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STUDY OF VERNACULARARCHITECTUREBHUJ(KUTCH,GUJARAT) RACHANA SANSAD ACADEMY OF ARCHITECTURE VINAY.D.ANAM ROLL NO . 1
INTRODUCTION• STUDY OF REGION OF BHUJITS LOCAION ANDCHARACTERISTICS• STUDY OF REGION OF KUTCH•ARCHITECTURE TYPES•LAYOUT OF THE HOUSES•BHONGA ARCHITECTURE.
Bhuj, Kutch KutchLocationBhuj is a city and a municipality in Kutchdistrict in the state of Gujarat, IndiaHistoryIt was established by Rao Himirji in 1510 andwas made the state capital by Rao Khengarj iIn 1549Bhuj for decades, even centuries, hasbeckoned travelers and traders with the Bhujpromise of release from the restrictions ofcivilization. In January 2001, the city wasstruck by a major earth quake which caused agreat deal of damage to the city. of BhujDemographicsThe total population of Bhuj was 136,429 inthe year 2008, which consisted of 71,056 Ramkund is amales and 65,373 females. typical step-wellGeography architecture atBhuj has an average elevation of 110 meters Bhuj The Bhuj is Famous for the(360 feet). On the eastern side of the town is swaminarayan temple whicha hill known as Bhujiyo that separates Bhuj is made of Rs 100 crore,withcity and Madhapar town. It has one big lake pure white marble,andit isnamed Hamirsar and several small lakes. located in the heart of the city
Bhuj, KutchCulture• Bhuj is a famous destination for shopping of handicraft work.• Artists of nearby villages bring their art work for sale in Bhuj.• It is the Important landmarks for people wishing to study and Bhuj is famous for its know more about Kutchi Aina Mahal (palace of various Silver crafts work embroidery Mirrors) in Bhuj,isReligion famous for displaying the• The dominant religions of Kutch History of the region of are a form of Vaishnav Hinduism, Kutch Jainism and Islam• The Swaminarayan Sampraday has a huge following in this region.Language• Kutchi & Gujarati are the predominating languages spoken The historic Hamirsar lake is situated at the Heart of the city of Bhuj Bhuj is Famous for its handy-crafts market
ABOUT , REGION OF KUTCH (GUJARAT), INTRODUCTION Kutch is district of Gujarat state in western India Covering an area of 45,612 km², it is the largest district of India. The district has 966 villages Kutch means something which intermittently becomes wet and dry a large part of this district is known as Rann of Kutch which is shallow wetland & which submerges in water during the rainy season and becomes dry during other seasons Map of Kutch,(Gujarat) Geography Kutch District is surrounded by the Gulf of Kutch and the Arabian Sea in south and west, while northern and eastern parts are surrounded by the Great and Small Rann The border of Pakistan lies along the northern edge of the Rann of Kutch. Kutch is virtually anTribal women of island, as it is surrounded by the Arabian Sea inKutch with the west;traditional clothing Traditional wall interior of kutch 5
Religion OF KutchAs per the 2001 census, the districts populationwas 1,526,331, of which most around areHindu. the remainder of the population adhereto mostly Jainism and Muslims.LanguageThe languages spoken predominantly in Kutchis Kacchi and to lesserextent Sindhi and GujaratiPeopleKutch district is inhabited by various groups andcommunities. Many of these have reached thisregion after centuries of migration fromneighboring regions of Marwar(WesternRajasthan), Sidh,Afghanistan and further. Eventoday, one can find various nomadic, seminomadic and artisan groups living in Kutch.History of KutchRemote and sparsely populated the district ofKutch, it has had an interesting history.The Indus valley civilization, known to be one ofthe first ever civilized societies consisted of theancestors of Kutchis as well as others. Howevernow most of the river lies in Pakistan after Indiawas split up.
Architecture types of Bhuj CHOWKS STREETSStreet pattern (Y shaped) and housing layout
streetInternalcourtyards Cattles-shed PLANNINGS OF HOUSINGS IN BHUJ
THE HEIGHT WIDTHPROPORTIONS OF COURTYARDSAND STREETS PROVIDE SHADEFOR MOST PART OF THE DAY
BHUNGA HOUSES The Bhonga is a traditional construction type in the Kutch district of the Gujarat state in India, which has a very high earthquake risk. A Bhonga consists of a single cylindrically shaped room. The Bhonga has a conical roof supported by cylindrical walls. Bhonga construction has existed for several hundred years. This type of house is quite durable and appropriate for prevalent desert conditions. BHUNGA HOUSES Due to its robustness against natural hazards as well as its pleasant aesthetics, this housing is also known as "Architecture without Architects.“
CONSTRUCTION OF THE BHUNGA Bhonga is circular in plan, with cylindrically shaped walls and topped with conical roof. The inner diameter of the Bhonga is typically between 3m to 6m. A Bhonga generally has only three openings one door and two small windows. DURING EARTH-QUAKES It performed very well in the recent M7.6 Bhuj earthquake in 2001. Very few Bhongas experienced significant damage in the epicentral region, and the damage that did occur can be mainly attributed to poor quality of the construction materials or improper maintenance of the structure. It has also been observed that the failure of Bhongas in the last earthquake caused very few injuries to the occupants due to the type of collapse.
ROOF CONSTRUCTION OF BHUNGA HOUSES The conical roof of a Bhonga is supported at its crest by a vertical central wooden post, which rests on a wooden joist. The base of the roof and the wooden joist are generally directly supported on Bhonga walls. Sometimes, the roof load on wooden joist is transferred to diametrically placed timber posts (vertical members) adjacent to the cylindrical wall. This reduces the roof-load on the walls. The Bhonga wall is usually extended below ground up to the required foundation depth, and separate foundation is not traditionally constructed. In newer constructions, proper strip footing is also used.
WALL CONSTRUCTION OF BHUNGA Due to circular shape of wall in plan, inertial forces developed addition, the thick walls required for thermal insulation have high in-plane stiffness which provides excellent performance under lateral loads. The roofing in wall are resisted through shell action providing excellent resistance to lateral forces. In materials are generally very light weight, and develops low inertia forces. Since the roof is constructed from extremely ductile materials such as bamboo and straw, the performance of.these roofs is usually very robust NEW TYPES OF BHUNGAS Recent Bhongas constructions have used wide variety of construction materials. These include the stone or burnt brick masonry either in mud mortar or in cement mortar. Traditional roof consists of light-weight conical roof, while some recent constructions have used heavy manglore tiles on roofs. Some recent constructions have used circular strip footing below the wall, while traditional construction simply extended the walls below ground level t.
Bhungas construction details• In several Bhongas, the roof joist is not directly supported on the cylindrical walls, but issupported by two wooden vertical posts outside the Bhonga, which further improves seismicresistance of the inertia force generated in the roof.• In some instances, reinforcing bands at lintel level and collar level have been used to provideadditional strength.• These bands are constructed from bamboo or from RCC. These increase the lateral load-carryingstrength greatly and increase the seismic resistance of the Bhongas.•Even in situations where the roof collapses, its low weight ensures that the extent of injuries tooccupants is very low.•Labours who constructs Bhungas and materials used•These constructions are carried out by local village masons.• The locally available soft stone can easily be cut or chiselled into rectangular blocks, which areused for wall masonry.•The local soil is used for mud mortar and to make adobe blocks. Locally available timber andbamboo are used for roof.• The entire construction process, which is carried out by the mason with very few unskilledlaborers, can be completed within 30 days.• The construction of this type of housing takes place in a single phase.• Typically, the building is originally designed for its final constructed size.• Bhongas are never "designed" in the modern context. However, Bhonga architecture is a veryunique aspect of traditional desert architecture of Kutch region in which the size, location andorientation of the Bhonga are planned for very good structural and functional results.
Bhungas are connected through plinths andcirculation is also carried out in that way.. A clusterof bhunga is built on one plinthus ually the clustercontains settlements of one whole family
INTERIORS ANDDECORATIONRural art on walls Windows decorated with mirrors