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Problems faced by muslims during partition

  1. Initial Problems of Pakistan
  2. Group Members • Farees Mustafa 14-TE-34 • Nihar Khan 14-TE-58 • Mehmood Ali 14-TE-90 • Muhammad Bilal 14-TE- 12 • Muhammad Ismail 14-TE-42 • Muhammad Umair 14-TE-38 • Muhammad Sanaullah 14-TE-
  3. Outline Topics are:- 1. Documentary 2. Introduction 3. Overview of the ills of Partition (Based on each side) 4. Details of the Great problems 5. Journals and True Stories 6. Conclusion 7. How was he (R.A) right?
  4. Documentary • Next Slide shows documentary on Partition of British India
  5. Doc pg
  6. Introduction • The emergence of Pakistan, after a long and arduous freedom movement, was in fact a great victory of the democratic idea of life.
  7. Introduction • The Indian Muslims happily and valiantly laid down their lives and properties to achieve a destination in which they saw the fulfillment of their dreams of living an independent life free from Hindu and British dominance..
  8. Introduction • Quaid-e-Azam (R.A) on 15th August, 1947 said; “My thoughts are those valiant fighters in our cause who readily sacrificed all they had, including their lives to make Pakistan possible.” • From its very inception, Pakistan faced a large number of problems
  9. Overview of the ills of Partition • Impact and Aftermath of Partition The partition of British India left both India and Pakistan devastated. • Riots erupted, and looting broke out widespread.
  10. Overview of the ills of Partition • Women were raped and battered by both the Hindus and Sikhs, and trains full of battered women and children would arrive at the borders of Pakistan daily.
  11. Overview of the ills of Partition • Over 15 million refugees were forced into regions completely new to them. Even though they shared the same religion of their new home, they still had not lost the bond to the region their family and ancestors grew up in.
  12. Overview of the ills of Partition • The provinces of Bengal and Punjab were divided causing outrage in many Muslims, Hindus, and Sikhs alike.
  13. Overview of the ills of Partition • Even after almost six decades after the partition, India and Pakistan have still not healed from the wounds left by the partition. India and Pakistan have been to war twice since the partition, and Pakistan suffered the cursing war of the breaking away of East Pakistan into Bangladesh.
  14. Overview of the ills of Partition • The two countries are still arguing over the landlocked region of Kashmir. Many believe the partition not only broke the unity of India, but also took away the sense of belonging to many people who were tore apart from their native regions.
  15. 1. Choice of Capital and Establishment of Government • The first problem that Pakistan had to face was to choose a capital to form a Government and to establish a secretariat. • Karachi was chosen as the capital of Pakistan.
  16. 1. Choice of Capital and Establishment of Government • Quaid-e-Azam (R.A) took the office of the Governor General, Liaquat Ali Khan was appointed as Prime Minister and a Cabinet of experienced persons was selected. • Arrangements were to be made to bring the officials who had opted for Pakistan from Delhi to Karachi.
  17. 2. Unfair Boundary Distribution • A boundary commission was set up under a British Chairman, Sir Cyril Redcliff. He misused his powers and handed over Muslims majority areas like Gurdaspur, Ferozpur and Junagadh to India hence providing them a gateway to Kashmir. • Quaid-e-Azam (R.A) called it an unjust, incomprehensible and even perverse award.
  18. 3. The Massacre of Muslim Refugees in India • On the birth of Pakistan, Hindus and Sikhs became more furious. In a planned move, Muslims properties and living Muslims were set on fire and they were compelled to leave India for Pakistan with nothing but their lives.
  19. 3. The Massacre of Muslim Refugees in India • The most accurate number of causalities were 2 lakh and fifty thousand as dead and about 6.5 million refugees came to Pakistan the then West Pakistan. • In these haunted hours Quaid-e-Azam (R.A) made an exotic speech to restore faith and confidence.
  20. 3. The Massacre of Muslim Refugees in India He (R.A) said; “Do not be overwhelmed by the enormity of the task, there are many examples in the history of young nations building themselves up by sheer determination and force of character. You have to develop the spirits of mujahids. You are a nation whose history is full of tales of heroism and bravery. Live up to your traditions and add to another chapter of
  21. 3. The Massacre of Muslim Refugees in India • Millions of refugees were killed before they reached Pakistan. Many migrants were looted and had to be provided boarding immediately as they reached Pakistan.
  22. 4. Division of Military and Financial Assets • In order to embarrass Pakistan financially, India did a lot of dishonesty in the matters of Pakistan which were concerned with its benefits. • Pakistan was promised to get Rs. 750 million but the Indian Government refused to give. Pakistan received only 200 million.
  23. 4. Division of Military and Financial Assets • Pakistan also did not receive the due share of the military assets. This dishonest attitude put Pakistan into great difficulties. • To put it simple Pakistan started its Arms and Finances from zero or to be precise even below it!
  24. 5. Canal Water Dispute • Pakistan has an agrarian economy. Most of the rivers flowing in Pakistan have their origin in India. • In 1948, India stopped water supply to Pakistani canals to damage the Pakistani agriculture.
  25. 5. Canal Water Dispute • However on 9th September, 1960 on agreement called Indus Basin Treaty was signed between the two countries. • The treaty was put to ashes by India in 1964 and Indo-Pak War of 1965 took place. It was the biggest Tank-tank War in the World’s History.
  26. 6. Kashmir Dispute • Kashmir dispute is the most important and unsolved problem. Kashmir is the natural part of Pakistan because at the time of partition 85% of the Kashmir’s total population was Muslim. • The Hindu Dogra Rule, who was secretly with the Government of India, declared Kashmir as a
  27. 6. Kashmir Dispute • Pakistan has continuously insisted that Kashmir must get their right of self determination but due to non-cooperation of India, Kashmir issue still remain unsolved. • This resulted in a (what international powers called a “Near Nuclear War”) War of 1999’s Indo-Pak War of Kargil-Drass Sector.
  28. 6. Kashmir Dispute • The head on head collision suffocated India and she had to put all her might in the war to win. Number of causalities were soaring in Indian Army which where three times as many as in Pakistan Army.
  29. 6. Kashmir Dispute • The War’s main purposes were:- 1) To free Kashmir from the clutches of India. 2) To raise the Issue in UNO. • Only the second Objective was achieved due to the rivalry of our Politician with the firm idea of getting Kashmir.
  30. 7. Constitutional Problem • The constituent assembly failed to frame a constitution even in eight years. Lack of a permanent constitution created chances of unscrupulous interference in democratic progress of Pakistan.
  31. 7. Constitutional Problem • At the time of establishment of Pakistan the Government of India Act 1935 became the working constitution of Pakistan with certain adaptions.• But the need of a constitution framed by the elected representatives of the people was necessary a new Nation.
  32. 7. Constitutional Problem • So the first constituent assembly was formed and was given the task to frame the constitution for the country by none other than Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah (R.A). • But the constituent assembly failed to frame a constitution even in eight years.
  33. 7. Constitutional Problem • Lack of a permanent constitution created chances of corrupt interference in democratic progress of Pakistan. • So with in some time the constitutional problem was overcome.
  34. 8. Annexation of Princely States • All Indian princely states were given the right to link up with either of dominions. However, the fate of some states remained undecided.
  35. 8. Annexation of Princely States • The Muslim Nawab governing Junagadh favoured in acceding to Pakistan. But Indian Government sent Army troops towards Junagadh and occupied the State by force in November, 1947. • Hyderabad Deccan was the largest and richest state ruled by Muslim leader Nizam who decided to remain independent.
  36. 8. Annexation of Princely States • But pressure tactics began to the applied by Indian Government and Mountbatten. India attacked Hyderabad on 13th September 1948 and forcibly annexed this state to India.
  37. 9. Economic Problems • When Pakistan came into existence, it mostly consisted of economically backward and underdeveloped areas. • The agricultural system was obsolete and outdated which added to the economic backwardness of the areas forming part of Pakistan.
  38. 9. Economic Problems • Before partition the Hindus, with the blessings of the British Government, had acquired complete monopoly in trade and commerce. • The major industries were in those areas which were part of India.
  39. 9. Economic Problems • The entire capital was in the hands of the Hindus. Unfortunately, the banks and other financial institutions were located in Indian territory. • Besides these factors the technical experts and laborers, who operated the industries, were all Hindus because the Muslims extremely lagged behind in education and financial capabilities.
  40. 9. Economic Problems • The inadequate system of transportation and communication also made its adverse affect on economic development of the country. • The railway system and river transportation in East Pakistan was in depleted condition. • The roads were in shabby and irreparable condition. The communication and transportation system in West Pakistan, comparatively, were in a better position. • The power resources in the two wings
  41. 10. Administrative Problems • Pakistan came into being under the most appalling conditions. The Government of Pakistan could not get enough time to set up workable administrative machinery because of the great difficulties created by Congress.
  42. 10. Administrative Problems • The Indian Government adopted delaying tactics and transferring the Government servants and official record which aggravated the situation. • Therefore the immediate task before the nation was to establish a workable administrative and Government machinery to run the affairs of the newly
  43. 10. Administrative Problems • The biggest administrative problem facing Pakistan was the acute shortage of competent and experienced personnel in the Central and Provincial Governments.
  44. 10. Administrative Problems • Furthermore, there weren’t enough chairs, tables or even stationary and paper pins for administrative purposes. However, Quaid-e-Azam (R.A) paid his immediate attention towards setting up of administrative machinery and took a number of steps to overcome the administrative problems of the new state.
  45. 11. Electricity Problem • Due to transfer of Muslim majority areas to India and of unfair demarcation, electricity system of West Punjab was disrupted, because all power stations were at Mundi, a predominantly Muslim majority area, gifted to India but Quaid-e-Azam (R.A) said,“If we are to exist as a nation, we will have to face the problems with determination and force”
  46. Conclusion • Pakistan came into being as a free Muslim state in quite unfavourable circumstances. It had no resources, it had to build up its administrative machinery from a scratch. • But Supreme efforts were made by the Quaid-e-Azam (R.A) and his colleagues to grapple with the situation. • Qaid-e-Azam’s (R.A) golden principles Unity, Faith and Discipline gave way to Pakistan for a bright future of a strong and well developed country.
  47. Conclusion • But today we can see that Quaid-e-Azam (R.A) was right after all when he said, “Pakistan is one of the Greatest Nations of the world!”
  48. How was he (R.A) right? • Pakistan is Seventh in the Nuclear powers of the world. • Her Armed capabilities are superb. • She is home to many Ethical Groups.
  49. How was he (R.A) right? • She has almost all the weathers and terrains of the world. • Pakistan is one of the most important nation geographically and in Third World Order, Muslim world and the Bi-polar world.
  50. How was he (R.A) right? • Pakistan is the pilgrim land for Hindus, Sikhs and Buddhists. Their ancient relics still lie here. • She is home to the oldest civilizations of the world known today.
  51. Thank you for your Attention Any questions?