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Week 1grammarelements

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Week 1grammarelements

  1. 1. LECTURES ON ENGLISH GRAMMAR By: Pham Thi Hong Thanh
  2. 2. * Học liệu bắt buộc: Quirk, R.& Greenbaum, S ( 1973) A University Grammar of English, Longman group limited. * Học liệu tham khảo: 1. Azar, B (1989), Undertanding and using English grammar, Prentice Hall Regents. 2. Murphy, R ( 1985) English Grammar in Use, Cambridge Universty Press.
  3. 3. I. Some important concepts in English Language Language Language elements Language skills Vocab, grammar, pronunciation Speaking, listening, writing, reading
  4. 4. II. Grammar units      Ex: If I were a flower, I would be a sunflower. morpheme word Phrase Clause Sentence
  5. 5. Are analyzed into Sentences Clauses Phrases Words Morphemes Are used to built Sentences Clauses Phrases Words Morphemes
  6. 6. 1.2. Types of sentences  Simple sentence - one independent clause  Complex sentence - main & sub-clause  Compound sentence - 2 main clauses
  7. 7. 1.3. Sentence pattern 1. My head aches 2. She is beautiful 3. People all over the world hate wars. 4.I gave him a book. 5.We are in classroom. 6. The boss made him a fool. 7. They often read books here. 8. There are a lot of young teachers.
  8. 8.        S+V My head aches. S+ V+ C(S) She is beautiful. S+ V+ O We all hate wars. S+ V+ O( i)+ O (d) I gave him a book. S+ V+ A We are in classroom. S+ V+ O+ C The boss made him a fool. S+ V+ O+ A They often read books here.  There+ V+ S There are a lot of young teachers.
  9. 9. Elements of English sentence (clause)  Downing and Locke (1992) listed eleven elements:  Subject, Predicator, Direct object, Indirect object, Prepositional Object, Subject complement, Object complement, Predicator complement, Adjunct, Disjunct and Conjunct.
  10. 10.  The election campaign ended today.  The election campaign ended today.  Ted has bought a new motorbike.  They sent their friends postcards.  You must allow for price increases.  He is powerless to make any changes.
  11. 11.  The election campaign ended today. Subject  The election campaign ended today. Predicator  Ted has bought a new motorbike. Direct object  They sent their friends postcards. Indirect object  You must allow for price increases. Prepositional Object  He is powerless to make any changes. Subject complement
  12. 12.  We consider the situation alarming.  She tiptoed out of the room.  The news reached us on Tuesday.  Unfortunately, it was late to get to Newcastle in time.  However, other friends were there.
  13. 13.  We consider the situation alarming. Object complement  She tiptoed out of the room. Predicator complement  The news reached us on Tuesday. Adjunct  Unfortunately, it was late to get to Newcastle in time. Disjunct  However, other friends were there. Conjunct.
  14. 14. III. Syntactic functions of sentence elements 1. Subject and Predicate + Subject: the person or thing that is being spoken about, the topic of the sentence. + Predicate: the things saying about the subject.
  15. 15. The subject can be a s ing le wo rd , a no un or p ro no un or a no un p hra s e or even a c la us e . - Grammar is compulsory subject in the school. - Learning English grammar is very easy. - What we have known about English grammar is still very little.
  16. 16. 2. Object  The object is the person or thing toward which the subject directs the action of the verb.  An object is normally a noun, pronoun, or noun phrase, a clause. We like teaching. I like teaching English Grammar to you. I don’t know why I love Son la so much like that.
  17. 17. Direct objects refer to the person or thing affected by the action of verb. Indirect objects usually refer to the person or thing Who “benefits” from the action expressed in the verb.   He gave me a rose He gave a rose to me.
  18. 18. 3. Complement The complement is the part of the sentence that gives further information about the subject or object. In other words, the complement completes the meaning of the subject and object.
  19. 19. Subject complement and Object complement Realize the SC and OC in these sentences: You are young. I call her what she likes to be called- an innocent girl. She is a beautiful girl with positive point of view. Dark makes children scared. We saw them dancing in the rain. What I would like to know is where she can find a job.
  20. 20. 4. The adverbial Are the adverb and the adverbial the same?
  21. 21. The adverb  The adverb tells us something about the action in the sentence by modifying a verb, an adjective, an adverb or even a sentence by telling ho w, whe n, whe re , ho w o fte n , etc,.. some thing happens or done.  Adverbs are s ing le words.
  22. 22. The adverbial  Many p hra s e s and c la us e s can perform a similar function of the adverb in the sentence. So the term “adverbial” is used to describe a ny s ing le wo rd o r p hra s e o r c la us e that function as adverb in the sentence. They can be called adverbial phrase or adverbial clause.
  23. 23. Examples of adverbials  You did the test c a re le s s ly .( a word)  You did the test in a ve ry c a re le s s wa y .(a phrase)  You did the test s o c a re le s s ly tha t Id id n’t wa nt to c o rre c t it.( a clause)
  24. 24. 1. Time Since we weren’t together, I’ve always been sad. 2. Place I’ll follow him wherever he may go. 3. Reason Because the traffic was terrible I came to class late that day. 4. Purpose We are trying hard so that we can pass the exam. 5. Result The test was so difficult that nobody got good mark.
  25. 25. 6. Manner Do as I did before. 7. Concession Although her poems are so interesting, her stories are so boring 8. Comparison He can run as fast as his sister can. 9. Condition If I were you, I told him the truth.
  26. 26. Part of speech  How many parts of speech are there?  What are they?
  27. 27. There are ten parts of speech in English:     Noun Verb Adjective Adverb       Demonstrative Article Pronoun Preposition Conjunction Interjection
  28. 28. These elements are divided into two groups: open class items and close system items.  What are the differences between open class items and close system items?
  29. 29. Open class items Close system items  Conclude content  Conclude function words which have lexical meaning  Great amount words  Certain amount  Extendable  Can not be extended  Not exclusive  Exclusive

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