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  1. Main homoeopathic conceptions  Symptoms  Sighns  Compleat symptoms  Peculiar, characteristic, strange symptoms  Key note symptoms  Key note symptoms  Individual symptoms  Pathognomonic symptoms  Totality of the symptoms  Concomitant symptoms
  2. Main homoeopathic conceptions Symptoms — These are phenomena, that the patient feels and conveys. That is - they are subjective. Symptoms carry information both on the ethiology and localization of disorders, and on the nature of changes in the mental and physical condition. It is important to know the factors that influence the disease (modality). Expl: patient complaints with : dry cough, weakness, thirstlessness, desire open air, feeling difficult breathing in hot room.
  3. Main homoeopathic conceptions  Signs are objectively detected symptoms, by observation, palpation, percussion, and other examinations. Example: during examination it was detected- small, red eruption on the face, wheezing breathing- by auscultation, enlargment of the neck lymphatic nodules-by palpation- the picture of the disease called measles.
  4. Totality of symptoms: the symptoms of the patient should be similar to the symptoms of the medicine (pathogenesis of the drug), which can cure him. The selection of such a drug is carried out by comparing a number of symptoms of medicinal action with the symptoms of the diseased patient. Testing drugs on healthy peoples causes changes in their state, as judged by the subject's verbal information, functional deviations (excretions, changes in blood circulation, etc.). From toxicology, we derive information about objective violations and damage to tissues and organs. All these data together form a picture of the action (pathogenesis) of the drug. We compare it with the totality of symptoms observed in a patient. It must first be emphasized that two totalities are compared. A simple juxtaposition of symptoms is not homeopathy. What is a totality of symptoms? The sum of symptoms is an indiscriminate combination of particulars. On the contrary, the concept of “a set of symptoms” reflects the true homeopathic concept of the disease, which predetermines the place and meaning of each individual symptom in this set. "The totality cannot be explained by the coexistence of its constituent parts, but only by their mutual influence." Expl:--The sum of symptoms: patient complaints with: oedema, face puffed, dropsy, dyspnea, anxios, fear of death. ---the totality of symptoms: oedema, dropsy, swelling of the eyelids as sack, anxiety, difficult breathing- seemed that every breath will be the last. The condition is improving under the open air.
  5. Pathognomonic symptoms: Symptoms that are detected on the basis of the patient's complaints, observation and research are a motley mixture. In it, we must distinguish and evaluate two groups of symptoms: the first group leads to the definition of a clinical diagnosis, to a disease (pathognomonic symptoms). Example: Mother tells the doctor: “Our daughter has a fever for 4 days. Initially, her eyes became red, there was photophobia, a runny nose, then a dry cough appeared. Today I noticed behind her ears a red rash that spread throughout the day to the face and chest.These are Pathognomonic symptoms, based on which you can diagnose measles.
  6. Individual symptoms These are a reflection of the individual response of the patient in the fight against disease factors. In the same example: Since the time when my daughter fell ill, I note that she became weepy. When I ask her what is bothering her, she doesn’t complain about anything and weeps again. Before that, she was a cheerful, lively child, and now constantly lies in bed. Today she asked to remove the heater, so that the room was cool. I think she should not be allowed to cool during her illness. ” Crying and lethargy of the child, the desire to be in a cool room, can not be tied directly to measles. These are individual reactions. These symptoms prompted the homeopath to prescribe the right medicine: Pulsatilla.
  7. Pathognomonic symptoms: the example: The patient reported that she had a: paroxysmal headache for 20 years.  before the appearance of a headache, flickering in the eyes begins, then the  condition worsens, vomiting appears.  at rest and in a dark room the condition improves.  at the height of the pain, it often urinates a lot, the urine is very light. After that, she feels better. Based on these symptoms, migraine is diagnosed.
  8. In  A careful study of the patient symptoms showed that she had previously been angry, irritable, but she re-educated herself and possessed emotions. Her headache occurs in the forehead, behind the nose and spreads deep, causing nausea and sometimes vomiting. These individual symptoms:  anger and  pain, radiating to the nose, allowed to choose a homeopathic medicine, namely Agaricus, which who healed a sick person from a migraine that lasted 20 years. Individual symptoms
  9. Key note symptoms Key note symptoms are bits of gold. These are the most typical symptoms in the picture of the action of drugs. As all valuable, they are scanty and hidden. The one, who well remembers the leading symptoms of the action of drugs, will be able to identify in the patient's story, along with many common typical symptoms. The key note symptom of the disease corresponds to the leading symptom of the medicine. This is the key to the lock. He reveals a case of illness. Key symptoms should be intense, clear and complete
  10. In general, one key symptom is not enough to choose a right medicine, as one leading symptom is not enough to characterize a particular drug. Using the figurative expression about the key and the lock, one can say: a simple and coarse key fits many simple locks, the key for the safe opens one single safe. The more carefully is selected and more complete is the key symptom the more it corresponds to the verbal characteristics of the medicine given by provers, the more confident you can rely on it. Only an experienced specialist is able to determine the quality of the “key” and find a suitable lock.
  11. Example. Concerned mother calls the doctor at midnight. “My child suddenly fell ill. He woke with a cry, the temperature was raised. In the afternoon he was still skating. But what worries me most is his fear. I barely managed to calm him down. Before he was not fearful. " In a home study, no signs of illness were found. However, I was alarmed by the child’s question: “Should I go to the hospital now, will I die?”In this case history, the key note symptom of Aconitum is clarified:  the expousure to cold,  a sudden infection with rising of fever that began at midnight,  hot, dry skin,  the fear of death.
  12. Exampel: 28-year-old student (consultation of 29.9.1976): “I had a headache in the back of my head, which occurs at the base of the neck and spreads to the back of the head, and then to the whole head. In this case, there is a feeling that the head is bursting, and therefore there is a desire to tighten it with a handkerchief or to squeeze it. Recently, I was also worried about the stomach and I began to tolerate sweets poorly ”(quoted by von Keller, Tubingen). Here is the key note symptom of Argentum nitricum:  a headache from the neck to the back of the head with a feeling of  head bursting,  which is improving by squeezing the head with the hands or a bandage. A concomitant symptom is the need for sweet, which the patient does not
  13. Characteristic symptom. Strenge symptoms.  Characteristic symptoms are those, which during proving appeared in main provers and are very characteristic for that drug. Example: pain increases from motion. This is a characteristic symptom for Bryonia alba.  Strange calls that symptoms which are illogical, unexplainable. Edxample:  the pain in anus increased after diarrhea, while after hard stool there is no pain ( usually and logically is the opposide), or  Throat pain increases after swollowing liquids or empthy swollowing while from hard food there is no pain  Thease are the symptoms of Ignatia.
  14. Compleat symptoms  The chair stands firmly only when at least it has three legs. ” A well- evaluated symptom should also have at least three supports. However, even better is a chair with four legs.  A full symptom consists of four bases. It should contain data on the etiology and localization, the nature of sensations and the conditions of their changes (modalities).  The patient tells and shows: “I have a stabbing pain in the right side of the chest when breathing. It occurs after cold exposure. ” This is full symptom, which clearly reflects the etiology, location, nature and conditions of sensation, the patient described the characteristic pain in which Bryonia was offered as a medicine.  In the homeopathic history, we must constantly strive to identify the full symptoms. We can achieve this goal by performing a carefull and particular case taking.
  15. Concomitant symptoms  Individual concomitant symptoms are those phenomena that cannot be explained from a pathoanatomical or pathophysiological point of view.  Easily explained symptoms associated with major suffering for the choice of drugs are not of great value, for example, headache during a flue . However, the complain of a woman that her menstruation is accompanied by diarrhea or toothache for no apparent reason, should pay attention to the doctor.  - More often, patients report that, along with the main complaints, they develop pain or functional impairment in another area of the body. The main complaint is accompanied by other disorders.
  16. Example: Patient K. M. for many years complains of recurrent pain to the left in the area of the last ribs. He has a history of kidney stones twice (the last time 3 years ago) and an increase in uric acid levels, so for a long time he was treated with uricostatics. The homeopathic history is poor and not informative about individual remedies. In this regard, we first treated him organotropically, appointing Berberis (a good remeady for kidney). but unfortunately without effect. Only at the fourth consultation, he said, by the way, that simultaneously with the pain in his left side, he had a short-lasting pain in his right ear. On this basis, was appointed Natrium sulfuricum. The drug eliminated the pain in the left side and ear. Uric acid levels also remained normal.
  17. Thank you. Shushan Shahbazyan. GPh, MD allopathy, MD Homoeopathy, PG-London