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microprocessor

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  1. 1. IMPLEMENTATION OF MICROPROCESSORIMPLEMENTATION OF MICROPROCESSOR VINDHYA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ANDVINDHYA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCESCIENCE Session July-Dec.-2010 A Industrial training report submitted to Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya Bhopal (M. P.) In partial fulfillment of awarding the degree of Bachelor of Engineering In Electronics & Communication Engineering SUBMITTED TO: SUBMITTED BY : PROF.VISHAL SHARMA SHUBHAM GUPTA PRASHANT PANDEY RAJESH RATHOR ABHISHEK RAGHUVANSHI
  2. 2. INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION The project represents a design and FPGAThe project represents a design and FPGA implemenatation of 16 bit microprocessorimplemenatation of 16 bit microprocessor core,so called “MIB-16” using VHDL.Thecore,so called “MIB-16” using VHDL.The microprocessor can directly acess to themicroprocessor can directly acess to the memory which consists of 16 bit wordsmemory which consists of 16 bit words addressed by a 16 bit word adress.Instrucaddressed by a 16 bit word adress.Instruc tions are all multiple of 16 bit words,and ations are all multiple of 16 bit words,and a condition code store.The frequency ofcondition code store.The frequency of microprocessor can execute 16 instructionsmicroprocessor can execute 16 instructions such as add,sub,devide,load and store.such as add,sub,devide,load and store.
  3. 3. 16 BIT MICROPROCESSOR16 BIT MICROPROCESSOR 16 bit A microprocessor is designed to perform16 bit A microprocessor is designed to perform arithmetic and logic operations that make use ofarithmetic and logic operations that make use of small number-holding areas calledsmall number-holding areas called registersregisters.. Typical microprocessor operations include adding,Typical microprocessor operations include adding, subtracting, comparing two numbers, and fetchingsubtracting, comparing two numbers, and fetching numbers from one area to anothernumbers from one area to another micrprocessormicrprocessor has got 16-bit data bushas got 16-bit data bus it has 16 bit adress bus also. in 8 bit microprocessorit has 16 bit adress bus also. in 8 bit microprocessor the data bus is of 8 bit and address bus is of 16-bitthe data bus is of 8 bit and address bus is of 16-bit it has 64 kb of memory.it has 64 kb of memory.
  4. 4. featuresfeatures  It is a 16 bit processor.It’s ALU,internal registersIt is a 16 bit processor.It’s ALU,internal registers works with 16 bit binary wordworks with 16 bit binary word  Ithas 16 bit data bus.It can read or writes 16 bitsIthas 16 bit data bus.It can read or writes 16 bits or 8 bit at timeor 8 bit at time  It has 20 bit of address bus which means 2 toIt has 20 bit of address bus which means 2 to the powre 20=1 MB memorythe powre 20=1 MB memory  Frequency range is 6-10MhzFrequency range is 6-10Mhz
  5. 5. ConclusonConcluson VHDL is a hardware description language for delineating digitalVHDL is a hardware description language for delineating digital electronic systems. It arose out of the US government's Veryelectronic systems. It arose out of the US government's Very High Speed Integrated Circuits (VHSIC) programHigh Speed Integrated Circuits (VHSIC) program VHDL is now used worldwide as a tool for designing digitalVHDL is now used worldwide as a tool for designing digital systems in many application areas. VHDL is designed to fill asystems in many application areas. VHDL is designed to fill a number of needs in the design flownumber of needs in the design flow A 16 bit microprocessor so called MIB 16 is designed usingA 16 bit microprocessor so called MIB 16 is designed using VHDL and also implemented on Xilinx .Simulation andVHDL and also implemented on Xilinx .Simulation and implementation tools used are Xilinx ISE 6.3i and model simimplementation tools used are Xilinx ISE 6.3i and model sim 6.0.There were some limitations encountered during the6.0.There were some limitations encountered during the uploading and testing of the processor due to evolution capacityuploading and testing of the processor due to evolution capacity and limitationand limitation
  6. 6. Simulation and implementationSimulation and implementation  A SA Simulationimulation is the manipulation of a model inis the manipulation of a model in such a way that it operates on time or space tosuch a way that it operates on time or space to compress it, thus enabling one to perceive thecompress it, thus enabling one to perceive the interactions that would not otherwise beinteractions that would not otherwise be apparent because of their separation in time orapparent because of their separation in time or space.space.  ImplementationImplementation is the realization of anis the realization of an application, or execution of a plan, idea, model,application, or execution of a plan, idea, model, design, specification, standard, algorithm, ordesign, specification, standard, algorithm, or policy.policy.
  7. 7. Basic procedureBasic procedure  implementation of 16-bit microprocessor.implementation of 16-bit microprocessor.  In this project we design 16–bit ALU and implementIn this project we design 16–bit ALU and implement in FPGA .we use VHDL coding simulation andin FPGA .we use VHDL coding simulation and syntheses by use of Xilinx 8.1 version. In the 16-bitsyntheses by use of Xilinx 8.1 version. In the 16-bit microprocessor different part design such as-microprocessor different part design such as- CPU,ALU, Control unit, comparator unit, shiftCPU,ALU, Control unit, comparator unit, shift register ,the register ,and address register, different partregister ,the register ,and address register, different part of 16-bit microprocessor is separately programmed,of 16-bit microprocessor is separately programmed, simulate and synthesis, this project is also implement onsimulate and synthesis, this project is also implement on FPGA-Field Programmable Gate Array.FPGA-Field Programmable Gate Array.
  8. 8. Simulating a cpuSimulating a cpu  Simulating the CPU design is different fromSimulating the CPU design is different from most other entities because the CPU designmost other entities because the CPU design doesn’t need much outside stimulus. Thedoesn’t need much outside stimulus. The memory device provides the input data for thememory device provides the input data for the CPU much as a stimulus file would for otherCPU much as a stimulus file would for other entities. The CPU reads its program from theentities. The CPU reads its program from the memory device. The CPU need only have thememory device. The CPU need only have the clk signal and reset signal stimulated properly,clk signal and reset signal stimulated properly, and the CPU reads and executes instructionsand the CPU reads and executes instructions from that point forwardfrom that point forward
  9. 9. Steps for simulatingSteps for simulating  I step-I step- The first step in simulating the CPU is toThe first step in simulating the CPU is to compile all the files that make up the design intocompile all the files that make up the design into a format that the simulator can use. Thea format that the simulator can use. The compiled format is loaded into the simulator,compiled format is loaded into the simulator, and the simulation is executed . The first step inand the simulation is executed . The first step in compiling all of the files in the design is to createcompiling all of the files in the design is to create one or more libraries to store the compiled dataone or more libraries to store the compiled data
  10. 10.  II STEPII STEP  After the library has been created, the VHDL sourceAfter the library has been created, the VHDL source files for the design can be compiled into the targetfiles for the design can be compiled into the target library. To compile each of the files, the VCOMlibrary. To compile each of the files, the VCOM command must be run either from the GUI (Graphicalcommand must be run either from the GUI (Graphical User Interface) or from the command line. Most of theUser Interface) or from the command line. Most of the operations of the simulator have a GUI method ofoperations of the simulator have a GUI method of performing the command line command. This allowsperforming the command line command. This allows casual users users to effectively use the simulatorcasual users users to effectively use the simulator
  11. 11. LOGIC OPTIMIZATIONLOGIC OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUESTECHNIQUES  With the advent of With the advent of logic synthesislogic synthesis, one of the biggest, one of the biggest challenges faced by the challenges faced by the EDAEDA industry was to find the industry was to find the best best net listnet list representation of the given design representation of the given design descriptiondescription  Based on circuit representationBased on circuit representation Two-level logic optimizationTwo-level logic optimization Multi-level logic optimizationMulti-level logic optimization  Based on circuit characteristicsBased on circuit characteristics Sequential logic optimizationSequential logic optimization Combinational logic optimizationCombinational logic optimization
  12. 12. VHDLVHDL Introduction to VHDLIntroduction to VHDL VHDL is Hardware Description Language VHSICVHDL is Hardware Description Language VHSIC stands for Very High Speed Integrated Circuits). It is astands for Very High Speed Integrated Circuits). It is a hardware description language that can be used tohardware description language that can be used to model a digital system at many levels of abstractionmodel a digital system at many levels of abstraction ranging from the algorithmic level to the gate level. Theranging from the algorithmic level to the gate level. The complexity of the digital system being modeled couldcomplexity of the digital system being modeled could vary from that of a simple gate to a complete digitalvary from that of a simple gate to a complete digital electronic system, or anything in between.electronic system, or anything in between.
  13. 13. Capabilities of VHDLCapabilities of VHDL  1. The language can be used as an exchange medium between chip vender1. The language can be used as an exchange medium between chip vender and CAD tool users. Different chip venders can provide VHDL descriptionand CAD tool users. Different chip venders can provide VHDL description of their components to system designers. CAD tool users can use it toof their components to system designers. CAD tool users can use it to capture the behavior of the design at a high level of abstraction for functionalcapture the behavior of the design at a high level of abstraction for functional simulation.simulation.  2. The language can also be used as a communication medium between2. The language can also be used as a communication medium between different CAD and CAM tools.different CAD and CAM tools.  3. The language supports hierarchy i.e. a digital system can be modeled as a3. The language supports hierarchy i.e. a digital system can be modeled as a set of interconnected sub-components.set of interconnected sub-components.  4. The language is not technology specific, but is capable of supporting4. The language is not technology specific, but is capable of supporting different technologies. Idifferent technologies. I  5. It supports both synchronous and asynchronous timing models.5. It supports both synchronous and asynchronous timing models.  6. It is an IEEE and ANSI STANDARD; therefore, models described in this6. It is an IEEE and ANSI STANDARD; therefore, models described in this language are portable.language are portable.
  14. 14. Why VHDLWhy VHDL VHDL model cannot be implemented in real timeVHDL model cannot be implemented in real time application directly like other proceduralapplication directly like other procedural languages. It is simulated and synthesized usinglanguages. It is simulated and synthesized using in built system clock. In procedural languagesin built system clock. In procedural languages the right hand side value is assigned to the leftthe right hand side value is assigned to the left hand side value as soon as the statement ishand side value as soon as the statement is executed. In VHDL there is an advantage thatexecuted. In VHDL there is an advantage that the computed value can be assigned to a signalthe computed value can be assigned to a signal after any time delayafter any time delay
  15. 15. VHDL over c/c++VHDL over c/c++  VHDL is a parallel language, while C/C++ areVHDL is a parallel language, while C/C++ are sequential languages. Each statement occurringsequential languages. Each statement occurring in VHDL is executed concurrently, while inin VHDL is executed concurrently, while in C/C++ each statement is executed sequentiallyC/C++ each statement is executed sequentially and at its own turns. In VHDL explicitand at its own turns. In VHDL explicit constructs exist for explicit sequential steps.constructs exist for explicit sequential steps.
  16. 16. ProcedureProcedure  To describe an entity, VHDL provides fiveTo describe an entity, VHDL provides five different types of primary constructs, called"different types of primary constructs, called" designdesign units.units. They areThey are  1. Entity declaration1. Entity declaration  2. Architecture body2. Architecture body  3. Configuration declaration3. Configuration declaration  4. Package declaration4. Package declaration  5. Package body5. Package body
  17. 17. General ApplicationsGeneral Applications  ) Traffic light controller) Traffic light controller  Aviation for weather monitoring and control of various complex functions ofAviation for weather monitoring and control of various complex functions of an airplane.an airplane.  VCR's, Gaming consoles, PC, Televisions, mobiles use microprocessor forVCR's, Gaming consoles, PC, Televisions, mobiles use microprocessor for executing complex tasks and instructions.executing complex tasks and instructions.  Home security systems, various bank and military security services.Home security systems, various bank and military security services.  Used in Signal processing (for e.g DSP's are microprocessors speciallyUsed in Signal processing (for e.g DSP's are microprocessors specially designed for signal processing applications)designed for signal processing applications)  Used in industries for controlling motors, complex manufacturing machinesUsed in industries for controlling motors, complex manufacturing machines and processes.and processes.  Used in Robotics (for performing various actions according to the instructionUsed in Robotics (for performing various actions according to the instruction given)given)  Used in calculators for performing various mathematical tasksUsed in calculators for performing various mathematical tasks
  18. 18. ImportenceImportence The internal parts like registers and ALU use dataThe internal parts like registers and ALU use data in 8-bits in a 8 nit processor and so in a 16 bitin 8-bits in a 8 nit processor and so in a 16 bit and 32 bit processor the use 32 bit data.....theand 32 bit processor the use 32 bit data.....the BUS which carries data from one part of aBUS which carries data from one part of a proceesor to another has 8-lines in a 8 bitproceesor to another has 8-lines in a 8 bit processor,16 lines in a 16 bit and 32lines ina 32processor,16 lines in a 16 bit and 32lines ina 32 bit one.....because all these bits have to bebit one.....because all these bits have to be transmitted simultaneously.transmitted simultaneously.
  19. 19. Important applicationImportant application  ApplicationApplication  Microprocessors are typically used in eitherMicroprocessors are typically used in either reactivereactive oror embeddedembedded systems.systems.  Reactive systemsReactive systems are those that have an ongoing interactionare those that have an ongoing interaction with their environment - for example, a fire-control systemwith their environment - for example, a fire-control system that constantly reacts to buttons pressed by a pilot.that constantly reacts to buttons pressed by a pilot.  Real-time systemsReal-time systems are those in which timeliness is asare those in which timeliness is as important as the correctness of the outputs, althoughimportant as the correctness of the outputs, although this does NOT mean that they have to be fast�this does NOT mean that they have to be fast� systems .�systems .�
  20. 20. ConclusonConcluson VHDL is a hardware description language for delineatingVHDL is a hardware description language for delineating digital electronic systems. It arose out of the USdigital electronic systems. It arose out of the US government's Very High Speed Integrated Circuitsgovernment's Very High Speed Integrated Circuits (VHSIC) program(VHSIC) program VHDL is now used worldwide as a tool for designingVHDL is now used worldwide as a tool for designing digital systems in many application areas. VHDL isdigital systems in many application areas. VHDL is designed to fill a number of needs in the design flowdesigned to fill a number of needs in the design flow A 16 bit microprocessor so called MIB 16 is designedA 16 bit microprocessor so called MIB 16 is designed using VHDL and also implemented on Xilinx .Simulationusing VHDL and also implemented on Xilinx .Simulation and implementation tools used are Xilinx ISE 6.3i andand implementation tools used are Xilinx ISE 6.3i and model siThere were some limitations encountered duringmodel siThere were some limitations encountered during the uploading and testing of the processor due tothe uploading and testing of the processor due to evolution capacity and limitationevolution capacity and limitation

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