O slideshow foi denunciado.
Seu SlideShare está sendo baixado. ×


Carregando em…3

Confira estes a seguir

1 de 51 Anúncio

Mais Conteúdo rRelacionado

Semelhante a Aswagandha.pptx (20)

Mais recentes (20)



  1. 1. College of Horticulture, Bengaluru. UNIVERSITY OF HORTICULTURAL SCIENCES, BAGALKOT Presented by, ANU T S UHS21PGD421
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION • Scientific name : Withania somnifera • Chromosome no. : 2n= 48 • Family: Solanaceae • Derived – Roots smells like horse (Aswa – Horse; gandha – smell) • 23 species of Withania sps; W.somnifera and W.coagulans (Ashutosh booti) – well explored • Ashwagandha, Asgand, Indian ginseng or winter cherry • Economic part – Roots
  3. 3. DISTRIBUTION • Drier parts of tropical and subtropical zones, ranging from the Canary Islands, the Mediterranean region, Northern Africa, India, Sri Lanka, Afghanistan, Baluchistan, and Sindh • Primary ashwagandha-growing states in India include Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, and Madhya Pradesh
  4. 4. SPECIES • Known throughout the world, among which only five • Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal • Withania japonica (Franch and Sav) Hunz • Withania coagulans (Stocks) Dunal • Withania frutescens (L.) Pauquy • Withania begonifolia (Roxb.) Hunz • India is represented basically by the two most eminent ones – Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal and Withania coagulans (Stocks) Dunal
  5. 5. Description W. coagulans W. somnifera English name Vegetable rennet, Indian rennet, Indian cheese maker Winter cherry, Indian Ginseng Habit Herb Undershrub Vernacular name Panir Bandh, Punir, Panir dodi Aswagandha Origin Afghanistan , India Indian subcontinent Infloresence Axillary Axillary,umbellate cyme Flowers Dioecious Monoecious Fruit Globose, smooth, closely girt by the enlarged membranous persistent calyx Globose, enclosed in the persistent calyx, seeds yellow, reniform Seeds Globose, ear shaped, glabrous, enclosed in the persistent calyx yellow, reniform Globose, enclosed in the persistent calyx, yellow, reniform Flowering November-March* Rarely flowers Throughout the year Chemical constituents Withanaloides (0.001 – 0.5 % of dry weight) – Major – Coagulin L Withanaloides (0.13 – 0.31%) – Major Withaferin A Jain et al., 2012
  6. 6. Withania coagulans Withania somnifera
  7. 7. CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS • Major biochemical constituents : steroidal alkaloids , steroidal lactones called withanoloides • 12 alkaloids, 35 withanoloides, sitoindosides (glucose molecule at C-27) • Total alkaloid content – 0.13 – 0.31% • Withanolide A, withanolide B, 27-hydroxy withanolide B, withanolide D, withaferin A along with common steroids like β-sitosterol and sitosterol and their glucosides • Other compounds are somniferin, somniferinine, withananine • Withanaloides serves as important hormone precurssors • Convert human physiologic hormones when needed • Amphoteric – when there is an excess hormone the plant based hormone precursor occupies cell membrane receptor sites so the actual hormone cannot attach and exert its effect • If the hormone level is low, plant based hormone exert small effect
  8. 8. Chemical constituents Contents Alkaloids Ashwagandhine, anahygrine, anaferine, cuscohygrine, tropine, isopelletierine, pseudotropine, 3-tigloyloxtropine, 3- tropyltigloate, dlisopelletierine, hygrine, mesoanaferine, choline, somniferine, withanine, withananine, hentriacontane, visamine, withasomnine etc Steroidal compounds Ergostane Steroidal lactones Withaferin A, withanolides A-Y, withasomniferin-A, withasomidienone, withasomniferols A-C, withanone etc. Saponins Containing an additional acyl group: sitoindoside VII and VIII Withanolides Glucose at carbon 27: sitoindoside IX and X Withanolide glycosides Withanosides I, II, III,IV, V, VI and VII Pyrazole derivatives Pseudowithanine and ashwagandhine
  9. 9. Accumlation patterns of withanaloides in the roots • DMAPR, Anand • Accumlation pattern study in different root portions and tissues • Withanaloide content was maximum in root tips (0.3%) followed by root base and root middle portion (0.2%) • Withanaloide content in exodermis (0.35 %), conjuctive tissue (0.21%) and cortex (0.10%) • Genotypic difference existed in both root portions and tissues Annual report, DMAPR, 2021
  10. 10. • G. B Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar • 5 varieties : Jawahar 20, Poshita, Chetak, Nimithli and Pratap • Both two year old field and invitro grown aswagandha were taken to study Singh et al., 2018
  11. 11. Withanaloide A Withaferin A Withaferin A content • Seeds : 0.181 – 0.217 mg/g • Leaves : 0.024 – 0.775 mg/g • Roots : 0.002 – 0.821 mg/g • Stem : 0.003 – 1.873 mg/g Withanaloide A content • Seeds : 0.046 – 0.081 mg/g • Leaves : 0.015 – 0.044 mg/g • Roots : 0.01 – 0.149 mg/g • Stem : 0.026 – 0.252 mg/g
  12. 12. • Withanaloide and withaferin content varied from explant used, variety and propagation method • Invitro cultivation of Poshita genotype can offer promising approach for enhanced biosynthesis of withanaloide A and withaferin A
  13. 13. MEDICINAL USES • Medicinal practices dates back to 6000 BC • Root : Tonic, aphrodisiac, narcotic, diuretic, anthelmintic, astringent, thermogenic and stimulant • Emaciation of children (when given with milk, it is the best tonic for children) • Root paste - reduces inflammation in joints • Aswagandha roots + other drugs – for snake poison and scorpion bite • Leaves are bitter and recommended for fever, painful swellings • Flowers are astringent, depurative, diuretic and aphrodisiac
  14. 14. • Used as adaptogenic or anti stress effect, compared well with Eleutherococcus senticosus (Siberian Ginseng) and Panax ginseng (Chinese / Korean Ginseng) • Anti tumor effect, anti oxidant, anti aging, diuretic, hypothyroid, anti alzheimer’s, cardiovascular, cell-differentiation inducing activity • Aswagandha rasayana or medhyarasayana - Medhya – mind and mental/intellectual capacity, best seen in children with memory deficits • Common ingredient in Ayurveda tonic- tonic, rejuvenator and vitalizers and induces immunity
  15. 15. BOTANY • Generally reffered to as stellate tomentose, grayish undershrub with long woody roots • Erect, evergreen, branched shrub, attains a height of 30-60 cm up to 1.5 m • Stem : Brownish dark colour and erect, sometimes leaves are absent or less on lower parts of stem • Leaves : Alternate, simple, slightly wavy margin, broadly ovate or oblong • Roots : Large and odorous taproot that has a fleshy texture and creamy colour
  16. 16. FLORAL BIOLOGY • Flowers : Greenish or lurid yellow, axillary, in clusters about 25, forming umbellate cymes • Flowers are monoecious or bisexual and solitary or in few flowered cymes • Pollination: Self pollination • Fruit : Berry , 5 angled, pubescent, enclosed in persistent calyx • Seeds : Kidney shaped, 20-40 in number • Flowering – All through the year
  17. 17. Ashwagandha flower and fruits
  18. 18. VARIETIES
  19. 19. Variety Characters Nagore Local variety with high starch content Jawahar Asgandh – 20 • JNKV, RARS, Mandsaur • Dry root yield – 5 q/ha • Pure line selection • Total withanaloid content 0.320 % Jawahar asgandh -134 (JNKV, MP) • Short statured • Amenable for high density planting • Yields in 180 days • Total withanolide content - 0.30 per cent in dry roots Arka Ashwagandha • IIHR, Bengaluru • High root yielding line with high alkaloid content • Early vigor, field tolerance to bacterial wilt, late blight, leaf spot diseases and pests (Epilachna beetle, mites and aphids) • Dry root yield – 10q/ha Rakshitha • CIMAP, Lucknow • Suits for kharif and rabi season, • Yield 8-10q/ha • Alkaloid content 0.5% Poshita • Medium tall, semi broad, medium dark colour leaf • Herb yield: 2.83 q/ha • Dry root yield: 14 q/ha
  20. 20. Variety Characters Chetak (Naguri withania variety) • Semi vigorous, medium green small leaves size and whitish green stem • Found to be highly promising for high dry root yield (11.77 ql/ha v/s check 5.45 ql/ha) • High total Withanolide content (0.40 %) • Fresh and dry leaf yield was also high (1.722 and 0.453 ql/ha) • High withaferine content 1.223 % CIMAP Pratap • Highly vigorous, dark green medium size leaves and dark green stem • Highly promising for high dry root yield (34.95 ql/ha) • High total Withanolide content (0.31%) • Fresh and dry leaf yield was also high (5.39 and 0.87 ql/ha) • High witheferin content in dry leaves 0.720 % Gujarat Aswagandha 1 • Year of release : 2015 • For state of Gujarat • Both as kharif and rabi • Average yield – 650 kg ha-1 • Special feature : Root cortex is white and thick and calyx is bigger Nmitli 118 (New Millennium Indian Technology Leadership Initiative ) • New chemotypes identified under a NMITLI project • Dry root yield - 15 -17 q/ha • withaferin content: 2% in dry root
  21. 21. Gujarat Aswagandha 1 Arka Aswagandha
  22. 22. CIM Pushti : Withanolide-A rich, leaf blight tolerant high yielding variety of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) with good root textural quality Nagouri (Cultivated and Annual) X Kashmiri (Wild and perennial) (Interspecific hybridization) CIM Pushti • Roots are whitish cream with non separable rind, fine pulverisable brittle roots with high starch to fibre ratio • Average Withanolide-A content : 0.713mg/g dry weight basis • Withanolide B : 0.460mg/g dry weight basis • Matures in 168-178 days • Average yield : 9-10 quintal per hectare • Tolerant to leaf blight • Suitable for cultivation in Central Plateau, Western dry region and Gujarat planes regions of India Annual report, CSIR-CIMAP, 2018
  23. 23. Variety Characters Vallabh Ashwagandha-1 • Developed in 2017 • Recommended for all ashwagandha growing areas • Higher root yield and orange coloured berries • Dry root yield : 589.4 kg ha-1 Germplasms DWS-327 • Developed in 2011 • Dwarf genotype, grown in all aswagandha growing areas • Open pollinated from JA 134 followed by pureline selection • Grows to a height of 15 – 20 cm • High withanaloid content DWS-10 • Developed in 2011 • Open pollinated from JA 134 followed by pureline selection • High root and withanaloid yield DWS - 6 • Developed in 2012 • Open pollinated from JA 134 followed by pureline selection • Distinct character – procumbent type (spreading) DWS-37 • Pureline genotype • Grown in all areas • Distinct leaf type, downward curly leaves Technical bulletin booklet, DMAPR, 2022
  24. 24. SOILAND CLIMATE • Ashwagandha grows well in sandy loam soils or light red soils • pH-7.5- 8 (slightly basic ) • Black or heavy soils having good drainage are also suitable for cultivation • Late rainy season (Kharif) crop • Drought tolerant crop • Semi-tropical areas (500 to 750 mm rainfall) - suitable for their cultivation as rainfed crops • Relatively dry season during its growing period • Tolerate a temperature range of 20°C to 38°C and even low temperature as low as 10°C
  25. 25. LAND PREPARATION • Soil is well pulverized by ploughing or harrowing • Two to three ploughings should be given to bring the soil to the fine tilth stage and this should be done before the rainy season • Supplementing with well-decomposed farmyard manure (FYM) is beneficial in getting a good yield of the crop • 10 to 20 tonnes of farmyard manure is applied and level the field
  26. 26. NURSERY • Commonly propagated by seeds • For sowing - Seeds that were harvested during the previous season with good quality and free of pests. • Nursery bed raised from ground level is prepared by thorough mixing with compost and sand • Seed rate – 5kg/ha in the main field • Nursery is raised in the month of June-July • Seeds are treated in carbendazim to control wilt and seed-borne diseases.
  27. 27. SEED RATE • Broad casting method : 10 – 12 kg • Also sown in line • Sown at 1-3 cm deep and covered by light soil • 25 cm row to row and 10 cm plant to plant spacing - line sowing method • Ashwagandha is a late Kharif season crop, the time of sowing is decided by date of arrival of monsoon in that area • Early sowing may be cause seedling mortality due to heavy rains • Optimum time for sowing is 2nd to 3rd week of October • Thiram or Dithane M45 (Inofil M45) at the rate of 3 g/kg seed before sowing
  28. 28. Evaluation of productivity and quality of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal under different plant populations, irrigation levels and moisture conservation practices in sub-tropical plains of North India • CIMAP, Lucknow • Plant populations - 166,666 (30 x 20 cm), 200,000 (25 x 20 cm), 250,000 (20 x 20 cm), 333,333 (15 x 20 cm), 400,000 (25 x 10 cm), 500,000 (20 x 10 cm), 666,666 (15 x 10 cm), and 1,000,000 plants ha-1 (10 x 10 cm) • Irrigation levels - Rainfed, 20±5% total available water (TAW), 40±5% TAW and 60±5% TAW • Moisture conservation practices - Dust mulch, distillation waste mulch, and control • Variety – Poshitha Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic plants Kaur et al., 2022
  29. 29. 1. 166,666 (30 x 20 cm) 2. 200,000 (25 x 20 cm) 3. 250,000 (20 x 20 cm) 4. 333,333 (15 x 20 cm) 5. 400,000 (25 x 10 cm) 6. 500,000 (20 x 10 cm) 7. 666,666 8. 1,000,000 plants ha-1 (10 x 10 cm) 1. Rainfed 2. 20±5% TAW 3. 40±5% TAW 4. 60±5% TAW 1. Dust mulch 2. Distillation waste mulch 3. Control i. Dry root yield : 1030 kg/ha (400,000 plants ha-1) ii. Total withanolide A content : 0.361 % (1,000,000 plants ha-1) iii. Total withanolide yield : 3.64 kg ha-1 (400,000 plants ha-1) i. Dry root yield : 696 kg/ha ii. Total withanolide content : 0.52 % iii. Total withanolide yield : 3.62 kg ha-1 1. Experiment Plant population 2. Experiment Irrigation levels Moisture conservations practises
  30. 30. TRANSPLANTING • After manure incorporation, ridges are prepared at 60 cm spacing • Healthy seedlings are planted at 30 cm spacing • 60 cm x 60 cm or 45 cm x 30 cm • 60 cm x 30 cm (55000 seedlings per hectare) - optimum
  31. 31. Effect of spacing and fertilizer levels on growth, yield and quality of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera Dunal) cv. JA-20 • College of Horticulture and Forestry, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari • Poor in organic carbon, available nitrogen, medium phosphorus and high potash • Spacing : 30 cm x 30 cm, 45 cm x 15 cm, 45 cm x 30 cm • Fertilizer doses : 15-15-0, 20-20-0, 25-25-0 • Result : average root length (26.10 cm), fresh root weight (5.14 g), dry root weight (2.06 g) were recorded in wider spacing at 45 cm X 30 cm • 25-25-0 NPK : maximum root length (26.77 cm), root diameter (0.97 cm), fresh root /plant (5.43 g), dry root/plant (2.13g) Desai et al., 2017 International Journal of Minor Fruits, Medicinal and Aromatic Plants
  32. 32. THINNING AND WEEDING • Thining done at 20 to30 days after showing the seeds - maintain a plant population of about 30 to 60 plants/m2 • Plant density depends on the nature and fertility of the soil • On marginal soil, the population is maintained high • Two weedings - first within 20-25 days of sowing and the other after 20-25 days of the first weeding
  33. 33. Physico-biochemical changes and yield loss assessment due to orobanche infestation • Orabanche (Achlorophyllos holoparasitic) – root parasite • Based on severity of infestation, Orabanche causes yield losses in a range between 20 – 100% • Significant reduction in net photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance when it appears 40 days above ground (@ 120 DAS) • Reduction in 80% leaf area and total biomass at 145 DAS • Plants achieved only 32 % root yield than healthy plants • However total withanaloid content was improved in infected plants Annual report, DMAPR, 2021
  34. 34. MANURES AND FERTILIZERS • Does not require heavy doses of manures and fertilizers • Responds well to organic manures • 10 tonnes FYM/1 tonnes vermicompost per hectare is recommended. • 65 kg Urea, 200kg SSP, 50kg MOP • P and K applied planting and N as 2 splits 30,60 days • Average soil fertility : 15 kg/ha of Nitrogen and 15 kg phosphorus / ha (Higher production) • Poor fertility – 40kg/ha N, P
  35. 35. WATER MANAGEMENT • Rainfed • Do not tolerate excessive irrigation or water logging • Light irrigation at transplanting ensures better establishment • Under irrigated conditions, the crop is irrigated once in 8 - 10 days
  36. 36. PESTS AND DISEASES • Leaf eating pests : Mealy bug (Phenacoccus solenopsis), Mites (Tetranychus utricae), Aphids (Aphis gosspyii), Hairy caterpillar (Hyposidra successaria) • Disease : Damping off, Leaf spot Control • Pest : Combination of 0.5% malathion and 0.3 % Kelthane foliar spray at 15 days intevals • Disease : Seed treatment with Thiram or Mancozeb – Spraying of 0.3 % mancozeb or copper oxy chloride
  37. 37. Leaf spot (Alternaria alternata) • Infected leaves having brown to black spots of 2–9 mm in diameter surrounded by a yellow halo • Brownish black spots were apparent on both the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the infected leaves • Later stage of infection : Leaf spots enlarged and 80–90% leaves on a single plant were severely infected • Such leaves often dehisced prematurely • Under moist conditions (70–80% RH), fungal growth was often observed on the leaves Leaf Spot (Alternaria alternata)
  38. 38. DAMPING OFF • First reported in Uttar Pradesh in January 2016 • Mainly appear at nursery stage • Initially water-soaked, necrotic lesions on the basal stem • Stems became soft and mushy • Young leaves wilt and become grey to brown colour and ultimately plant die • Causal agent : Rhizoctonia solani • Remove and destroy the disease infested plant, soil solarisation • Use viable, non-infested seeds or seedlings from planting • Seed treatment with Carbendazim @0.2% or covaxin + thiram @ 0.2% or with Trichoderma viride @ 6g/kg of seed will be effective
  39. 39. WITCHES BROOM • Major epidemic of the illness was reported in the Ashwagandha fields of the Central Institute of Medicinal & Aromatic Plants (CIMAP) in Lucknow in 1988 • Caused by phytoplasma • A phloem inhabiting, wall less prokaryote • Shortening of internodes, excessive branching giving witches-broom appearance and premature drying and death of infected twigs and leaves • Checked by tetracycline spray
  40. 40. ROOT-KNOT DISEASE • Heavily afflicted had several galls, and most of the time the whole root system was transformed into large galls • Becomes stunted and reduced productivity and underground root totally deformed • Caused by nematode (Meloidogyne incognita race-2) • Soil solarization and summer ploughing should be followed to reduce its population • Application of higher dose of bioagent such as Trichoderma, Pseudomonas @ 5% was found most effective which improve plant growth characters and reduce root knot disease • Vermicompost and T. harzianum combination, Mentha distillate and Glomus aggregatum reduces nematode population • Soil amended with Mentha and Murraya koenigii distillate along with bio-agents increase the plant yield
  41. 41. HARVEST • Ready for harvest – 180 – 210 DAP • Some places, 150 – 180 days old crop • January - March • Maturity index : Drying out of leaves and reddening of berries • Entire plant pulled out and cutting the stem 1 – 2 cm above the crown • Roots are cleaned and cut into 7 – 10 cm long pieces • 6 to 15 mm diameter and 7 to 10 cm length roots are better
  42. 42. • Dried or dried as a whole in the sun and stored • Berries – Hand plucked, dried, threshed and seeds are stored • Fresh root yield – 650 – 800 kg ha-1 • Dry root yield – 350 – 435 kg ha-1 • Seed yield – 50 – 70 kg ha-1 • Alkaloid percentage in roots ranges from 0.13 to 0.31%
  43. 43. Influence of Drying on the quality of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) • AIM : To adjudge the effect of different drying techniques on colour and withanolides content of Withania somnifera • Fresh Ashwagandha roots were dried in shade, sun and cabinet dryer (55 – 610 C) • Cabinet drying - 49 to 52% moisture loss was observed in only 3.15 hours of drying • Drying condition does not affect much on colour • Effect of temperature plays an important role in withanolides content due to which maximum withanolides was observed in shade drying and minimum in case of cabinet drying (air velocity 1.8 - 2.0 ms-1 ) Journal of Food and Pharmaceutical Sciences Agarwal et al., 2014
  44. 44. GRADING OF ROOTS • The dried roots are beaten with a club to remove adhering soil and to break off thin, brittle, lateral rootlets • Lateral branches, root crown and stem remains are carefully trimmed with a knife • Root pieces are then sorted out into different grades • Superior grade has stout and long root which fetches premium price
  45. 45. Grades Characters A grade Root pieces up to 7 cm in length, 1-1.5 cm in diameter, solid cylindrical with a smooth external surface and pure white from inside B grade Root pieces up to 5 cm in length, 1 cm or less in diameter, solid, brittle and white from inside. C grade Solid root pieces up to 3-4 cm in length, 1 cm or less in diameter. Lower grade Small root pieces, semi-solid, very thick, yellowish, chopped
  46. 46. B grade roots A grade roots C grade roots
  47. 47. Green Economics towards Rural Development: A Study of Ashwagandha Cultivation in Deccan Plateau • Dry root yield : 400 – 1200 kg ha-1 • Seed yield – 200 – 500 kg seeds ha-1 • Price of roots – Rs 100 – 150 kg-1 • Price of seeds – Rs 40 – 100 kg-1 Pankaj et al., 2020 Particular Amount (Rs) Main crop yield (roots) (Quintal ha-1) 6.91 Average Price (Rs kg-1) 14,165 Seed yield (Rs kg-1) 201.8 Seed price (Rs kg-1) 96 Gross return (Rs ha-1) 1,17,185 Total variable cost (Rs ha-1) 28,749 Net return over the total variable cost (Rs ha-1) 88,436 Benefit-cost ratio 3.08:1 Agricultural situation in India
  48. 48. SIDE EFFECTS AND PRECAUTIONS • No significant side effects • High dose of ashwagandha could create irritability and insomnia • Sleepiness and lethargy - Mild side effect • Liquid preparation contain sugar or alcohol – caution is advised for diabetes and alcohol and liver dependence patients • Not recommended for infants and breast feeding – potential risk
  49. 49. CHALLENGES • Market exploitation of farmers by middlemen • Price fluctuations of roots • Demand-supply fluctuations of roots • Limited exports • Patenting by foreign companies • Changing climatic conditions • Long duration of the crop • Low root yields • High fibre content of the roots in some locations • Pests and diseases infections reducing yield and resulting in plant mortality • Labour problems • Lack of knowledge about post harvest technology and problems associated with long term storage of roots
  50. 50. THANK YOU

Notas do Editor

  • 4. The name awagandha is derived from the word Aswa meaning horse and gandha meaning smell ie the roots of aswagandha smells like horse
    5. Out of 23 species of withania , WS and WC are well explored
  • Withania are
  • Indian cheese maker – rennet like protese enzyme is present in the berries which can clot the milk
    unisexual nature of flowers in W. coagulans is also a major bottleneck in this regard
  • withanolide A, ………………. Present in W. somnifera
  • As the seen in the graph the withanaloide A and withaferin A are present in every parts of the plant
    Withanaloide A and withaferin A content s highest in stem ranging from………. And lowest in leaves.
    Withaferin A – highest in Poshita stem (1.873 mg/g DW) followed by Jawahar-20 stem (1.471 m/g DW) and least recorded by Pratap root (0.002 mg/g DW)
    Withanaloide A content
    Highest in Positha stem (0.252 m/g DW) followed by Jawahar 20 root (0.151 mg/g DW) least was found in chetak leaf (0.015 mg/g DW)
  • Withaferin A content was highest in Poshita leaf (FG) followed by Jawahar 20 roots (FG)
    Withanaloid A content was highest in J20 (FG) followed by Poshita roots (FG)
    varied capacity to synthesize secondary metabolites by in-vitro cultures has been attributed to differences in morphological nature of explants utilized to initiate tissue culture lines
    Promoting an elite variety through tissue culture with consistency in the withanolide contents can be a promising approach to meet the growing demand of Ashwagandha
  • 2. Root of Ashwagandha is regarded as ………………….
    3. Roots are given to children as emaciation………….
    4. Paste of roots are applied for reducing inflammation in joints
    5. Aswagandha roots with other drugs are used as prescribtion for snake venom and scorpion bite
  • Root of Ashwagandha roots has adaptogenic effects or antistress effects and are compared well with ………
    Aswagandha rasanya also called as medhyarasayana in which medhya refers to mind or ………..and are best seen………..

  • effort was made to collect the Ashwagandha germplasm, which resulted into collection of 150 independent accessions from various geographical locations, with many of them having contrasting chemotypes
    Efforts are underway to explore the pharmacological activities of selected chemotypes and individual molecule to identify the best chemotype for adaptogenic activity. Other Varieties are as Jawahar, WS 20 and tall Ashwagandha.
  • DWS 6 – all aswagandha tpes are erect but this accession is procmbent type
    Other varieties are Asagandh 20 and WSR
  • 4. It is grown as a………….
    5. Semi-tropical areas receiving 500 to 750 mm rainfall are suitable for their cultivation as rainfed crops.
    6. The crop requires a………..
    7. It can tolerate………..
  • Last line : Seed should be treated with ………. to protect the seedlings from seed-borne diseases.
  • DRY : availability of light, moisture, and nutrients at different plant populations, variations in growth and dry matter accumulation were observed
    Total dry root yield of aswagandha was highest in 20% TAW
    Dust mulch breaks the soil capillarity and thus breaks the soil moisture and moderate moderate moistire provides stress condition that
  • 3. In some places,
    4. However, spacing of ……………………. is considered
  • Spacing : due to higher photosynthesis rate and the higher fertilizer doze and higher availability of nutrients
  • 4. Generally, …………. are required to keep the field free from weeds
  • Another report of DMAPR reported the physico chemical changes……………………
  • 4. Soil with average fertility………..
  • Ashwagandha is grown as a rainfed crop
    The plant doesnot tolerate …………
  • Mealy bugs : Lower surfaces of leaves and growing shoots, desapping form, distortion in leaves and wilting of top portion of plant
    Mites : Occuurs in 3rd week of October to November, concentration is more under underside of the leaves, infested leaves appears burnt
    Aphids ; in Banlore condiction occurs during Jan – Feb, whole plant ives smoky appearance and sooty mould appearance comes as secondary metavolities,
    HC :
  • It is a phloem inhabiting, wall less prokaryote
  • Plants that were heavily afflicted had several galls, and most of the time
    The plant becomes stunted ………
  • Even 1 tonnes of root yields were reported in farmers field
  • It was found that in cabinet drying
    49 to 52% moisture loss was observed in only 3.15 hours of drying
    Maximum withanaloid content in shade dried - shade drier hinders direct sunlight and gave the best results
  • To avoid moisture and fungal attack on the dried roots, it should be stored in tin containers. Berries are hand plucked sep arately.  They are dried and crushed to take out the seeds
    Neemuch and Madsaur in MP is the popular market of Aswagandha
  • Study was conducted in Kurnool an Anatapur in AP.
    Selected districts were Kottala, Belagallu and Lingampally were selected purposively on the basis that CSIR-CIMAP introduced Ashwagandha cultivation in these villages
    Pooled the data of 100 Ashwagandha growers
    It is revealed that the profitability of Ashwagandha cultivation is almost three times the investment
    It implies, growers investing ` 100 rupees in Ashwagandha cultivation and will earn profit ` 308 within 6-7 months