• Why !?
• Barriers !
• Types of communication.
• Methods of communication.
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7. Definition of
from Latin "communis", meaning to share
it is the activity of conveying information through
the exchange of :
• or information.
as by speech, visuals, signals, writing, or behavior.
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• Any act by which one person gives to or receives
from another person information about that
person's needs, desires, perceptions, knowledge, or
• Communication may be intentional or unintentional,
may involve conventional or unconventional signals,
may take linguistic or nonlinguistic forms, and may
occur through spoken or other modes“.
)National Joint Committee for the Communicative Needs of Persons with Severe Disabilities, 1992, p. 2(
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• Is a dynamic process that one person
affects the other either directly or
• Is a social process to interact with
the others to achieve a common
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10. Why do we communicate ?
• To transmit ideas.
• To transmit concepts.
• Create a social media.
• Achieve a common goal.
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13. Components of communication process
• Sender: the side that needs to transmit a
• The message: a group of ideas or information
that needs to be transmitted.
• Meduim: the way the sender will utilize to
transmit the message.
• Recepient: the side that recieves the message.
• Feedback: the response or the recepient ,
indicating how much he understood the message
and its impact on him.
• Barriers: the factors that reduce the accuracy
of communication or hinders it.
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14. Communication barriers
• Media or channels.
• Language and wording.
• Non-verbal communication.
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15. Barriers of
• Language Barriers.
• Clarity and accuracy.
• Means used and methods applied.
• Too many messages.
• Lack of interest.
• Bad timing.
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16. Types of communication
• People communicate with each other in a number
of ways that depend upon the message and its
context in which it is being sent.
• Choice of communication channel and your style
of communicating also affects communication.
• So, there are variety of types of
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17. Types of communication
according to the language used
• Verbal Communication.
• Nonverbal Communication.
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18. 1- Verbal Communication
• Verbal communication refers to the the form of communication in
which message is transmitted verbally; communication is done by
word of mouth and a piece of writing. Objective of every
communication is to have people understand what we are trying to
• In verbal communication remember the acronym (KISS( keep it
short and simple.
• So in order to deliver the right message, you must put yourself on
the other side of the table and think from your receiver’s point of
view. Would he understand the message? how it would sound on the
other side of the table?
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19. Verbal Communication is further divided into:
A. Oral Communication.
B. Written Communication.
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20. A - Oral communication
• Oral communication implies communication through mouth.
• It includes individuals conversing with each other, be it direct
conversation or telephonic conversation. Speeches,
presentations, discussions are all forms of oral communication.
• Oral communication is generally recommended when the
communication matter is of temporary kind or where a direct
interaction is required.
• Face to face communication (meetings, lectures, conferences,
interviews, etc.) is significant so as to build a rapport and
• Voice modulation and pauses in speech are very important.
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21. Advantages of Oral communication are:
• It brings feedback.
• in a face-to-face conversation , by reading facial expression
and body language one can guess whether he/she should
trust what’s being said or not .
Disadvantage of oral communication
•In face-to-face discussion, user is unable to deeply think about
what he is delivering .
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22. B - Written Communication
• In written communication, written signs or symbols are used
• A written message may be printed or hand written. In
written communication message can be transmitted via
email, letter, report, memo etc.
• Message, in written communication, is influenced by the
vocabulary & grammar used, writing style, precision and
clarity of the language used.
• Reports , surveys , CVs. etc.
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23. Advantages of written communication includes:
• Messages can be edited and revised many time before it is
• written communication provide record for every message
sent and can be saved for later study.
• A written message enables receiver to fully understand it
and send appropriate feedback .
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24. Disadvantages of written communication includes :
• Unlike oral communication, Written communication
doesn’t bring instant feedback.
• It take more time in composing a written message
as compared to word-of-mouth. and number of
people struggles for writing ability .
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25. 2- Non-verbal Communication
• Nonverbal communication is the sending or receiving of
• We can say that communication other than oral and written.
• Such as gesture ,body language,posture ,tone of
voice or facial expressions.
• Nonverbal communication is all about the body language
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26. 2- Non-verbal Communication
• Nonverbal communication helps receiver in
interpreting the message received.
• Often, nonverbal signals reflects the situation
more accurately than verbal messages.
• Sometimes nonverbal response contradicts
verbal communication and hence affect the
effectiveness of message
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27. 2- Non-verbal Communication
It has 3 important elements :
Speaker: clothing, hairstyle,
neatness, use of cosmetics
Surrounding: room size, lighting,
• Body Language
facial expressions, gestures,
Voice Tone, Volume, Speech rate
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28. What is non-verbal
• eye contact (gaze)
• facial expression ?
• pause (silence)
• word choice
• sounds (paralanguage)
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29. Work shop I
• 2 teams
• Oral communication
• Written communication
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30. There are two basic categories of non-verbal
• nonverbal messages produced by the body.
• nonverbal messages produced by the broad
setting (time, space, silence)
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31. Why is non-verbal
• It has multiple functions :
– Used to repeatthe verbal message (e.g. point in a direction while stating
– Often used toaccenta verbal message. (e.g. verbal tone indicates the actual
meaning of the specific words.
– Often complementthe verbal message but also may contradict. E.g.: a nod
reinforces a positive message (among Americans); a “wink” may contradict a stated positive
– Maysubstitutefor the verbal message (especially if it is blocked by noise,
interruption, etc) — i.e. gestures (finger to lips to indicate need for quiet), facial expressions
(i.e. a nod instead of a yes.
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36. 5. Eye contact
• Preserves attention.
• Shows concentration.
• Sometimes and in some cultures it
is not preferable.
• Tool of feedback.
37. Analysis of some famous
• Forwards and backwards movement
of hand : initiativety.
• Vertical (up and down ): while
handshaking shows that the person is
• Side movement : good listener and
good conveyer of info.
38. Eye movement
• strong eye contact shows being
frank and denotes self confidence.
• While looking down shows modesty .
• Hazy eyes shows tiredness or
seeking an answer.
• Blinking : shyness or hesitation.
39. Leaning or remoting
• Leaning or remoting means how close
you are to the other person
• Everyone has a private zone that
surrounds him and it widens as far as
the person’s social position gets higher.
• Leaning on your speaker means intimity
• The parameter is the accompanying
body language .
40. Way of speaking
• It complements the speech content
like pitch, tone, rate.
• It shows clearly what you mean and
helps the recipient to understand your
• The speaker or the sender should care
for his voice tone , speech velocity etc.
41. Silence !!!
• It is an important means of communication.
• Used to make pauses of silence to create a
space of interest or tension.
• May be used as a space between message
• May show admiring or not.
• Also it complements with other body
42. Not to do(s)
• These things transmit tension to the
• As it shows the tension of the sender
or the speaker.
43. Not to do(s)
• Key medals.
• Lip licking.
• Hair dressing.
• Hands in the pockets.
• Index finger pointing
45. Cultural Differences in
1-General Appearance and Dress:
• All cultures are concerned for how they look and make
judgements based on looks and dress.
• Americans, for instance, appear almost obsessed with
dress and personal attractiveness.
• Consider differing cultural standards on what is
attractive in dress and on what constitutes modesty.
• Note ways dress is used as a sign of status.
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46. Cultural Differences in
2 - Body Movement:
• We send information on attitude toward person (facing or
leaning towards another), emotional statue (tapping fingers,
jiggling coins), and desire to control the environment (moving
towards or away from a person.
• More than 700,000 possible motions we can make — so
impossible to categorize them all!
• But just need to be aware the body movement and position is a
key ingredient in sending messages .
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47. Cultural Differences in
Consider the following actions and note cultural differences:
– Bowing (not done, criticized, or affected in US; shows rank in Japan.
– Slouching (rude in most Northern European areas.
– Hands in pocket (disrespectful in Turkey.
– Sitting with legs crossed (offensive in Ghana, Turkey.
– Showing soles of feet. (Offensive in Thailand, Saudi Arabia.
– Even in US, there is a gender difference on acceptable posture.
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48. Cultural Differences in
4 - Gestures:
• Impossible to catalog them all. But need to recognize:
1) incredible possibility and variety and
2) that an acceptable in one’s own culture may be offensive in another.
In addition, amount of gesturing varies from culture to culture. Some cultures are
animated; other restrained. Restrained cultures often feel animated cultures
lack manners and overall restraint. Animated cultures often feel restrained
cultures lack emotion or interest.
• Even simple things like using hands to point and count differ.
• Pointing : US with index finger; Germany with little finger; Japanese with entire hand
(in fact most Asians consider pointing with index finger to be rude.
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49. Cultural Differences in
5 - Facial Expressions:
While some say that facial expressions are identical, meaning attached
to them differs. Majority opinion is that these do have similar
meanings world-wide with respect to smiling, crying, or showing
anger, sorrow, or disgust. However, the intensity varies from
culture to culture. Note the following:
– Many Asian cultures suppress facial expression as much as possible.
– Many Mediterranean (Latino / Arabic) cultures exaggerate grief or
sadness while most American men hide grief or sorrow.
– Some see “animated” expressions as a sign of a lack of control.
– Too much smiling is viewed in as a sign of shallowness.
– Women smile more than men.
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50. Cultural Differences in
6 - Eye Contact and Gaze:
In USA, eye contact indicates: degree of attention or interest, influences attitude
change or persuasion, regulates interaction, communicates emotion, defines power
and status, and has a central role in managing impressions of others.
– Western cultures — see direct eye to eye contact as positive (advise children to look a person
in the eyes). But within USA, African-Americans use more eye contact when talking and less
when listening with reverse true for Anglo Americans. This is a possible cause for some sense
of unease between races in US. A prolonged gaze is often seen as a sign of sexual interest.
– Arabic cultures make prolonged eye-contact. — believe it shows interest and helps them
understand truthfulness of the other person. (A person who doesn’t reciprocate is seen as
– Japan, Africa, Latin American, Caribbean — avoid eye contact to show respect.
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51. Cultural Differences in
Question: Why do we touch, where do we touch, and what meanings do we assign
when someone else touches us.
• Touch is culturally determined! But each culture has a clear concept of what parts of
the body one may not touch.
• Basic message of touch is to affect or control — protect, support, disapprove (i.e.
hug, kiss, hit, kick).
– USA — handshake is common (even for strangers), hugs, kisses for those of opposite gender or of
family (usually) on an increasingly more intimate basis. Note differences between African-Americans
and Anglos in USA. Most African Americans touch on greeting but are annoyed if touched on the head
(good boy, good girl overtones).
– Islamic and Hindu: typically don’t touch with the left hand. To do so is a social insult. Left hand is
for toilet functions. Mannerly in India to break your bread only with your right hand (sometimes
difficult for non-Indians)
– Islamic cultures generally don’t approve of any touching between genders (even hand shakes). But
consider such touching (including hand holding, hugs) between same-sex to be appropriate.
– Many Asians don’t touch the head (Head houses the soul and a touch puts it in jeopardy).
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52. Cultural Differences in
8 - Smell :
– USA — fear of offensive natural smells (billion dollar
industry to mask objectionable odors with what is perceived
to be pleasant ) — again connected with “attractiveness”
– Many other cultures consider natural body odors as normal
– Asian cultures (Filipino, Malay, Indonesian, Thai, Indian)
stress frequent bathing — and often criticize USA of not
bathing often enough!
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53. 9- Paralanguage :
– vocal characterizers (laugh, cry, yell,
whine, yawn). These send different
messages in different cultures (Japan —
giggling indicates embarrassment; India
– belch indicates satisfaction)
– vocal qualifiers (volume, pitch, rhythm,
tempo, and tone).
– vocal segregates (un-huh, shh, uh,
ooh, mmmh, humm, eh, mah,
lah). Segregates indicate formality,
acceptance, assent, uncertainty.
Cultural Differences in
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54. Types of communication
according to audience
• Interpersonal communication (2 way)
• mass communication (group)
• Public communication (hundreds)
• Mediated communication (broadcasted)
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55. And we can sure add
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68. Final tips
• Taking responsibility for one’s message.
• Prepare to listen.
• Encourage the speaker to speak more.
• Be open minded.
• Acknowledge differences.
• Asses without judging.
• Accept feedback.
• Be assertive.
• Convey your message without commands.
• Actively listen to the others
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