces between tissue – Return time of the waves tells us of the depth of the reflecting surface History – First practical application, 1912 unsuccessful search for Titanic – WW II brought massive military research - SONAR (SOund Navigation And Ranging) – Mid-century used for non-destructive testing of materials – First used as diagnostic tool in 1942 for localizing brain tumors – 1950’s 2D gray scale images – 1965 or so real-time imaging
  3. 3. Ultrasound ranges?Human sensitivity: 20 - 20,000Hz Ultrasound: > 20,000Hz Diagnostic Ultrasound: 2.5 - 14 MHz
  4. 4.  Sound waves • Sound wave propagate by longitudinal motion(compression/expansion), but not transverse motion(side-to-side) • Can be modelled as weights connected by springs
  5. 5.  Specular - echoes originating from relatively large, regularly shaped objects with smooth surfaces. These echoes are relatively intense and angle dependent. (i.e.valves) - Reflection from large surfaces Scattered - echoes originating from relatively small, weakly reflective, irregularly shaped objects are less angle dependant and less intense. (i.e.. blood cells) -Reflection from small surfaces
  6. 6. Along each line we transmit a pulse and plot thereflections that come back vs time
  7. 7. Variation in speed
  8. 8. Propagation of ultrasound waves intissue Propagation of ultrasound waves in tissue • Ultrasound imaging systems commonly operate at 3.5 MHz, which corresponds to a wavelength of 0.44 mm when c = 1540 m/s. Refraction • When a wave passes from one medium to another the frequency is constant, and since c changes then so must the wavelength
  9. 9. Propagation of ultrasound waves in tissue Bending of waves from onemedium to another is refraction• Follows Snell’s Law sin theta/c1 since λ2 < λ1 we have c2 <c1 and θ2 < θ1
  10. 10. Definition/ Terminology Cycle Frequency: cycles per second Wave length Period Amplitude Compression - area of high density Rarefication - area of low density velocity = l x ƒ= constant for a given medium
  11. 11. A, Initial observation.B, After a short time, regions of high & low density are displaced tothe right
  12. 12. Ultrasound Production Piezoelectric effect: – Crystals vibrate at given frequency when an alternating current is applied – Crystal acts as speaker and microphone Continuous mode: – continuous-wave Doppler (CW) Pulsed-echo mode:
  13. 13. Continuous-wave output
  14. 14.  there is no information about the time interval from the signal to the reflection, and, hence, no information about the depth of the received signal; the signal may come from any depth. The continuous Doppler has no Nykvist limit, and can measure maximal velocities. It is used for measuring high velocities.
  15. 15. Pulsed Echo Signal generation = only ~1% of the entire pulse cycle On times; off times Time of signal return proportional to distance travelled
  16. 16.  if the PRF = 5 kHz and the time between pulses is 0.2 msec, it will take 0.1 msec to reach the target and 0.1 msec to return to the transducer. This means the pulse will travel 15.4 cm before the next pulse is emitted (1,540 m/sec x 0.1 msec = 0.154 m in 0.1 msec = 15.4 cm).
  17. 17. Pulsed wave output
  18. 18. Pulsed Echo PRF: pulse repetition frequency – Very important in Color Doppler SPL: spatial pulse length = wavelength x no. of cycles Maximal resolution = 0.5 SPL – The smallest distance between 2 points that USG can delineate
  19. 19. SPL with maximal resolution. Two objects(vertical lines) areseparated by 0.5 SPL. The echo from eachinterface is shownby dashed lines. The objects are just resolvable.
  20. 20. Pulse length shortened by increasing thefrequency.A ........The four-cycle pulse from a low-frequencytransducer includes both objects within the SPL.B .........The four-cycle pulse from a high-frequency transducer has a shorter spatial pulselength and can resolve objects located more closelytogether.
  21. 21. Doppler shift
  22. 22. V never go beyond c…means max shift is twice ft.
  23. 23. Tissue Doppler…
  24. 24. the main principle is that blood has high velocity(Typically above 50 cm/s, although also all velocitiesdown to zero), but low density, resulting in lowintensity (amplitude) reflected signals.Tissue has high density, resulting in high intensitysignals, but low velocity (typically below 20 cm/s).
  25. 25.  The pulsed modus results in a practical limit on the maximum velocity that can be measured. In order to measure velocity at a certain depth, the next pulse cannot be sent out before the signal is returned. The Doppler shift is thus sampled once for every pulse that is transmitted, and the sampling frequency is thus equal to the pulse repetition frequency (PRF). Frequency aliasing occurs at a Doppler shift that is equal to half of the PRF. fD = ½ * PRF
  26. 26.  Sampling from increasing depth will increase the time for the pulse returning, thus increasing the sampling interval and decrease the sampling frequency. The Nykvist limit thus decreases with depth. This means that pulsed Doppler has depth resolution, but this leads to a limit to the velocities that can be measured.
  27. 27. Ultrasound Transmission 1540 m/s– Velocity assumed the same for all tissue in calculation (which is not totally true) Acoustic impedance Attenuation Reflection Refraction Scatter: objects irregular or smaller than the ultrasound beam
  28. 28. Resolution Ability to delineate between two different objects Axial resolution: – high frequency = shorter SPL = better axial resolution but lower penetration
  29. 29. Resolution Lateral Resolution – Sound beam: width of the crystal – Near field – Focal zone: best lateral resolution – Far field – Dead zone: distance between the transducer face and the first identifiable echo
  30. 30. Resolution Temporal Resolution – Frame per second – Multiple focal zones • decreases frame rate • decrease temporal resolution
  31. 31. Diagram illustrating Axial Resolution
  32. 32. Modes A mode: amplitude B mode: brightness Real time (frames/sec) M mode: motion
  33. 33. A-Scan Presentation. The A-scan presentation displays the amount of received ultrasonic energy as a function of time. The relative amount of received energy is plotted along the vertical axis and the elapsed time (which may be related to the sound energy travel time within the material) is displayed along the horizontal axis
  34. 34. B-Scan Presentation. The B-scan presentation is a profile (cross-sectional) view of the test specimen. In the B-scan, the time-of-flight (travel time) of the sound energy is displayed along the vertical axis and the linear position of the transducer is displayed along the horizontal axis
  35. 35. Doppler Ultrasound Continuous wave (CW) – Seldom used, not a/v in most AED machines Pulsed wave (PW) Color Doppler Duplex Doppler:– Putting Color Doppler on top of Grey-scale Bmode Power Doppler
  36. 36. Transducers Formats – linear - rectangular field of view – sector - pie-shaped field of view
  37. 37. In sector scanning, theresolution becomes poorerat increasing depth.
  38. 38. Transducers Mechanical Probe: seldom used now Electronic Probe: – Linear array transducers • piezoelectric elements linearly arranged • sequentially activated to produce an image – Phased array transducers • smaller scanning surface (foot print) • good for echocardiography • more expensive • elements are activated with phase differences to allow steering of the ultrasound signal
  39. 39. sonosite
  40. 40. Available transducers C60/5-2 Convex Array Abdominal C11/7-4 Microconvex Array L38/10-5 Linear Array Vascular C15e/2-4 Microconvex Array Cardiac ICT/7-4 Endocavity
  41. 41. Imaging Modes on the Titan 2D Split screen Zoom Color power Doppler M-Mode: 3 sweep speeds 1/2:1/2, 1/3:2/3 or full screen options Pulsed wave (PW) Doppler Continuous wave (CW) Doppler Velocity based color flow Doppler Duplex imaging 3 sweep speeds 1/2:1/2, 1/3:2/3 or full screen options Tissue Harmonic Imaging (THI)
  42. 42. Logiq 100
  43. 43.  The Logiq 100 PROs five main probes: 5.0 MHz Convex-Array probe, 40 mm radius, 68° field of view 3.5 MHz Convex-Array probe, 50 mm radius, 68° field of view 7.5 MHz Linear-Array probe, 60 mm field of view 3.5 MHz Micro convex Cardiac probe, 13 mm radius, 82° field of view 6.5 MHz Endocavity probe, 10 mm radius, 120° field of view
  44. 44. probes C36 C55 L76 E72
  45. 45. Contd.. Operating modes: B-Mode, Dual B-Image (B/B- Mode), B/M Mode, M-Mode Dimensions: 276 mm x 244 mm x 405 mm, Weight: 9.8 kg (without probes)
  46. 46. reference http://www.prioritymedical.com/ultrasoundtrans ducers.html www.gehealthcare.com/euen/ultrasound/.../logiq- 100-pro/index.html#ge-probes www.medwow.com/...probes.../logiq- 100.../1541_9_15853.med?...