SUSHANTA SARMA
1st
SEMESTER
DU, C.S.B
ROLL NO: 02
Vitamin A deficiency: TheVitamin A deficiency: The
ProblemProblem
• Weakens the immune systemWeakens the immune system
• C...
• 400 million poor in rice-based societies are400 million poor in rice-based societies are
Vitamin A deficient. Vitamin A ...
Vitamin A deficiency: TheVitamin A deficiency: The
SolutionSolution
• Golden RiceGolden Rice
– Development by Ingo Potryku...
Who Began the GoldenWho Began the Golden
Rice Project?Rice Project?
• Started in 1982 by Ingo Potrykus-Started in 1982 by ...
How gene is introduced into rice:How gene is introduced into rice:
MECHANISM:MECHANISM:
• Golden rice was created by transforming rice with only two beta-caroteneGolden rice was created by ...
The Golden Rice Solution
Geranylgeranyl diphosphate
Phytoene
Lycopene
β -carotene
(vitamin A precursor)
Phytoene
synthase
...
Why rice?Why rice?
• Other plants, such as sweet potatoes have varieties that areOther plants, such as sweet potatoes have...
Interesting fact about golden rice:Interesting fact about golden rice:
• The yellow colour of golden rice is due toThe yel...
Negative impact:Negative impact:
• HealthHealth
– May cause allergies or fail to perform desired effectMay cause allergies...
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Golden rice

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it is develops to combat vitamin A deficiency

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Golden rice

  1. 1. SUSHANTA SARMA 1st SEMESTER DU, C.S.B ROLL NO: 02
  2. 2. Vitamin A deficiency: TheVitamin A deficiency: The ProblemProblem • Weakens the immune systemWeakens the immune system • Can lead to blindness which increases theCan lead to blindness which increases the risk of deathrisk of death
  3. 3. • 400 million poor in rice-based societies are400 million poor in rice-based societies are Vitamin A deficient. Vitamin A deficient.  • 500,000 children go blind per year.(UNICEF)500,000 children go blind per year.(UNICEF) • 1.15 million VAD-precipitated deaths among1.15 million VAD-precipitated deaths among children world wide.(UNICEF)children world wide.(UNICEF) • Rice is the main staple crop for most ofRice is the main staple crop for most of these children, but rice lack pro-vitamin Athese children, but rice lack pro-vitamin A and other micronutrients.(UNICEF)and other micronutrients.(UNICEF)
  4. 4. Vitamin A deficiency: TheVitamin A deficiency: The SolutionSolution • Golden RiceGolden Rice – Development by Ingo Potrykus and PeterDevelopment by Ingo Potrykus and Peter BeyerBeyer – Contains a gene from maize or daffodil plantsContains a gene from maize or daffodil plants and common soil bacterium (and common soil bacterium (ErwiniaErwinia))
  5. 5. Who Began the GoldenWho Began the Golden Rice Project?Rice Project? • Started in 1982 by Ingo Potrykus-Started in 1982 by Ingo Potrykus- Professor emeritus of the Institute forProfessor emeritus of the Institute for Plant Sciences,SwiterlandPlant Sciences,Switerland • Peter Beyer-Professor of Centre forPeter Beyer-Professor of Centre for Applied Biosciences, Uni. Of Freiburg,Applied Biosciences, Uni. Of Freiburg, GermanyGermany • Funded by the Rockefeller Foundation,Funded by the Rockefeller Foundation, the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology,the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, and Syngenta, a crop protection company.and Syngenta, a crop protection company.
  6. 6. How gene is introduced into rice:How gene is introduced into rice:
  7. 7. MECHANISM:MECHANISM: • Golden rice was created by transforming rice with only two beta-caroteneGolden rice was created by transforming rice with only two beta-carotene biosynthesis genes:biosynthesis genes: • psypsy (phytoene synthase) from daffodil ( (phytoene synthase) from daffodil (Narcissus pseudonarcissusNarcissus pseudonarcissus)) • crtIcrtI (carotene desaturase) from the soil bacterium  (carotene desaturase) from the soil bacterium Erwinia uredovoraErwinia uredovora • (The insertion of a (The insertion of a lyclyc (lycopene cyclase) gene was thought to be needed, but (lycopene cyclase) gene was thought to be needed, but further research showed it is already being produced in wild-type rice endosperm.)further research showed it is already being produced in wild-type rice endosperm.) • The The psypsy  and   and crtIcrtI  genes were transformed into the rice nuclear genome and  genes were transformed into the rice nuclear genome and placed under the control of an endosperm-specific promoter, so they are onlyplaced under the control of an endosperm-specific promoter, so they are only expressed in the endosperm. The bacterial expressed in the endosperm. The bacterial crtIcrtI  gene was an important inclusion to  gene was an important inclusion to complete the pathway, since it can catalyze multiple steps in the synthesis ofcomplete the pathway, since it can catalyze multiple steps in the synthesis of carotenoids up to lycopene, while these steps require more than one enzyme incarotenoids up to lycopene, while these steps require more than one enzyme in
  8. 8. The Golden Rice Solution Geranylgeranyl diphosphate Phytoene Lycopene β -carotene (vitamin A precursor) Phytoene synthase Lycopene cyclase carotene desaturase Daffodil gene Bacterial gene β-Carotene Pathway Genes Added Vitamin A Pathway is complete and functional Golden Rice
  9. 9. Why rice?Why rice? • Other plants, such as sweet potatoes have varieties that areOther plants, such as sweet potatoes have varieties that are either rich (orange-fleshed) or poor (white fleshed) in pro-either rich (orange-fleshed) or poor (white fleshed) in pro- vitamin Avitamin A It is difficult to manage even two times meal for the poor people.It is difficult to manage even two times meal for the poor people. • Global staple food. CultivatedGlobal staple food. Cultivated for over 10,000 yearsfor over 10,000 years • Rice provides as much as 80Rice provides as much as 80 percent or more of the dailypercent or more of the daily caloric intake of 3 billioncaloric intake of 3 billion people, which is half thepeople, which is half the world’s populationworld’s population
  10. 10. Interesting fact about golden rice:Interesting fact about golden rice: • The yellow colour of golden rice is due toThe yellow colour of golden rice is due to the presence ofthe presence of ββ- carotenoid.- carotenoid. • In one transgenic line, theIn one transgenic line, the ββ-carotene-carotene content was as high as 85% of the totalcontent was as high as 85% of the total carotenoid present in the grain.carotenoid present in the grain.
  11. 11. Negative impact:Negative impact: • HealthHealth – May cause allergies or fail to perform desired effectMay cause allergies or fail to perform desired effect – Supply does not provide a substantial quantity as theSupply does not provide a substantial quantity as the recommended daily intakerecommended daily intake • EnvironmentEnvironment – Loss of Biodiversity. May become a gregarious weedLoss of Biodiversity. May become a gregarious weed and endanger the existence of natural rice plantsand endanger the existence of natural rice plants – Genetic contamination of natural, global staple foodsGenetic contamination of natural, global staple foods • CultureCulture – Some people prefer to cultivate and eat only whiteSome people prefer to cultivate and eat only white rice based on traditional values and spiritual beliefsrice based on traditional values and spiritual beliefs

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