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HOT
&
DRY CLIMATE
Submitted by-
Sumit Ranjan
Yuvraj Chopra
Sumit Kumar
Sonam Yadav
Swati Raina
Submitted to-
Jaspreet Kaur
introduction
According to a recent code of bureau of Indian standards, the country may be divided into five major
climatic...
Hot & Dry regions: Ahmedabad, Rajasthan, North Africa, Kutch, Pakistan, etc.
• Orientation and placement, to
minimize sun ...
outdoor planning
Outdoor spaces:
• As most day-to-day activities take place outside, it is
important to treat the external...
settlement planning
• Topography, to enhance the efficiency of passive
means
• Orientation, to reduce the sun exposure in
...
OVERVIEW OF DESIGN PRINCIPLES..
• Courtyard or Patio
• White Colored walls (“cool” colours reduce heat reflection )
• Arra...
HOT & DRY CLIMATE
The main points:
• Orientation and placement, to minimize sun exposure in summer.
• Form, compact to red...
Wind orientation
• Main walls and windows should face the wind
direction in order to allow maximum cross-ventilation
of th...
Building material
• Sun-dried earth bricks one of the poorest conductors
of heat.
• Traditionally constructed with thick w...
Opening and windows
• Openings and windows are necessary for natural
lighting and ventilation.
• More windows should be pr...
Roofs
• The flat roof is a good reflector and re-radiates
heat efficiently, especially if it consists of a solid,
white pa...
Passive cooling
• Cooling can be achieved by the evaporation of
water.
• The courtyard is provided with water and plants, ...
Stack effect
• Outlets at higher levels serve to vent hot air. Ventilators are preferred at higher levels as they help in
...
Other features
• Colors that absorb less heat should be used to paint the external surface.
• Darker shades should be avoi...
Elements of Vernacular Architecture
For different Hot-Dry Regions around the world
Main Objective:
the common basic functi...
2.Trulli House, South Italy
•the huge massive stone is usually joint to a big basin to collect rainwater used to
decrease ...
3. Arabic House
•the climate is so dry, the temperature range is so high, there’s a strong solar radiation and the winds c...
The whole design is focused
around the central square-
shaped patio: an empty
space where all the
rooms face to.
Around th...
1. NIGHT: the cool air comes down in the court and goes inside each room that face to
it. The flat roof and the thick wall...
BUNGHA HOUSE
“Architecture without Architects”
•A circular space enclosed by mud walls is the most typical dwelling
construction in the Kutch district of the Gujarat sta...
•typically found in flat terrain.
•do not share common walls
with adjacent buildings.
(the typical distance from a
neighbo...
The different spaces (for
men & women-children) are
not interconnected.
A horizontal clay
platform about 50
cm high, is a ...
The thick walls, made of mud, keep the interior cool
when the temperature rises to 40 degrees Celsius in
summer and warm w...
PLAN
•Due to circular shape of
wall in plan, inertial forces
developed in wall are
resisted through shell
action providing...
•a very unique aspect of traditional desert architecture in which the size, location
and orientation of the Bungha are pla...
T h a n k y o u !
vernacular architecture in Hot and dry climate
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vernacular architecture in Hot and dry climate

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vernacular architecture in Hot and dry climate

  1. 1. HOT & DRY CLIMATE
  2. 2. Submitted by- Sumit Ranjan Yuvraj Chopra Sumit Kumar Sonam Yadav Swati Raina Submitted to- Jaspreet Kaur
  3. 3. introduction According to a recent code of bureau of Indian standards, the country may be divided into five major climatic zones. • Hot and dry (mean monthly temperature >30 and relatively humidity <55%). • Warm and humid (mean monthly temperature >25-30 and relatively humidity <55-75%). • Cold and dry (mean monthly temperature <25 and relatively humidity- all values). • Composite (this applies, when six months or more do not fall within any of the other categories).
  4. 4. Hot & Dry regions: Ahmedabad, Rajasthan, North Africa, Kutch, Pakistan, etc. • Orientation and placement, to minimize sun exposure in summer. • Form, compact to reduce surface areas of heat gain. • Shade, for maximum sun protection in summer. • Allow adequate heat gain in winter by movable shading devices. • Ventilation, for regulation of air movement
  5. 5. outdoor planning Outdoor spaces: • As most day-to-day activities take place outside, it is important to treat the external spaces just as carefully as the indoors. • Adjacent buildings, pavements, roads heat up quickly and cause a glare onto the building during the day and at night, they radiate the heat stored during the day. • One way to avoid this is to place walls protecting external spaces, to keep out dust and winds. • Also, landscaping like trees, plants and water in enclosed spaces will cool the air by evaporation. • But the best solution is courtyards. In these a pool of night air is retained, as this is heavier than surrounding warm air • A small courtyard is excellent as a thermal regulator. Courtyard design with evaporative cooling
  6. 6. settlement planning • Topography, to enhance the efficiency of passive means • Orientation, to reduce the sun exposure in summer. • Air movement, to provide ample ventilation in summer and protect from winds in winter. • Form, to design compact settlements for mutual protection • Hazards, to avoid dangerous sites Typical settlement for hot-dry regions
  7. 7. OVERVIEW OF DESIGN PRINCIPLES.. • Courtyard or Patio • White Colored walls (“cool” colours reduce heat reflection ) • Arrangement of the houses in is very closely packed to each other. • Vegetation (reduces the temperature, filter’s the dust in • and around the house, elevates the humidity level may reduce as well as increase the wind speed) • small openings • double roof or white single roof • thick walls • big basin to collect rainwater • louvered windows • pergolas • a water body
  8. 8. HOT & DRY CLIMATE The main points: • Orientation and placement, to minimize sun exposure in summer. • Form, compact to reduce surface areas of heat gain. • Shade, for maximum sun protection in summer. • Allow adequate heat gain in winter by movable shading devices. • Ventilation, for regulation of air movement. Sun orientation • west orientation is the worst • The larger building dimension should face north and south
  9. 9. Wind orientation • Main walls and windows should face the wind direction in order to allow maximum cross-ventilation of the rooms. • To reduce the effect of hot dusty winds, the leeward side of the house is better. Room arrangement • 1. Bedrooms-on the east side. • 2. Living rooms-on the north or south side.
  10. 10. Building material • Sun-dried earth bricks one of the poorest conductors of heat. • Traditionally constructed with thick walls and roofs and with very small openings walls • Walls of daytime living areas should be made of heat- storing materials. • East and west walls should preferably be shaded. • Double walls with insulation in between are a suitable solution.
  11. 11. Opening and windows • Openings and windows are necessary for natural lighting and ventilation. • More windows should be provided in the north facade of the building as compared to the east, west and south as it receives lesser radiation throughout the year. • Windows should be shaded either by shading devices, roof overhangs or by deciduous trees. • The size of the windows on the west and east sides should be minimized in order to reduce heat gains into the house in the early morning and late afternoon.
  12. 12. Roofs • The flat roof is a good reflector and re-radiates heat efficiently, especially if it consists of a solid, white painted material. • High solid parapet walls along the edge of the roof can on the one hand provide daytime shade and privacy. • The principle involved is to catch an unobstructed breeze at a high level and channel it to areas in the bottom parts of the building. Natural ventilation
  13. 13. Passive cooling • Cooling can be achieved by the evaporation of water. • The courtyard is provided with water and plants, it acts as a cooling source. • Internal courtyards provides cross ventilation & natural cooling. • Most openings are to the internal courtyard rather than exterior surface. Courtyard
  14. 14. Stack effect • Outlets at higher levels serve to vent hot air. Ventilators are preferred at higher levels as they help in throwing out the hot air.
  15. 15. Other features • Colors that absorb less heat should be used to paint the external surface. • Darker shades should be avoided for surfaces exposed to direct solar radiation. • The surface of the roof can be of white broken glazed tiles. • During the day-time openings should be closed and shaded. • Decreasing the surface of the building exposed to the outside. • Using materials that take a longer time to heat up.-Providing buffer spaces (lobbies, etc.) between the living areas and the outside.
  16. 16. Elements of Vernacular Architecture For different Hot-Dry Regions around the world Main Objective: the common basic function is to protect the structure from weather conditions 1. Mediterrean House •Walls made in raw earth bricks, cooked bricks, stone or tuff. 50 cm - 100 cm thick walls accordingly to the construction materials. •Roof characterized by light wood structure, more often in bricks and lime. •Closed volumes, few and little windows. •There isn’t roof projection, but often there are stairs outside to reach the flat terraced roof. Region around the Mediterrean sea, like in Greece, South Italy, Spain & South France
  17. 17. 2.Trulli House, South Italy •the huge massive stone is usually joint to a big basin to collect rainwater used to decrease of 6-7°C the interior temperature in summer. •This allows the natural ventilation through the dome holes and is improved by the white color of the exterior surface made in lime
  18. 18. 3. Arabic House •the climate is so dry, the temperature range is so high, there’s a strong solar radiation and the winds can transport huge amount of dust and sand. The architecture design was developed following tradition, culture, religion and climate answers. The features are: •building shape •wall typologies •interior spaces distribution openings •ventilation and cooling systems
  19. 19. The whole design is focused around the central square- shaped patio: an empty space where all the rooms face to. Around the patio often there are porches on one or more sides and one or more stored.
  20. 20. 1. NIGHT: the cool air comes down in the court and goes inside each room that face to it. The flat roof and the thick walls also improve the cooling system. 2. AFTERNOON: the sun directly heat the walls that face to the court. The air heats and goes up providing for the natural ventilation. The court works as a chimney. The massive walls and doors protect the interior spaces from the direct solar radiation. 3. EVENING: the air is so hot and the court door heats creating a natural air flow from the rooms that face to it through the patio. The last cool air goes out from the rooms in the evening, but also the shadows are longer and quickly the court is protected from the radiation. To improve these passive systems they usually fix a wet curtain on the court and a fountain in the middle.
  21. 21. BUNGHA HOUSE “Architecture without Architects”
  22. 22. •A circular space enclosed by mud walls is the most typical dwelling construction in the Kutch district of the Gujarat state & Rajasthan in India, which has a very high earthquake risk, is called a Bungha. Materials used 1. Stone 2. wood 3. Bamboo 4. burnt brick masonry either in mud mortar or in cement mortar. 5. Straw Characteristics •consists of a single cylindrically shaped room. •has a conical roof supported by cylindrical walls. •inner diameter of the Bungha is between 3m to 10m. •has only three openings one door and two small windows. •construction has existed for several hundred years. •This house is quite durable and highly appropriate for hot & dry conditions. •The entire construction process, which is carried out by the mason with very few unskilled laborers, can be completed within 30 days.
  23. 23. •typically found in flat terrain. •do not share common walls with adjacent buildings. (the typical distance from a neighboring building is 3m) Gives protection from Rain Solar radiation Cracks Earthquake Wind circular design and the mesh of mud plaster and twigs make them resist any wind pressure and quake.
  24. 24. The different spaces (for men & women-children) are not interconnected. A horizontal clay platform about 50 cm high, is a way to avoid rainfalls inside the house Circular spaces are the main living zones, rectangular spaces are for secondary functions, like cooking cleaning and storing. They are smaller and not so strong. They do not resist very well to earthquakes or cracks.
  25. 25. The thick walls, made of mud, keep the interior cool when the temperature rises to 40 degrees Celsius in summer and warm when it beam and posts drops to 10 degrees in winter. The roof is made of wooden top dome where bamboo sticks are fixed with a thick layer of grass put on roof and tied together. The walls can not bear the wood beam of the roof, which runs across the space diagonally and rests on two wooden posts. The beam is often kept exposed outside the circular wall.
  26. 26. PLAN •Due to circular shape of wall in plan, inertial forces developed in wall are resisted through shell action providing excellent resistance to lateral forces. •wall is extended below ground up to the required foundation depth, and separate foundation is not traditionally constructed. •The construction technique is such a way that improves seismic resistance of the inertia force generated in the roof
  27. 27. •a very unique aspect of traditional desert architecture in which the size, location and orientation of the Bungha are planned for very good structural and functional results. The ``modern’’ version had given a go by to traditional architecture replacing the twigs of the `babul’ trees with stones.
  28. 28. T h a n k y o u !

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