• Components of essential newborn care
• Elaboration of each component
• Recognitions minor physical peculiarities and
• Discharge and follow up
• Key message
• Birth- crucial period of transition from in utero dependent life to
extra utero independent existence
• Effective care reduce neonatal mortality and morbidity
• Neonatal period – first 28
days of life •
• Perinatal period – 22 weeks
of gestation to 7 days after
• Early Neonate –birth to first 7
days of life
• Late Neonate –after 7 days –
28 days of lif
• Term – baby born after 37
completed weeks upto 42
completed weeks of
• Preterm – baby born before
37 completed weeks of
6. NORMAL NEONATE
• Birth weight > 2500 g
• Gestation > 37 weeks
• Birth weight between 10th to 90th percentiles on a standard intrauterine
• No need of resuscitation at birth
• Absence of maternal illness or any adverse intrapartum event
• No postnatal illness such as respiratory distress, sepsis, hypoglycemia or
polycythemia or requiring admission in neonatal unit
7. COMPONENTS OF ESSENTIAL NEWBORN CARE AT BIRTH
• Immediate basic care
• Prevention of hypothermia
• Establishment of breast feeding
• Postnatal care
• Prevention of infection
• Detection of danger signs
8. CARE AT BIRTH
• Proper newborn corner -in delivery room (DR) and maternity
operation theatre (MOT).
• Go through maternal history ( any chronic illness, any
• Anticipate high risk newborn
• Trained health personnel should present before delivery
• Attending personnel should document the baby details (time of birth,
weight, gender and any other relevant information in all cases)
9. NEWBORN CORNER
Functional radiant warmer
• Basic resuscitation equipment of various sizes
• Bag & mask
• Laryngoscope ( size 0,1,2)
• Electrical or central suction device
• Oxygen supply
• Autoclaved linen (at least 3 prewarm towels)
• Single use suction catheters (10,12 Fr)
• Feeding tubes,
• Endotracheal tubes,
• Syringes, needles etc and drugs(adrenaline,
10. 5C- ASEPSIS CONCEPT OF ‘CLEAN CHAIN’
• Clean hands – wear gloves
• Clean surface- clean and sterile towel to dry and cover the baby
• Clean cord-cut umbilical cord by a clean & sterile blade/scissor
• Clean tie/thread for cord
• Do not apply anything to the cord.
• Universal precaution should be apply in every delivery
Government of India-1993. Child Survival and Safe Motherhood programme- India. New Delhi: Ministry of Health
and Family Welfare.
11. IMMEDIATE CARE AT BIRTH
• Establish- airway, breathing, circulation, temperature
• receive baby in pre-warm linen
• Clamp cord by sterile
• Gender identification by mother
• Take anthropometry, wipe baby and transfer to another pre-
• Foot print on paper, identification tag to baby
• Vitamin K, immunization
• clothing of baby and put under radiant warmer/ rooming in with
12. TIMING AND METHOD OF UMBILICAL CORD
CUTTING & CLAMPING
• Should be clamped after birth at 1- 3mins (FBNC)
• Tie cord with a clean thread, rubber band or a sterile cord clamp ,
clamp should be applied 2-3 cm away from the base, stump should be
away from genitalia.
• The stump should be free of any application (antiseptic etc.)
13. APGAR SCORE
• Apgar score should be recorded at 1 and 5 min.
• Apgar score has a limited value for initiating stabilization and
prediction of subsequent outcomes.
• However it does predict mortality on short term and help defining the
need for nursery admission
Each infant must have an identity band
with mother’s name, hospital regn.no.,
gender and date & time of birth,
birth wt. of infant.
If footprints of baby is taken, quality of print should be good and hygiene to
be maintained. The footprints should always be taken on the mothers case
15. IDENTIFICATION OF SICK NEONATES
•Babies with Birthweight < 1800 g
•Babies with major congenital malformations
•Babies with asphyxia (Needing post-resuscitation care)
•Babies with breathing difficulty
16. CLEANING THE BABY
• All infants should be cleaned at birth with a
clean, sterile cloth to remove blood clots and/or
meconium on the body.
• NO attempt to remove vernix from the body by
any means, as it can result in trauma to skin
17. WEIGHT RECORDING
• All infants should be weighed at least within one hour
of birth on a scale with at least 5 gm sensitivity.
• The weighing scale must be periodically calibrated.
• Single-use paper towel or a sterile cloth towel should
be placed on the weighing scale beneath the infant.
18. VITAMIN K, IMMUNIZATION
• Vitamin K should be administered IM on the antero-lateral aspect of
the thigh using a 26 gauze needle (1/2inch) and 1ml syringe.
• Dose to be used is 0.5 mg for babies weighing less than 1000 g and 1.0
mg for those weighing above a 1000 gm at birth
• Birth dose of BCG, OPV, hepB
19. PREVENTION OF HYPOTHERMIA
• Provision of warmth to prevent hypothermia is one of the cardinal principles of
• Can lead to-
• hypoglycemia, bleeding diathesis,
• pulmonary hemorrhage, acidosis, apnea,
• respiratory failure, shock
• and even death.
21. MEASUREMENT OF TEMPERATURE
• Axillary temp. routinely recommended.
• safe, hygienic and ease for early detection of hypothermia.
• Rectal temp—
• Recorded in mod. to severe hypothermia.
• Measures core temp.
• Carries risk of perforation.
• The core– peripheral temp. difference of more than 3.5º suggests sepsis.
23. TEMP. MAINTENANCE-CONCEPT OF ‘WARM CHAIN’
“Warm chain” is a set of ten interlinked procedures carried out at birth
and later, which will minimize hypothermia in all newborns.
• Warm delivery room (26-28 deg celsius)
• Warm resuscitation
• Immediate drying
• Skin-to-skin contact between baby and the mother
• Bathing and weighing postponed
• Appropriate clothing and bedding
• Mother and baby together
• Warm transportation
• Training/awareness-raising of healthcare provider
24. PREVENTION OF HYPOTHERMIA-IN DR
• The delivery room should be warm (at least 26-28⁰c) and free from
draft of air
• Warmer on for at least 20 mins.
• Infant should be received in a pre-warmed sterile linen sheet.
• Dried thoroughly including the head and face areas.
• Wet linen should not be allowed to remain in contact with infant.
• Infant should be placed in skin-to-skin (STS) contact with mother
immediately after birth (on abdomen)
25. INITIATION OF BREASTFEEDING
When to start
• Should be initiated at the earliest possible time irrespective of mode of
• With-in half an hour in normal delivery, within 1 hour in cesarean
Position of mother
• Any position in which mother is comfortable
26. CONCEPT OF GOLDEN HOUR
By the end of first hour the following should have been taken
• maintenance of body temperature
• breast feeding
• administration of Vit K
• admission procedures (Post natal ward or SCNU)
27. KANGAROO MOTHER CARE (KMC)
• Technique used in LBW babies wherein the neonate is held, skin-to-skin, with
mother or any other adult caretaker.
• Should be given to all these babies whenever and wherever possible for maximum
duration of time (and at least 1 hour)
KMC helps in
(1) Better thermal protection of neonates
(2) Increasing milk production
(3) Increasing the exclusive breastfeeding rates.
(4) Reducing respiratory tract and nosocomial infections
(5) Improving weight of the baby
(6) Improving emotional bonding and
(7) Reducing hospital stay.
• Precaution during K M C—
• Duration– each session at least one hour, provided for as
long as possible
• Encourage feeding in kangaroo position.
• K M C can be used at all levels of care to prevent
hypothermia in LBW babies
30. KMC – THE MOTHER
ANY PARENT CAN DO IT. THEIR AGE, NUMBER OF CHILDREN, EDUCATION, CULTURAL
BACKGROUND, RELIGION AND SOCIAL POSITION ARE NOT IMPORTANT.
SHE MUST BE WILLING TO DO IT.
SHE MUST BE AVAILABLE ALL THE TIME TO PROVIDE THE CARE NEEDED.
HER GENERAL HEALTH MUST BE GOOD.
SHE HAS TO BE NEAR THE BABY AND HOSPITAL TO START KANGAROO MOTHER CARE
WHEN HER BABY IS READY.
SHE NEEDS A SUPPORTIVE FAMILY AND COMMUNITY.
31. WHEN TO START KMC – THE BABY
The baby must be able to breathe on its own.
The baby must be free of life-threatening disease or
The ability to coordinate sucking and swallowing is not essential,
other methods of feeding can be used until the baby can
Kangaroo mother care can begin at birth, after initial assessment
and any basic resuscitation.
32. ROOMING IN
• No indication for separating a normal infant from the mother for
routine observation in nursery, irrespective of mode of delivery.
• During initial couple of hours after birth, infants are awake & very
active (utilized for bonding and initiation of breastfeeding).
33. CLINICAL SCREENING FOR MALFORMATION
• Inspect the cut end of the cord for number of vessels - Two umbilical
arteries and one umbilical vein.
• Examine for esophageal patency
• Rule out anal atresia by inspecting the anal opening at the normal
• Examine oral cavity to exclude cleft palate.
• Examine the back for any swelling or anomaly.
35. CARE IN POST NATAL WARDS
Baby should be observed in the post natal ward at least twice daily.
• Following should be taken care of:
• Maintenance of temperature
• Exclusive breast feeding
• Cord care
• Eye care
• Evaluation for jaundice
• Passage of urine & stool
• Common developmental & physiological variations
• Danger signs
36. EXCLUSIVE BREASTFEEDING
Mother should be advised to:
On demand feeding both during day and night for atleast 15- 20 mins
One breast to be completely emptied during each feed before baby is put to the
Do not give any pre-lacteal feeds like ghutti, tea, sugar water, jaggery, honey
38. CORRECT POSITIONING :
1. Baby’s body is well supported.
2. The head, neck and the body of the baby are kept in the same plane.
3. Entire body of baby faces the mother.
4. Baby’s abdomen touches mother’s abdomen.
39. Attachment to breast
• Mouth wide open
• Chin touching the breast
• Lower lip turned outwards
• More areola visible above than below
• Infant show slow deep sucks, sometimes pausing.
• If not sucking well, then look for ulcers and white patches in the mouth
40. SIGNS OF GOOD
the areola is
baby’s mouth is
lower lip is curled
Poor attachment results in-
Pain or damage to nipple leading
to sore nipples.
Poor milk supply hence baby is
not satisfied and irritable after
Mother produces less milk
resulting in a frustrated baby
who refuses to suck. This leads
to poor weight gain.
41. CORD CARE
• Umbilical stump should be kept dry and devoid of any
• Bleeding may occur due to shrinkage of cord and loosening of
• The nappy should be folded well below the umbilical stump.
• Umbilical discharge/ redness/sepsis
42. EYE CARE
• Eyes of the infant must be cleaned with a sterile swab
soaked in normal saline or sterile water.
• Clean from inner to outer canthus and use a separate
swab for each eye.
43. OIL APPLICATION
• Oil application is a low cost traditional practice well
ingrained in Indian culture.
• Prevent heat loss in preterm baby
• However, a paucity of data still exists as to what oil
should be used for this purpose .
• Routine bathing in the hospital should be avoided in
view of risks of cross infection and hypothermia.
• The infant can be sponged, as required. Infant can be
bathed at home once discharged from the hospital.
45. • Traditional practices like kajal, surma , putting oil in ears,
giving prelacteal feeds like honey, sugar water should be
• No use of any powder, baby cream
• Healthy newborns should be made to sleep on their
46. WEIGHT RECORD
• Healthy term babies lose weight during the first 2 to 3 days of life (up to 5 to
10 % of the BW)
• Weight remains stationary during next 1-2 days and birth weight is regained
by the end of first week.
• Delayed feeding and unsatisfactory feeding schedule-excessive weight loss.
• Pre terms experience 2-3% weight loss daily up to a maximum of 10-15%.
Any weight loss >5% in a 24-hour period is abnormal. Preterm newborn
should regain birth weight by 10-14 days of age.
• The average daily weight gain in term babies is around 20-30 g/ day
• Many normal babies regurgitate or spit out some amount of milk-
regurgitation or vomiting .
• Seen soon after feeds
• Due to faulty technique of feeding and aerophagy.
• Proper advice regarding feeding and burping, must be imparted to all
• If the vomiting is persistent, projectile, or bile stained, the baby should
be further investigated.
48. STOOL PATTERN
• Any baby who has not passed meconium for 24 hrs after birth needs to be
• Transitional stools
• passed on the third and fourth day after birth.
• Frequency is increased
• Often semi-loose and greenish-yellow.
• settles within 48-72 hours.
• Baby continues to feed well and there is no need for treatment.
49. STOOL PATTERN…..
• Breast fed babies pass frequent golden yellow, sticky, semi loose stools
• Many pass stools while being fed or soon after a feed- exaggerated
gastrocolic reflex ,may persist for a couple of weeks. If weight gain is
satisfactory, mother should be reassured.
• The increased frequency of breast milk stools is normal
• Some breastfed babies may pass stools infrequently (once every few
days). This is not constipation.
• Formula fed babies generally have more formed stools
50. EXCESSIVE CRY
• Babies cry when they are hungry or in discomfort.
• Discomfort due to sensation of a full bladder before passing urine,
painful evacuation of hard stools or mere soiling by urine and
• Persistent crying needs examination and detailed evaluation for
inflammatory conditions and other causes.
51. DANGER SIGNS
• Difficulty in feeding
• Lethargy (movement only when stimulated)
• Fast breathing (respiratory rate of >60/min)
• Severe chest in drawing
• Temperature > 37.50 C or < 36.5 C
• Bleeding from any site,
• Appearance of jaundice within 24 hours of age or yellow staining of palms or soles
52. DANGER SIGNS
• Failure to pass meconium within 24 hours or urine within 48 hours
• Persistent vomiting
• Poor feeding
• Excessive crying
• Drooling of saliva or choking during feeding
• Respiratory difficulty, apneic attacks or cyanosis
• Sudden rise or fall in body temperature
• Evidence of superficial infections such as conjunctivitis, pustules, umbilical
sepsis(redness at base of the stump and discharge), oral thrush, etc.
53. EVALUATION OF JAUNDICE
• All infants must be examined for the development and
severity of jaundice twice a day for first few days of life.
• Visual assessment in daylight.
54. CLINICAL CRITERIA TO ASSESS JAUNDICE
• Face 4-6
• Upper trunk 6-8
• Lower trunk & thighs 8-12
• Arms & lower legs 12-14
• Palms & soles >15
56. MONGOLIAN SPOTS
• Blue to blue-black macules occur anywhere on the
body, mostly on the back and buttocks
• Caused by the deposition of melanin.
• Usually disappear within 6 months – 2 years
57. ERYTHEMA TOXICUM
• Erythematous rash with a central pallor
• Begins on face and spreads down to the trunk and
extremities in about 24 hours.
• Differentiated from pustules which need treatment.
• Disappears spontaneously after two to three days.
• The exact cause is not known
• Usually develop 2 – 3 days after birth .
• Spares palms and soles.
• Lesions seem to migrate by disappearing
within Hrs and then reappearing elsewhere.
• Multiple 1- to 2-mm yellowish white cystic lesions
• Affect 40% of newborns
• found most commonly over the cheeks ,forehead,
nose, and nasolabial folds due to blocked sebaceous
• Resolve spontaneously
59. EPSTEIN PEARLS
These are white spots, usually one on either side
of the median raphe of the hard palate. Similar
lesions may be seen on the prepuce. They are of
61. CAPUT SUCCEDANEUM AND CEPHALHEMATOMA
Indicators Caput succedaneum Cephalhematoma
Location Presenting part of the head Periosteum of skull bone
Character soft, puffy, scalp swelling firm, scalp swelling with
Time of Onset present at birth Appears after 24 to 48 hours
both hemispheres; crosses the
individual bone; does not cross
the suture lines
First week Few weeks to months
Treatment None Supportive
62. NORMAL PEELING
• Dry skin with peeling and exaggerated transverse sole creases is seen in all
postterm and some term babies
• Usually occurs after 24-36 hours
• Will resolve spontaneously and does not need any creams, oil, ointment or
• Excessive peeling is seen in pathological conditions like
placental dysfunction,congenital syphilis and candidiasis SSSS.
63. SUCKING CALLOSITIES
• Button like, cornified plaques over centre
of upper lip
• no significance
• Friction of repeated sucking
• Resolves spontaneously
64. STAPHYLOCOCCAL PUSTULOSIS
Usually at 3-5 days
Discrete pustules with erythematous
Diaper area, periumbilical, neck,
lateral aspect of chest
More than 10 pustules is a danger
T/t- betadine cleaning
Screen for sepsis
65. SUBCONJUNCTIVAL HEMORRHAGE
• Newborns often have small, bilateral hemorrhages, presumably from the
pressure of uterine contractions
• Normal finding.
• The blood gets reabsorbed after a few days without leaving any
66. NATAL TEETH
• Erupted teeth at birth
• Usually lower incisors
( Neonatal teeth: Erupt during 1st mth)
Removed- when it affects normal
breast feeding or when the teeth are
Loose (risk of aspiration)
67. • Bilateral fullness of breasts in both sexes
• Overlying skin shows no signs of redness,
warmth or tenderness
• The condition resolves spontaneously in
days to weeks
• no intervention is required.
• high levels of maternal hormones.
68. VAGINAL BLEEDING
Menstrual like vaginal bleeding may due
occur in about ¼ female babies after 3-5 days
The bleeding is mild and lasts for 2-4 days.
Additional vit k is not needed.
Mucoid vaginal secreations
Most female babies have thin grayish white
mucoid vaginal secretions.
69. • Umbilical Hernia- manifest after
the age of two weeks or later.
disappear spontaneously by 1 or 2
• Tongue Tie- fibrous frenulum
with a notch at the tip of tongue.
does not interfere with sucking or
later speech development.
• Sacral Dimple - midline over
70. Non retractable prepuce:
• normally non retractable in all male newborn
• should not be diagnosed - phimosis .
• No forcibly retracting the foreskin.
Hymenal tags :
Mucosal tags at the margin of hymen seen in 2/3rd of female infants
71. WHEN SHOULD NORMAL NEWBORN BE
Ideally infant should be discharged after 72-96 hours once all the
following criteria are fulfilled:
• Infant is free from any illness including significant jaundice
• The infant has been immunized
• Adequacy of breastfeeding has been established.
• This must be assessed in all infants and the same would be indicated
by passage of urine at 6 to 8 times/24 hr, onset of transitional stools,
baby sleeping well for 2-3 h after feeding.
72. • Every infant should have a routine formal examination before discharge.
• Examination performed with infant naked and in optimum light in
presence of mother using a checklist
• Mother should be provided ample opportunity to ask questions and clarify
• Measure weight at discharge
73. ADVICE ON DISCHARGE
• Exclusive breast feeding
• Follow up
• Danger signs
• Difficulty in feeding
• Fast breathing
• Severe chest indrawing
• Temp >37.50C and < 35.50 C
74. FOLLOW UP
• Each baby should be followed in well baby clinic for assessment of growth and
development,early diagnosis and management of illnesses and health education
of the parents.
• It is preferable that every baby is seen and assessed by a health worker at each
• The developmental assessment should be organised both in community and the