“Who’s who” is an important question, not just for the publishers of biographical encyclopedias. Identities and reliable ways to identify people, devices, and real or virtual objects have become more important than ever before as much of our lives, including the industrial world, has gone digital. The new opportunities coming from this also contain new challenges: From biometric passports making travel safer and more secure to eID technologies facilitating virtual transactions and digital certificates establishing themselves as the technology of choice to authenticate devices and actors in the industrial IoT, the tech world is exploring how identity can be represented both online and offline. Digital certificates are a great tool to uniquely identify people or devices with the tried-and-tested reliability and security of a pair of cryptographic keys acting as the currency of trust: One key is public and confirmed by a neutral authority, the Certificate Authority, to belong to the person, device, or digital object, and the other is private and secure. With a certificate signed with that private key and the private key stored safely away from prying eyes, there should be no way to tamper with or steal the identity it confirms. CodeMeter Certificate Vault is our answer: The keys are kept safe and the necessary cryptographic operations handled in the smart card chips embedded in our secure hardware elements, our CmDongles. But CodeMeter Certificate Vault is more than that: It acts as a PKCS#11-compliant token provider, acts as a go-between when keys need to be accessed, e.g. through the OpenSSL API, it works perfectly in the important M2M communication standard OPC UA, and it simplifies the often laborious process of distributing and managing certificates by bringing the whole comfort and great performance of CodeMeter License Central to the certificate world. Key pairs are created, bound to their intended container, and packaged in a secure file that can simply be shipped over to their destination. With CodeMeter’s award-winning encryption, the entire process is safe from theft and tampering. In his talk, Guenther Fischer will look at three use cases that show the power of CodeMeter Certificate Vault in action.