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Textile spinning

  1. TEXTILE SPINNING Process Quality Control 11/8/2010 1 Prepared by TANVEER AHMED
  2. TEXTILE SPINNING The process or processes used in the production of single yarns or of fabrics generated directly from polymer. 1. Yarn from Staple Fiber: The formation of a yarn by a combination of drawing or drafting and twisting prepared strands of fibers, such as roving. 2. FilamentYarn: In the spinning of manufactured filaments, fiber-forming substances in the plastic or molten state, or in solution, are forced through the fine orifices in a metallic plate called a spinneret, or jet, at a controlled rate.The solidified filaments are drawn-off by rotating rolls, or godets, and wound onto bobbins or pirns.There are several methods of spinning manufactured. Dry, Gel, Wet, Melt, Reaction and Phase Separation Spinning. 11/8/2010 2 Prepared by TANVEER AHMED
  3. Spinning Process Diagram 1. RAW MATERIAL 2. BLOW ROOM 3. CARDING 4. DRAWING 5. COMBING 6. FINISHING 7. ROVING 8. RING 9. WINDING 11/8/2010 3 Prepared by TANVEER AHMED
  4. Quality of raw material can be defined in various terms, as we studies Garvin categories quality into various terms. 1. Transcendent (product is superior to all competing products in every way possible.) 2. Product based 3. User based 4. Manufacturing based 5. Value based Quality Of Textile RAW MATERIAL 11/8/2010 4 Prepared by TANVEER AHMED
  5. Garvin Eight attributes for quality also can implies in textile 1. Performance of Material / Product / Process 2. Features 3. Reliability 4. Conformance 5. Durability 6. Serviceability 7. Aesthetic 8. Perceived quality Quality Of Textile RAW MATERIAL 11/8/2010 5 Prepared by TANVEER AHMED
  6. Quality Of Textile RAW MATERIAL Textile raw material universally called Textile Fibers: A unit of matter, either natural or manufactured, that forms the basic element of fabrics and other textile structures.  A fiber is characterized by having a length at least 100 times its diameter or width. The term refers to units that can be spun into a yarn or made into a fabric by various methods including weaving, knitting, braiding, felting, and twisting. The essential requirements for fibers to be spun into yarn include a length of at least 5 millimeters, flexibility, cohesiveness, and sufficient strength. Other important properties include elasticity, fineness, uniformity, durability, and luster. 11/8/2010 6 Prepared by TANVEER AHMED
  7. Fiber used as raw material for textile fabrics, are divided (1), Animal Fibers, as wool, hair, silk; (2), Vegetable Fibers, as cotton, linen, jute, hemp, ramie, etc.; (3), Mineral Fibers, as asbestos; and (4), Artificial Fibers, as glass, metal threads, various artificial silks, etc.; Quality Of Textile RAW MATERIAL 11/8/2010 7 Prepared by TANVEER AHMED
  8. Quality control and Quality assurance for textile evaluated throughTesting Process. TEXTILETESTINGCAN BE DIVIDED INTO: 1- CHEMICALTESTING 2- PHYSICALTESTING The textile engineer or technologist in the quality of a product by doing:  In –Process of FinalVerification  Visual Inspection  Hand Appraisal  Laboratory Testing and Quality Control For some tests, internationally recognized standards exist, such as :  ASTM  ISO  ANSI  AATCC etc. Quality Of Textile RAW MATERIAL 11/8/2010 8 Prepared by TANVEER AHMED
  9. TEXTILE FiberTesting: 100% cotton samples in the form of bale or opened and cleaned material (card mat). Measurements Micronaire • Maturity Index • UHML – Upper Half Mean Length • UI – Uniformity Index • SFI – Short Fiber Index • Fiber Strength in g/Tex • Elongation • Moisture Content • Color (Reflectance Rd,Yellowness +b) & Color Grade (USDA Upland, Pima, or regional customized color chart) •Trash (% Area,Trash Count) &Trash Grade (USDA) Quality Of Textile RAW MATERIAL 11/8/2010 9 Prepared by TANVEER AHMED
  10. TEXTILE FiberTesting: 100% cotton samples in the form of bale or opened and cleaned material (card mat). Measurements Micronaire (Micro Grams Per Inch) Quality Of Textile RAW MATERIAL Measured by relating airflow resistance to the specific surface of fibers. 1 -------------- 3.1 Very fine 3.1 -------------- 3.9 fine 4.0 -------------- 4.9 medium Above 6 Coarser 11/8/2010 10 Prepared by TANVEER AHMED
  11. TEXTILE FiberTesting: 100% cotton samples in the form of bale or opened and cleaned material (card mat). Measurements • Maturity Index The cotton fibre consists of cell wall and lumen.The maturity index is dependent upon the thickness of this cell wall. COTTON Fiber Cross-Section cotton=15000/ Ne x Mic Quality Of Textile RAW MATERIAL 11/8/2010 11 Prepared by TANVEER AHMED
  12. TEXTILE FiberTesting: • Maturity Index Quality Of Textile RAW MATERIAL Maturity ( Maturity Coefficient) LumenWidth / Wall Thickness Mature(less 0.7) Less than 1 Half Mature (0.7 to 0.9) Less than 2 More than 1 Immature (0.9 above) More than 2 11/8/2010 12 Prepared by TANVEER AHMED
  13. TEXTILE FiberTesting: • UHML – Upper Half Mean Length Fiber length is described as "the average length of the longer one-half of the fibers (upper half mean length)"This measure is taken by scanning a "beard " of parallel fibers through a sensing region.The beard is formed from the fibers taken from the sample, clasped in a holding clamp and combed to align the fibers.Typical lengths of Upland cottons might range from 0.79 to 1.36in. Quality Of Textile RAW MATERIAL 11/8/2010 13 Prepared by TANVEER AHMED
  14. TEXTILE FiberTesting: • UHML – Upper Half Mean Length Quality Of Textile RAW MATERIAL 11/8/2010 14 Prepared by TANVEER AHMED
  15. TEXTILE FiberTesting: • UI – Uniformity Index Length uniformity or uniformity ratio is determined as " a ratio between the mean length and the upper half mean length of the fibers and is expressed as a percentage“ with the Fibrogram.The span lengths at given percentages of fibres are usually measured; the 2.5% span length is considered to correlate with the classer's staple length. From the 50% span length and the 2.5% span length. a uniformity index can be calculated: Quality Of Textile RAW MATERIAL LENGTH UNIFORMITY UNIFORMITY INDEX [%] Very High >85 High 83-85 Intermediate 80-82 Low 77-79 Very Low <77 11/8/2010 15 Prepared by TANVEER AHMED
  16. QUALITY OF BLOW-ROOM 11/8/2010 16 Prepared by TANVEER AHMED
  17. OBJECTIVES OF BLOW-ROOM  Opening  Cleaning  Blending  Mixing 2-BLOW-ROOM Processes Cleaning eff = (trash in – trash in lap) x 100 Trash in raw cotton Count = wt/lenth => like 0.0013 for 14 oz/yd 11/8/2010 17 Prepared by TANVEER AHMED
  18. 2-BLOW-ROOM Processes 11/8/2010 18 Prepared by TANVEER AHMED
  19. 3-CARDING Processes 11/8/2010 19 Prepared by TANVEER AHMED
  20. 3-CARDING Processes 11/8/2010 20 Prepared by TANVEER AHMED
  21. 3-CARDING Processes Cleaning Efficiency Sliver Count variation Neps (small knots or tangled fiber) Fiber Hooks According to an investigation by Morton andYen in Manchester, it can be assumed that of the fibres in the web: more than 50% have trailing hooks about 15% have leading hooks about 15% have double hooks and less than 20% of the fibres have no hooks. Such fibre hooks, which effectively convert longer fibres to short fibres, cannot be permitted in the yarn. 11/8/2010 21 Prepared by TANVEER AHMED
  22. 3-CARDING Processes Reversal of the dispositions of hooks between the card and the comber. C, card; D, sliver lap machine; E, ribbon lap machine; F, comber. Reversal of the dispositions of hooks between the card and the ring spinning machine. H, roving frame C, card; GI, drawframe GIl, drawframe II H, roving frame R, ring spinning machine 11/8/2010 22 Prepared by TANVEER AHMED
  23. DRAWING PROCESSES 11/8/2010 23 Prepared by TANVEER AHMED
  24. Drawing is an operation by which slivers are blended, doubled or leveled and by drafting reduced to proper sized sliver suitable of being fed to the simplex. Draw frame contributes less than 5% to the production cost of yam, however its influence on quality of yam. is significant. Draw frame process considerably influences the final product, as draw is last point of compensation for the elimination of errors produced by subsequent m/c. 4- Drawing Frame IMPROVING EVENNESS PARALLELIZATION BLENDING DUST REMOVAL 11/8/2010 24 Prepared by TANVEER AHMED
  25. 5- Drawing Finisher Frame 11/8/2010 25 Prepared by TANVEER AHMED
  26. 6- ROVING FRAME A roving is a continuous fibrous strand drafted from a sliver and given cohesion by either inserting a small amount of twist or compacting the fibers with an oscillating apron. It is drafted and twisted to be spun into a yarn FL-16, FL-100 DRAFT RANGE = 7TO 8 11/8/2010 26 Prepared by TANVEER AHMED
  27. . 6- ROVING FRAME 11/8/2010 27 Prepared by TANVEER AHMED
  28. 7- RING FRAME The ring spinning frame, commonly called the ring, is the conventional spinning system and it transforms the roving from the roving frame into spun yarn using the operations of: . Drawing .Twisting .Winding 11/8/2010 28 Prepared by TANVEER AHMED
  29. 7- RING FRAME Deviation of count Variation of strength Count variation Elongation Twist variation Remaining disturbing thick and thin places Direction of yarn twist Remaining foreign fibers Evenness 11/8/2010 29 Prepared by TANVEER AHMED
  30. 7- RING FRAME 11/8/2010 30 Prepared by TANVEER AHMED