The actors in a story’s plot
People, animals, robots, or whatever the writer
May be more than one main character, particularly in
Protagonist – main character(s) who has the conflict
Antagonist – person(s) or force(s) in conflict with
the main character
Doesn’t have to be the bad guy
Doesn’t have to be a person
3. Types of Characters
1. Flat character – little history is given; has
only one or two personality traits
* Stock Characters- A type of flat character. The
type of character that appears so often in fiction the
reader recognizes them right away.
2.Round character – fully developed with many
different character traits
3.Dynamic character – changes during the
course of the story (learns something)
4.Static character – does not change (doesn’t
4. Direct Characterization
Direct characterization is when the author TELLS the
audience what the personality of the character is.
Example: “The patient boy and quiet girl were both at
The author is telling us that the boy is patient and the
girl is kind.
5. Indirect Characterization
Indirect characterization is when the author SHOWS
things that reveal the personality of the character.
There are FIVE different methods of indirect
characterization: speech, thoughts, effect on other
characters, actions, and looks. (STEAL)
Speech- What does the character say? How does the
Example: “Hey, we can have lots of fun at camp this
summer! I love being outside!”
This shows us the character is upbeat and happy.
Thoughts- What is revealed through the character’s
thoughts and feelings?
Example: I wish it would stop raining. I am tired of
This shows us the character is not happy about the
8. Effect on Others
Effect on Others- What is revealed through the character’s
effect on other people? How do other characters feel or
behave in reaction to the character?
Example: The boy glared at his sister as she ate his dessert.
This shows us that the character is upset about his sister’s
behavior and inability to think of others.
Actions- What does the character do? How does the
Example: The girl rode the lawn mower through the
house and into the garage.
This shows us the girl is not concerned with rules or
Looks- What does the character look like? How does
the character dress?
Example: The little girl left the game with slumped
shoulders and a frown on her face.
This shows us the little girl is not enjoying herself and is
Time and place in which a story happens
Customs, Values, and Beliefs that are associated with
the broad setting
Integral- settings are key to a story, it affects the plot
Background- settings are simply a backdrop for the action
Sequence of events in a story – action that moves the
Exposition – introduces the story’s characters, setting,
Rising action – develops the conflict with
complications and suspense
Climax – the emotional high point of the story
Falling action – shows what happens to the characters
after the climax
Resolution – shows how the conflict is resolved or how
the problem is solved
Little Red Riding Hood – What is the sequence of events
in Little Red Riding Hood’s story?
The element of the story which shows the concerns of
the central characters.
Conflict is a struggle between opposing forces
External conflict: struggle between a character and
an outside force (another character, society, technology,
nature, supernatural, or fate – sometimes supernatural
and fate are considered the same/one)
Internal conflict: struggle within a character against
opposing feelings or indecision
19. Character Vs. Fate
When the protagonist
tries to break free
of a predetermined
path chosen before
him prior to his
knowledge. It can
also be referred to
as an issue between
destiny and freewill.
20. POINT OF VIEW
Who is telling the story?
Narrator’s standpoint or perspective
First-person point of view: narrator is a character in the
story, uses I, me, we, us
Third-person point of view: narrator describes the story
Objective – like a camera is recording the action
Omniscient – narrator knows thoughts and feelings of every
Limited – narrator knows thoughts and feelings of only one
Little Red Riding Hood – What is the P.O.V.?
21. Style- How the author writes, the
techniques they use to write
Point of View (POV)- Who is telling
the story, three different types
First Person- Told by someone IN the
story, uses “I” and “me”
Third Person Limited- Told by a
narrator, OUTSIDE the story, the
narrator only knows thoughts of one
character, uses the pronouns “he”, “she”,
Third Person Omniscient- Told by a
narrator OUTSIDE the story, the narrator
knows what all characters are thinking,
narrator is all knowing (om=all), uses the
pronouns “he”, “she”, or “they”
Central message of the story
Universal – applies to everyone, everywhere, at every
Sometimes the theme is stated directly
Sometimes the theme is implied (not “right there”,
more of an “on your own”)
Little Red Riding Hood – What is the theme?