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Tru open learning 2014

This show highlights combinations from Jon Dron and my ideas on generations of Educ Pedagogy and social groups to support it

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Tru open learning 2014

  1. 1. Learning Online: Alone and in Nets, Sets and Groups Terry Anderson, Ph.D.
  2. 2. Values • We can (and must) continuously improve the quality, effectiveness, appeal, cost and time efficiency of the learning experience. • Student control and freedom is integral to 21st century life-long education and learning. • Continuing education opportunity is a basic human right.
  3. 3. E-Learning is not the same
  4. 4. Learning as Dance (Anderson, 2008) • Technology sets the beat and the timing. • Pedagogy defines the moves.
  5. 5. Understanding Online Pedagogies and Fitting them into our social boxes
  6. 6. Outline • Different elearning , different pedagogies and different technologies • Generations of Online Education Pedagogy • Social Forms to Match Pedagogies • Beyond the LMS – Athabasca Landing boutique social network
  7. 7. • McLuhan “We shape our tools and thereafter our tools shape us” • “When physical spaces for learning go online (distributed, non-hierarchical, networked, digital), new, more effective pedagogies emerge”. George Siemens
  8. 8. Three Generations of Online Learning Pedagogy 1. Behaviourist/Cognitive – 2. Social Constructivist – 3. Connectivist Anderson, T., & Dron, J. (2011). Three generations of distance education pedagogy. IRRODL, 12(3), 80-97
  9. 9. 1. Behavioural/Cognitive Pedagogies • “tell ‘em what you’re gonna tell ‘em, • tell ‘em • then tell ‘em what you told ‘em” Direct Instruction
  10. 10. Gagne’s Events of Instruction (1965) 1. Gain learners' attention 2. Inform learner of objectives 3. Stimulate recall of previous information 4. Present stimulus material 5. Provide learner guidance 6. Elicit performance 7. Provide Feedback 8. Assess performance 9. Enhance transfer opportunities Instructional Systems Design (ISD)
  11. 11. Enhanced by the “cognitive revolution” • Chunking • Cognitive Load • Working Memory • Multiple Representations • Split-attention effect • Variability Effect • Multi-media effect – (Sorden, 2005) “learning as acquiring and using conceptual and cognitive structures” Greeno, Collins and Resnick, 1996
  12. 12. Technologies of Ist generation • CAI, text books, One way Lectures, Video and audio broadcasts and webcasts with advancements??
  13. 13. Social Focus of Ist generation - Individual Learner
  14. 14. Learning Alone • Maximizes Freedom: – Space, time, pace, • Allows and promotes individualization • Freedom from “group think” • Power of auto-didacticism • Freedom from groups
  15. 15. Cognitive Behaviourist Ontology • Knowledge is logically coherent, existing independent of perspective • Context free • Capable of being transmitted • Assumes closed systems with discoverable relationships between inputs and outputs
  16. 16. Behavioural/Cognitive Developments
  17. 17. Self Directed or Self Paced learning • Learner sets start date and the time to completion • Continuous assessment • Maximizes learner control • Higher drop out • Ted Talks, Khan Academy, OERU • Only one of the Major MOOCs (Udacity) providers offers this option
  18. 18. P-1 Personalized Practice Our Adaptive Algorithm finds a child's true grade level with Splash Score.
  19. 19. MOOCs – Now beyond the US
  20. 20. Everyone can own a MOOC
  21. 21. Open Educational Resources Open Texts Because it saves time!!!
  22. 22. Learning Analytics - Dashboard
  23. 23. Big Data &Education 1) Technology: maximizing computation power and algorithmic accuracy to gather, analyze, link, and compare large data sets. 2) Analysis: drawing on large data sets to identify patterns in order to make economic, social, technical, and legal claims and design interventions. 3) Mythology: the widespread belief that large data sets offer a higher form of intelligence and knowledge that can generate insights that were previously impossible, with the aura of truth, objectivity, and accuracy. Boyd, d. & Crawford, K. (2013). Critical Questions for Big Data: Provocations for a Cultural, Technological, and Scholarly Phenomenon
  24. 24. Khan Academy Offers Student Tracking/Analytics
  25. 25. New Forms of Accrediting Challenge Exams for Credit
  26. 26. 1st Generation, Cognitive Behavioural Pedagogy Summary • Scalable • Few requirements, or opportunities, for social learning • Works most efficiently with individual learning models • Effective and efficient for some types of learning • Have we really taught learners to succeed as life long learners with this type of learning?
  27. 27. 27 2nd Generation Constructivist Pedagogy • Group Orientated • Membership and exclusion, closed • Not scalable - max 50 students/course • Classrooms - at a distance or on campus • Hierarchies of control • Focus on collaboration and shared purpose group
  28. 28. Constructivist Knowledge is: • Knowledge is constructed, not transmitted • Arrived at through dialogic encounters (Bakhtin,) - the presence of others adds motivation, conflicting ideas, social validation • Teacher as group facilitator “Dialogic as an epistemological framework supports an account of education as the discursive construction of shared knowledge” Wegerif, R.
  29. 29. 2nd Generation - Constructivist • Current model for most Online Learning– continued strong growth in US and globally • Canada - “Student registrations jumped another 18.4% in Winter 2013” • Major employer of adjuncts 32% of US higher education students now take at least one course
  30. 30. Constructivist Learning in Groups • Long history of research and study • Established sets of tools – Classrooms – Learning Management Systems (LMS) – Synchronous (chat, video & net conferencing) – Email, wikis, blogs • Need to develop face to face, mediated and blended group learning skills Garrison, R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2000). Critical thinking in text-based environment: Computer conferencing in higher education. The Internet and Higher Education, 2(2), 87-105.
  31. 31. • Increase in learning outcomes, social skills, positive attitudes to learning BUT • “the need for cooperative teams to mature implies that cooperative learning does not yield an immediate improvement …need for patience and persistence… students experienced in cooperative learning” Hsiung, C.-m. (2012). The Effectiveness of Cooperative Learning. Journal of Engineering Education, 101(1), 119-137.
  32. 32. The Power of Synchronous Learning in Groups • Immediacy • Pacing • Comfort level for student and teachers, but DON’T fall into classroom lectures • Social Modeling
  33. 33. Immersion ??
  34. 34. Group Management • Need good tools to allow group to work effectively and efficiently to build trust and work effectively at a distance • Use Face-to-face (blended) time to do this.
  35. 35. http://www.collaborativelearning.org/scien iology.html
  36. 36. http://collabtive.o-dyn.de/
  37. 37. https://voicethread.com/?#u316369 https://voicethread.com/?#u316369.b394099.i4835363
  38. 38. http://www.go2web20.net/#tag:collaboration
  39. 39. Flipped Classroom
  40. 40. Social Constructivist Social forms • Group • Limited in size – Dunbar’s Max ~150 for a tribe • Mutual awareness of each other • Techer domination and dependency?
  41. 41. 2nd Generation Social Constructivist Pedagogy Summary • Not scalable, expensive in terms of time and money • New group tools enhance efficiency • Helps teachers and learners transition to online learning a transference from good classroom teaching
  42. 42. Generation 3 Connective pedagogies • http://mms.uni- hamburg.de/epedagogy/mmswiki/index.php5/Connectivism
  43. 43. 3rd generation Connective Pedagogies • Heutagogy – Hase, S., & Kenyon, C. (2000). From Andragogy to Heutagogy. • Chaos Theory • Activity Theory & Actor Network Theory (ANT) – “systemic interactions of people and the objects that they use in their interactions.”
  44. 44. Connectivism • “connectivism is the thesis that knowledge is distributed across a network of connections, and therefore that learning consists of the ability to construct and traverse those networks.” Stephen Downes 2007 See special issue of IRRODL.org
  45. 45. Connectivist Knowledge • Is created by linking to appropriate people and objects • May be created and stored in non human devices • Is as much about capacity as current competence • Assumes the ubiquitous Internet • Is emergent George Siemens
  46. 46. Connectivist Learning Persistence Accessibility Network Effects “Connectivying” your course http://terrya.edublogs.org/2012/12/18/connectivy-your-course/
  47. 47. NOT Learning in a Bubble
  48. 48. Disruptions of Connectivism • Demands net literacy and net presence of students and teachers • Openness is scary • New roles for teachers and students • Artifact ownership, persistence and privacy • Too manic for some
  49. 49. The Social Aggregation makes a Difference • Available open access Summer 2014
  50. 50. The Social Aggregations of Generation 3 Connective Pedagogies • Individuals • Groups • Networks • Sets 3rd Gen. Connectivist 2nd Gen. Social Constructivist 1st Gen C/B
  51. 51. Social Forms of Connectivism Networks and Sets
  52. 52. Social Networks • Facebook, LinkedIn, • Academia, • Twitter • Blogs • Listservs • Private – NING – ELGG – Drupal, – Word Press
  53. 53. Personal Identity Professional Identity University Identity An Academic’s Net+ Identity
  54. 54. • “If Google cannot find a faculty scholar's work or the work of the scholar's colleagues, department, or institution, then it is essentially irrelevant — even nonexistent — because people will not find, read, apply, or build on the work if they cannot locate it via a quick Google searchLowenthal & Dunlap (2012) Lowenthal, P., & Dunlap, J. (2012). Intentional Web Presence: 10 SEO Strategies Every Academic Needs to Know. Educause. http://www.educause.edu/ero/article/intentional-web-presence-10- seo-strategies-every-academic-needs-know.
  55. 55. Applying Social Network Analysis to High School Students 2012 The Network Roundtable LLC
  56. 56. https://webmaker.org/standard - Mozilla
  57. 57. Sets • Aggregation of all people/things sharing a particular interest, commonality. • Example: Set of all graduates of X, all psychology resources • Can be curated resources with social involvement limited to votes, comments, links • Sets MAY develop into networks or groups.
  58. 58. Most Common Set Tool Tag Cloud
  59. 59. Classic Set: Those editing (or reading) a Wikipedia article
  60. 60. Sets Tools: Pintere.st
  61. 61. Sets (Example)
  62. 62. Connectivist Learning Summary • Born on the Net • Focuses on students being responsible for their own learning and building their own learning networks • Is emergent and can be disruptive • For advanced learners only??
  63. 63. Conclusion: • the best part of Online Learning– is eclectic allowing student exploration of their own learning needs and gifts. • Need to matching pedagogy, technology, social forms and learning outcomes • Empowerment, lifelong learning and smart (not more) work for teachers
  64. 64. Shameless Plug and Giveaways! Issues in Distance Education Series http://aupress.ca
  65. 65. • Anderson, T. & Dron, J. (2011). Three generations of distance education pedagogy. International Review of Research on Distance and Open Learning, 12(3), 80-97. http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/890/1 826. • Anderson, T. & Dron, J. (2012). Learning technology through three generations of technology enhanced distance education pedagogy. European Journal of Open, Distance and E-Learning, 2012/2. Retrieved from http://www.eurodl.org/?p=current&article=523. • Dron, J. & Anderson, T. (in press). Teaching crowds: the role of social media in distance learning Edmonton, Canada: Athabasca University Press.
  66. 66. Terry Anderson terrya@athabascau.ca Blog: terrya.edublogs.org Your comments & questions most welcomed! Slides available http://www.slideshare.net/terrya/edutec-2013-costa-rica
  67. 67. If Time Allows
  68. 68. The Athabasca Story • LMS – Moodle • E-Portfolio- Mahara • Social Networking - Elgg Hard Soft Low learner control High learner control
  69. 69. Case Study : Athabasca Landing landing.athabascau.ca
  70. 70. Landing Stats (Sept. 2013)
  71. 71. Individual Control (PLE)
  72. 72. Privacy Control
  73. 73. Groups
  74. 74. Group Example
  75. 75. Nets
  76. 76. Sets
  77. 77. Student view • "I have managed to gain more useful knowledge through one course conducted here on Landing than from all the others combined. ”
  78. 78. Opportunities • Sharing resources • modeling of product and pacing • “amplified” feedback. • part of a social structure Challenges • Confusion and learning curve • Information overload – filtering problems • instrumental learners • Privacy and sharing • Institutional inertia