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Shrimp, Prawn, CrayfishShrimp, Prawn, Crayfish
AquacultureAquaculture
Thailand – 200,000 MT
China – 110,000 MT
Indonesia – 100,000 MT
Ecuador – 85,000 MT
India – 70,000 MT
World harvest of far...
Shrimp Gee-WhizShrimp Gee-Whiz
• Shrimp, crabs, lobsters and crayfish all decapodsShrimp, crabs, lobsters and crayfish all...
Gulf Shrimp IdentificationGulf Shrimp Identification
• BrownBrown
– Groove on either side of spineGroove on either side of...
Penaeid Shrimp Life CyclePenaeid Shrimp Life Cycle
Shrimp have a maximum life span of about 24 months.Shrimp have a maximu...
Larval StagingLarval Staging
• Penaeid Shrimp pass through threePenaeid Shrimp pass through three
larval stageslarval stag...
Nauplii StageNauplii Stage
• Six sub-stagesSix sub-stages
– May lose 25%May lose 25%
– Nauplii sub-stagesNauplii sub-stage...
Zoeal StageZoeal Stage
• Zoea feed onZoea feed on
phytoplanktonphytoplankton
• Three zoealThree zoeal
substagessubstages
–...
Mysis StageMysis Stage
• Look like adultLook like adult
shrimpshrimp
• Begin to swimBegin to swim
backwardsbackwards
• Thr...
Post LarvaePost Larvae
• Postlarvae (PL)Postlarvae (PL)
– PL1: one day PLPL1: one day PL
• 0.0008 g/PL10.0008 g/PL1
– PL 2...
Larval FeedingLarval Feeding
ZoeaZoea
• IsochrysisIsochrysis
– Brown algaeBrown algae
– (3-5(3-5 µµm)m)
• ChaetocerosChaet...
Larval FeedingLarval Feeding
MysisMysis
• Feed large algaeFeed large algae
cells early oncells early on
• Switch to artemi...
Larval FeedingLarval Feeding
PostlarvaePostlarvae
• ArtemiaArtemia
– 6/ml at PL46/ml at PL4
decreasing to 0 bydecreasing t...
General Shrimp Farming ConceptsGeneral Shrimp Farming Concepts
• Marine shrimp are grown in earthenMarine shrimp are grown...
Farm LocationFarm Location
• Locate ponds close to good qualityLocate ponds close to good quality
brackish waterbrackish w...
Farm PermitsFarm Permits
• Construction permits from CorpsConstruction permits from Corps
of Engineersof Engineers
• Aquac...
Farming StrategiesFarming Strategies
• ExtensiveExtensive
– Large pondsLarge ponds
– Low stocking densitiesLow stocking de...
Pond ConstructionPond Construction
• Ponds range in size from 1-10 acresPonds range in size from 1-10 acres
• 4-7 feet dee...
Gulf and Inland Shrimp SpeciesGulf and Inland Shrimp Species
• FoodFood
– Western white shrimpWestern white shrimp
• Penae...
StockingStocking
• Stock with post larvalStock with post larval
shrimp (PL)shrimp (PL)
– ½ inch in length½ inch in length
...
ManagementManagement
• Fertilize ponds prior to stockingFertilize ponds prior to stocking
• Feed good quality shrimp feedF...
HarvestHarvest
• Harvest in OctoberHarvest in October
• 22-36 count22-36 count
• Drain and seineDrain and seine
pondsponds...
Common ProblemsCommon Problems
• Shortage of PLsShortage of PLs
• Shrimp virusesShrimp viruses
Commonly Cultured MarineCommonly Cultured Marine
ShrimpShrimp
• Penaeus merguiensisPenaeus merguiensis – Banana prawn– Ban...
Shrimp SpeciesShrimp Species
• Giant Tiger Prawn (Giant Tiger Prawn (Penaeus monodonPenaeus monodon))
– Named for its huge...
Penaeus monodonPenaeus monodon
Black Tiger PrawnBlack Tiger Prawn
Shrimp SpeciesShrimp Species
• Western White Shrimp (Western White Shrimp (Penaeus vannameiPenaeus vannamei))
– Native to ...
Litopenaeus vannameiLitopenaeus vannamei
Pacific White ShrimpPacific White Shrimp
Shrimp SpeciesShrimp Species
• Chinese White ShrimpChinese White Shrimp (Penaeus chinensis(Penaeus chinensis))
– Native to...
Shrimp SpeciesShrimp Species
• Freshwater Prawns (Freshwater Prawns (Macrobrachium sppMacrobrachium spp.).)
– World produc...
Shrimp...Shrimp...
• Brown shrimp (Brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus aztecusFarfantepenaeus aztecus))
– Found in Atlantic and ...
More SpeciesMore Species
• White (Atlantic) shrimpWhite (Atlantic) shrimp
((Litopenaeus setiferusLitopenaeus setiferus))
–...
Shrimp SpeciesShrimp Species
• Pink shrimpPink shrimp
((Farfantepenaeus duorarumFarfantepenaeus duorarum))
– Found in Atla...
Broodstock PerformanceBroodstock Performance
• 40 g females, 35 g males40 g females, 35 g males
• Daily spawning rate (nat...
Specific Pathogen FreeSpecific Pathogen Free
• White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV)White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV)
• Taura Sy...
Pond DesignPond Design
• 1 to 25 A in size1 to 25 A in size
• Silt soilSilt soil
• Good water sourceGood water source
– Sa...
Pond PreparationPond Preparation
Levels of Pond CultureLevels of Pond Culture
ExtensiveExtensive Semi-Semi-
intensiveintensive
IntensiveIntensive Super-Sup...
Water Quality for Growout PondsWater Quality for Growout Ponds
• Temperature:Temperature: >> 68F68F
• Salinity: 0.5 - 35 p...
Aeration!!!Aeration!!!
Potential Pond ProductionPotential Pond Production
• 1500-3000 lbs/A1500-3000 lbs/A
– Low salinity 0 – 2000 lbs/A (Mean 65...
Biosecure Zero ExchangeBiosecure Zero Exchange
SystemSystem
BioZEST System in ArizonaBioZEST System in Arizona
Acclimation to Low SalinityAcclimation to Low Salinity
SalinitySalinity
Change (PPT)Change (PPT)
TimeTime
(hrs)(hrs)
Chang...
Marketing ShrimpMarketing Shrimp
• Price ranges from $1-4/lb heads on orPrice ranges from $1-4/lb heads on or
$4-10/lb tai...
Culture of
Marine Shrimp
By
Leonard Lovshin
Department of Fisheries and
Allied Aquaculture
Auburn University, AL 36849
USA
Major Culture Species
Pacific white shrimp
Peneaus vannamei
Pacific tiger shrimp
Peneaus monodon
Native Range
P. vannamei
P. monodon
Pacific white shrimp biology
Food habits – benthic organizms, detritus
Preferred water temperatures – 25 to 30o
C
Prefe...
Life Cycle
Adults spawn at
sea, the eggs and
larvae drift to
inshore estuaries
where the
juveniles grow.
Adults move back
...
Marine shrimp have
been harvested from
coastal waters,
processed and
shipped as frozen
product for many
years. Shrimp
farm...
Shrimp postlarvae can be
captured from the wild
Push nets
Shrimp postlarvae can be produced in
hatcheries Nauplii stage
Zoea stage
Mysis
stage
Mature adults for spawning
in hatcheries are captured
from the ocean or raised in
captivity.
Ocean
captivity broodstock
Wild and hatchery
produced postlarvae
are stocked into
earthen ponds for
grow-out
Ponds should be
built on salt
flats, which are
covered during
high tide twice a
month.
Mangrove forest
should be
preserved...
Ponds are 5 to 10 ha in area, water
depth averages 1 m and bottoms are flat
and slope to a drain to aid shrimp
harvest.
Ponds are
filled with
saltwater
pumped from
estuaries into
canals that
distribute
water to
every pond.
diesel pumps
Drain
structures are
“monks” or
sluice gates
which control
water level, top
or bottom water
release and
keep shrimp
from e...
Shrimp can be cultured:
1.Extensively
2.Semi-intensively
3.Intensively
Postlarvae enter
the pond with the
tide or are stocked
at < 4/m3
.
Sometimes the
pond entrance is
screened to limit
entran...
Semi-intensive culture
Postlarvae are stocked into ponds at 15
to 25/m3
and are fed daily. Some water
exchange is practice...
Shrimp are fed sinking
pellets which are
distributed over the
pond surface. Feeding
trays are sometimes
used to help deter...
Intensive Culture
Shrimp are
stocked at 35
-250/m2
in tanks
and small ponds
with heavy
aeration and
water exchange.
Ponds are fed daily
Shrimp are
sampled weekly
to check growth
rate
Intensive Culture
Expansion of
pond area leads to
poor water
quality and high
shrimp mortality
Water intake pipes
and effluent
release in Ta...
Diseases have reduced the shrimp
harvest in many countries.
Black-spot disease
Taura virus
Shrimp are benthic animals and live on the
pond bottom. Pond bottoms should be dried
to oxidize organic matter in pond mud...
Shrimp are harvested as they pass
through the sluice gate during pond
draining.
Yields are:
1.Extensive – 500 kg/ha/crop
2. Semi-intensive – 1,000 to 1,500
kg/ha/crop
3. Intensive – 10,000 to 20,000
kg/...
Shrimp are transported to processors
that freeze the whole or deheaded
shrimp in blocks of water by size.
Most cultured shrimp is exported to the
U. S., Europe and Japan.
capture
74%
aquaculture
26%
3,081 mmt
1,087 mmt
The harvest of marine shrimp by wild
capture and aquaculture in 2000
World harvest of farmed marine
shrimp in 2000 was 1,087,111 MT
Ecuador
81000 MT
India
73,000 MT
China
114,000 MT
Thailand
...
The East produced 90% of the
world farmed marine shrimp
while the West produced 10 %.
Harvest of marine shrimp in the U. S.
in 1999 was 2,098 MT, less than 0.2 %
of world harvest.
Excellent markets and
ease of culture has made
shrimp one of the fastest
growing aquaculture
industries during the
past 20...
Lecture 9 crustaceans 2 shrimp and prawn
Lecture 9 crustaceans 2 shrimp and prawn
Lecture 9 crustaceans 2 shrimp and prawn
Lecture 9 crustaceans 2 shrimp and prawn
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Lecture 9 crustaceans 2 shrimp and prawn

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Lecture 9 crustaceans 2 shrimp and prawn

  1. 1. Shrimp, Prawn, CrayfishShrimp, Prawn, Crayfish AquacultureAquaculture
  2. 2. Thailand – 200,000 MT China – 110,000 MT Indonesia – 100,000 MT Ecuador – 85,000 MT India – 70,000 MT World harvest of farmed/wild marineWorld harvest of farmed/wild marine shrimp in 2006 was 6.6 million MT!shrimp in 2006 was 6.6 million MT!
  3. 3. Shrimp Gee-WhizShrimp Gee-Whiz • Shrimp, crabs, lobsters and crayfish all decapodsShrimp, crabs, lobsters and crayfish all decapods (they have 10 feet)(they have 10 feet) • Hundreds of spp. found in brackish and marineHundreds of spp. found in brackish and marine • All farm-raised shrimp and most of the shrimpAll farm-raised shrimp and most of the shrimp caught by fishermen belong to the Penaeidaecaught by fishermen belong to the Penaeidae family of decapod crustaceans and are referred tofamily of decapod crustaceans and are referred to as "penaeids".as "penaeids".
  4. 4. Gulf Shrimp IdentificationGulf Shrimp Identification • BrownBrown – Groove on either side of spineGroove on either side of spine on back of headon back of head – Similar groove on the lastSimilar groove on the last body segment before thebody segment before the tail segment (A)tail segment (A) • PinkPink – Groove on either side of spineGroove on either side of spine on back of headon back of head – Similar groove on the last bodySimilar groove on the last body segment before the tail segmentsegment before the tail segment – Dark or pinkish blotch on eachDark or pinkish blotch on each side of body between carapaceside of body between carapace and tail (B)and tail (B) • WhiteWhite – No grooves on spine or lastNo grooves on spine or last segment before tail (C)segment before tail (C) A B C
  5. 5. Penaeid Shrimp Life CyclePenaeid Shrimp Life Cycle Shrimp have a maximum life span of about 24 months.Shrimp have a maximum life span of about 24 months.
  6. 6. Larval StagingLarval Staging • Penaeid Shrimp pass through threePenaeid Shrimp pass through three larval stageslarval stages – NaupliiNauplii – ZoealZoeal – MysisMysis • Postlarval (PL) follows larval stagesPostlarval (PL) follows larval stages – Look like shrimp by this stageLook like shrimp by this stage
  7. 7. Nauplii StageNauplii Stage • Six sub-stagesSix sub-stages – May lose 25%May lose 25% – Nauplii sub-stagesNauplii sub-stages take approximately 48take approximately 48 hourshours • 36-51 hour range36-51 hour range depending ondepending on temperaturetemperature – Begin feeding at N6Begin feeding at N6
  8. 8. Zoeal StageZoeal Stage • Zoea feed onZoea feed on phytoplanktonphytoplankton • Three zoealThree zoeal substagessubstages – 120 hrs120 hrs – 36-48 hrs per stage36-48 hrs per stage
  9. 9. Mysis StageMysis Stage • Look like adultLook like adult shrimpshrimp • Begin to swimBegin to swim backwardsbackwards • Three sub-Three sub- stagesstages – Each last 24 hrsEach last 24 hrs
  10. 10. Post LarvaePost Larvae • Postlarvae (PL)Postlarvae (PL) – PL1: one day PLPL1: one day PL • 0.0008 g/PL10.0008 g/PL1 – PL 20: 20 day PLPL 20: 20 day PL • 0.02 g/PL200.02 g/PL20 • Swimming seta present on pleopodsSwimming seta present on pleopods • Reared in tanks or racewaysReared in tanks or raceways • Stocked in ponds beginning aroundStocked in ponds beginning around PL15-PL20.PL15-PL20.
  11. 11. Larval FeedingLarval Feeding ZoeaZoea • IsochrysisIsochrysis – Brown algaeBrown algae – (3-5(3-5 µµm)m) • ChaetocerosChaetoceros – DiatomDiatom – (4-6(4-6 µµm)m) • TetraselmisTetraselmis • Green algaeGreen algae • (10-15(10-15 µµm)m) Isochrysis Chaetoceros Tetraselmis
  12. 12. Larval FeedingLarval Feeding MysisMysis • Feed large algaeFeed large algae cells early oncells early on • Switch to artemiaSwitch to artemia (brine shrimp) for(brine shrimp) for later stageslater stages 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Artemia/ml Late Z3-MI M I- M II MII-MIII MIII-PL
  13. 13. Larval FeedingLarval Feeding PostlarvaePostlarvae • ArtemiaArtemia – 6/ml at PL46/ml at PL4 decreasing to 0 bydecreasing to 0 by PL11PL11 • Formulated dietFormulated diet – 35% protein35% protein – 3% fat3% fat • Feeding rateFeeding rate – 200% bwt/day200% bwt/day – 50% X 4 times per50% X 4 times per dayday
  14. 14. General Shrimp Farming ConceptsGeneral Shrimp Farming Concepts • Marine shrimp are grown in earthenMarine shrimp are grown in earthen ponds located in coastal areas ofponds located in coastal areas of countries with tropical andcountries with tropical and subtropical climates.subtropical climates. • Ponds are filled with saltwaterPonds are filled with saltwater pumped from estuaries and oceans.pumped from estuaries and oceans. Small shrimp reproduced and raisedSmall shrimp reproduced and raised in captivity are stocked into thein captivity are stocked into the ponds and are ready for harvest in 90ponds and are ready for harvest in 90 to 120 days.to 120 days.
  15. 15. Farm LocationFarm Location • Locate ponds close to good qualityLocate ponds close to good quality brackish waterbrackish water – 5-30 ppt5-30 ppt – Farms can be inland if suitable aquifersFarms can be inland if suitable aquifers are availableare available • Soil should have high clay contentSoil should have high clay content – 25%25% • Water table should not be withinWater table should not be within three feet of surfacethree feet of surface
  16. 16. Farm PermitsFarm Permits • Construction permits from CorpsConstruction permits from Corps of Engineersof Engineers • Aquaculture Permits from stateAquaculture Permits from state • Local permitsLocal permits
  17. 17. Farming StrategiesFarming Strategies • ExtensiveExtensive – Large pondsLarge ponds – Low stocking densitiesLow stocking densities – Little management or investmentLittle management or investment • Semi-IntensiveSemi-Intensive – Falls in between the two extreme of intensive andFalls in between the two extreme of intensive and extensiveextensive • IntensiveIntensive – Smaller pondsSmaller ponds – AerationAeration – High stocking densitiesHigh stocking densities – FeedingFeeding
  18. 18. Pond ConstructionPond Construction • Ponds range in size from 1-10 acresPonds range in size from 1-10 acres • 4-7 feet deep4-7 feet deep • Gentle bottom slopeGentle bottom slope • Well maintained leveeWell maintained levee
  19. 19. Gulf and Inland Shrimp SpeciesGulf and Inland Shrimp Species • FoodFood – Western white shrimpWestern white shrimp • Penaeus vannameiPenaeus vannamei – Northern white shrimpNorthern white shrimp • Litopenaeus setiferusLitopenaeus setiferus – Freshwater shrimpFreshwater shrimp • Macrobrachium spp.Macrobrachium spp. • BaitBait – Brown shrimpBrown shrimp • Farfantepenaeus aztecusFarfantepenaeus aztecus
  20. 20. StockingStocking • Stock with post larvalStock with post larval shrimp (PL)shrimp (PL) – ½ inch in length½ inch in length – Stock 40,000-80,000Stock 40,000-80,000 PLs per acrePLs per acre – Havest 3,000lbs/acreaHavest 3,000lbs/acrea
  21. 21. ManagementManagement • Fertilize ponds prior to stockingFertilize ponds prior to stocking • Feed good quality shrimp feedFeed good quality shrimp feed – 35% protein35% protein – 3-5% bwt per day3-5% bwt per day • Provide aeration when necessaryProvide aeration when necessary
  22. 22. HarvestHarvest • Harvest in OctoberHarvest in October • 22-36 count22-36 count • Drain and seineDrain and seine pondsponds • Direct market or sellDirect market or sell to processorto processor
  23. 23. Common ProblemsCommon Problems • Shortage of PLsShortage of PLs • Shrimp virusesShrimp viruses
  24. 24. Commonly Cultured MarineCommonly Cultured Marine ShrimpShrimp • Penaeus merguiensisPenaeus merguiensis – Banana prawn– Banana prawn • Penaeus indicusPenaeus indicus – Indian prawn– Indian prawn • Penaeus japonicusPenaeus japonicus - Kuruma prawn- Kuruma prawn • Penaeus duorarumPenaeus duorarum – Atlantic pink shrimp– Atlantic pink shrimp • Penaeus aztecusPenaeus aztecus – Atlantic brown shrimp– Atlantic brown shrimp • Penaeus setiferousPenaeus setiferous – Atlantic white shrimp– Atlantic white shrimp • Litopenaeus vannameiLitopenaeus vannamei – Pacific white shrimp– Pacific white shrimp • Penaeus monodonPenaeus monodon – Black tiger prawn– Black tiger prawn
  25. 25. Shrimp SpeciesShrimp Species • Giant Tiger Prawn (Giant Tiger Prawn (Penaeus monodonPenaeus monodon)) – Named for its huge size and banded tail,Named for its huge size and banded tail, P. monodonP. monodon still accounts for most of the farmed shrimp coming outstill accounts for most of the farmed shrimp coming out of Asia, but it's likely to lose that position toof Asia, but it's likely to lose that position to P.P. vannameivannamei over the next couple of years.over the next couple of years. – Native to the Indian Ocean and the southwesternNative to the Indian Ocean and the southwestern Pacific Ocean from Japan to Australia, "tigers" are thePacific Ocean from Japan to Australia, "tigers" are the largest (maximum length 363 mm) and fastest growinglargest (maximum length 363 mm) and fastest growing of the farmed shrimp.of the farmed shrimp. – They tolerate a wide range of salinities, but shortagesThey tolerate a wide range of salinities, but shortages of wild broodstock often exist, captive breeding isof wild broodstock often exist, captive breeding is difficult and hatchery survivals are low (20 to 30%).difficult and hatchery survivals are low (20 to 30%). Tigers are very susceptible to two of the most lethalTigers are very susceptible to two of the most lethal shrimp viruses: yellowhead and whitespot.shrimp viruses: yellowhead and whitespot. – Reddish-orange on the sides and pearly-white on theReddish-orange on the sides and pearly-white on the top and bottomtop and bottom
  26. 26. Penaeus monodonPenaeus monodon Black Tiger PrawnBlack Tiger Prawn
  27. 27. Shrimp SpeciesShrimp Species • Western White Shrimp (Western White Shrimp (Penaeus vannameiPenaeus vannamei)) – Native to the Pacific coast of Central and SouthNative to the Pacific coast of Central and South America,America, – Leading farm-raised species in the WesternLeading farm-raised species in the Western Hemisphere, representing more than 95% of production.Hemisphere, representing more than 95% of production. – Because vannamei feeds on organisms which growBecause vannamei feeds on organisms which grow naturally in the pond, it is cheaper to feed thannaturally in the pond, it is cheaper to feed than monodon.monodon. – White shrimp can be stocked at small sizes, have aWhite shrimp can be stocked at small sizes, have a uniform growth rate and reach a maximum length of 230uniform growth rate and reach a maximum length of 230 millimeters.millimeters. – They breed in captivity better than monodonThey breed in captivity better than monodon – Hatchery survivals are high, from 50 to 60%. ThroughoutHatchery survivals are high, from 50 to 60%. Throughout Latin America, hatcheries maintain captive stocks ofLatin America, hatcheries maintain captive stocks of vannamei broodstock.vannamei broodstock. – Look for it to become the dominant species in Asia overLook for it to become the dominant species in Asia over the next couple of years.the next couple of years.
  28. 28. Litopenaeus vannameiLitopenaeus vannamei Pacific White ShrimpPacific White Shrimp
  29. 29. Shrimp SpeciesShrimp Species • Chinese White ShrimpChinese White Shrimp (Penaeus chinensis(Penaeus chinensis)) – Native to the coast of China and the west coast ofNative to the coast of China and the west coast of the Korean peninsula.the Korean peninsula. – Chinese white shrimp grow better in lower waterChinese white shrimp grow better in lower water temperatures (down to 16 degrees Celsius) thantemperatures (down to 16 degrees Celsius) than vannameivannamei andand monodonmonodon – Tolerate muddy bottoms and very low salinities—Tolerate muddy bottoms and very low salinities— and, unlike the above species, Chinese whiteand, unlike the above species, Chinese white shrimp readily mature and spawn in ponds.shrimp readily mature and spawn in ponds. – On the negative side, they have a high proteinOn the negative side, they have a high protein requirement (40 to 60%), a small size (maximumrequirement (40 to 60%), a small size (maximum length of 183 millimeters), and a lower meat yieldlength of 183 millimeters), and a lower meat yield (56%) than(56%) than monodonmonodon (61%) and(61%) and vannameivannamei (63%).(63%). – Also,Also, chinensischinensis appears to be more susceptibleappears to be more susceptible to viruses thanto viruses than vannamei.vannamei.
  30. 30. Shrimp SpeciesShrimp Species • Freshwater Prawns (Freshwater Prawns (Macrobrachium sppMacrobrachium spp.).) – World production of farmed prawns has risen to aroundWorld production of farmed prawns has risen to around 200,000 metric tons, worth about a billion dollars, most200,000 metric tons, worth about a billion dollars, most of it from Bangladesh and China.of it from Bangladesh and China. – The genus Macrobrachium, which includes about 200The genus Macrobrachium, which includes about 200 species, almost all of which live in freshwater for atspecies, almost all of which live in freshwater for at least part of their life cycle, native to all continentsleast part of their life cycle, native to all continents except Europe.except Europe. – The favored species for farming has always been M.The favored species for farming has always been M. rosenbergii, sometimes called the "giant river prawn" orrosenbergii, sometimes called the "giant river prawn" or the "Malaysian prawnthe "Malaysian prawn – In the United States, there are more than 500 smallIn the United States, there are more than 500 small freshwater prawn farms (M. rosenbergii).freshwater prawn farms (M. rosenbergii). – Resemble giant tiger shrimp, but they're bigger,Resemble giant tiger shrimp, but they're bigger, chunkier, lighter in color, and their shells are always on.chunkier, lighter in color, and their shells are always on. – If the bottom part of the shell on the second tailIf the bottom part of the shell on the second tail segment overlaps the shell on the first and thirdsegment overlaps the shell on the first and third segments, it's a freshwater prawn.segments, it's a freshwater prawn.
  31. 31. Shrimp...Shrimp... • Brown shrimp (Brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus aztecusFarfantepenaeus aztecus)) – Found in Atlantic and Gulf of MexicoFound in Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico – Most abundant of the three Gulf ShrimpMost abundant of the three Gulf Shrimp – Closely related to the pink shrimpClosely related to the pink shrimp – The brown shrimp is found in murkier andThe brown shrimp is found in murkier and often deeper water.often deeper water. – Spawn offshore from November to April.Spawn offshore from November to April. – Young adults move out of protected marshYoung adults move out of protected marsh areas from May to July.areas from May to July. • Excellent bait speciesExcellent bait species candidate!candidate!
  32. 32. More SpeciesMore Species • White (Atlantic) shrimpWhite (Atlantic) shrimp ((Litopenaeus setiferusLitopenaeus setiferus)) – Found in Atlantic and Gulf of MexicoFound in Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico – Second most harvested species in the three Gulf ShrimpSecond most harvested species in the three Gulf Shrimp – The white shrimp is generally found in waters that areThe white shrimp is generally found in waters that are muddier, shallower, and less salty than waters wheremuddier, shallower, and less salty than waters where pink shrimp and brown shrimp livepink shrimp and brown shrimp live – Spawn offshore from March to OctoberSpawn offshore from March to October – Juvenile whites tolerate low salinity better than brownsJuvenile whites tolerate low salinity better than browns – Young adults migrate offshore from July to NovemberYoung adults migrate offshore from July to November
  33. 33. Shrimp SpeciesShrimp Species • Pink shrimpPink shrimp ((Farfantepenaeus duorarumFarfantepenaeus duorarum)) – Found in Atlantic and Gulf of MexicoFound in Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico – Least abundant of the three Gulf ShrimpLeast abundant of the three Gulf Shrimp – This species generally lives in clearThis species generally lives in clear waters.waters. – Spawn offshore from May throughSpawn offshore from May through NovemberNovember – Migrate out of marshes from April toMigrate out of marshes from April to SeptemberSeptember
  34. 34. Broodstock PerformanceBroodstock Performance • 40 g females, 35 g males40 g females, 35 g males • Daily spawning rate (natural mating),Daily spawning rate (natural mating), • As a % of the total female population: 5-8%/dayAs a % of the total female population: 5-8%/day • Egg Production:Egg Production: 200-250,000 per female per200-250,000 per female per spawnspawn.. • Nauplii production: 100-150,000 per female perNauplii production: 100-150,000 per female per spawn.spawn. • Useful productive life of the broodstock: 3-6Useful productive life of the broodstock: 3-6 monthsmonths • Total spawns per female during her useful life:Total spawns per female during her useful life: 10-1510-15
  35. 35. Specific Pathogen FreeSpecific Pathogen Free • White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV)White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) • Taura Syndrome Virus (TSV)Taura Syndrome Virus (TSV) • Yellow Head Virus (YHV)Yellow Head Virus (YHV) • IHHN Virus (IHHNV)IHHN Virus (IHHNV) • MBVMBV • BP/MBVBP/MBV • HPVHPV • NHPNHP • GregarinesGregarines • MicrosporidiansMicrosporidians • HaplosporidiansHaplosporidians
  36. 36. Pond DesignPond Design • 1 to 25 A in size1 to 25 A in size • Silt soilSilt soil • Good water sourceGood water source – Saline wellSaline well – Pumped fromPumped from oceanocean – Hauled fromHauled from oceanocean • Rectangular inRectangular in shapeshape
  37. 37. Pond PreparationPond Preparation
  38. 38. Levels of Pond CultureLevels of Pond Culture ExtensiveExtensive Semi-Semi- intensiveintensive IntensiveIntensive Super-Super- intensiveintensive DensityDensity 0.2 – 5 /m0.2 – 5 /m22 5 – 20 /m5 – 20 /m22 15 – 50 /m15 – 50 /m22 50 – 200 /m50 – 200 /m22 NutritionNutrition Nat. Prod.Nat. Prod. Supp. + Nat.Supp. + Nat. Prod.Prod. FeedFeed FeedFeed AerationAeration NoneNone SometimesSometimes ContinuousContinuous ContinuousContinuous WaterWater ExchangeExchange Rate/dayRate/day TidalTidal 1-20% Evap.1-20% Evap. LossLoss 5-30%5-30% 50-200%50-200%
  39. 39. Water Quality for Growout PondsWater Quality for Growout Ponds • Temperature:Temperature: >> 68F68F • Salinity: 0.5 - 35 pptSalinity: 0.5 - 35 ppt • Dissolved Oxygen:Dissolved Oxygen: >> 5 ppm5 ppm • pH: 7.0 – 8.3pH: 7.0 – 8.3 • Unionized Ammonia:Unionized Ammonia: << 0.01 ppm0.01 ppm • Nitrite:Nitrite: << 1.0 ppm1.0 ppm • Nitrate:Nitrate: << 60 ppm60 ppm
  40. 40. Aeration!!!Aeration!!!
  41. 41. Potential Pond ProductionPotential Pond Production • 1500-3000 lbs/A1500-3000 lbs/A – Low salinity 0 – 2000 lbs/A (Mean 650Low salinity 0 – 2000 lbs/A (Mean 650 lbs/A)lbs/A) • Mean individual weights shouldMean individual weights should range between 15-30grange between 15-30g • 80 + % survival80 + % survival • Feed conversion 2:1Feed conversion 2:1
  42. 42. Biosecure Zero ExchangeBiosecure Zero Exchange SystemSystem
  43. 43. BioZEST System in ArizonaBioZEST System in Arizona
  44. 44. Acclimation to Low SalinityAcclimation to Low Salinity SalinitySalinity Change (PPT)Change (PPT) TimeTime (hrs)(hrs) Change PerChange Per Hour (PPT)Hour (PPT) 32 to 1632 to 16 88 22 16 to 816 to 8 88 11 8 to 48 to 4 88 0.50.5 4 to 24 to 2 88 0.250.25 2 to 12 to 1 88 0.1250.125 1 to 0.51 to 0.5 88 0.0630.063
  45. 45. Marketing ShrimpMarketing Shrimp • Price ranges from $1-4/lb heads on orPrice ranges from $1-4/lb heads on or $4-10/lb tails (Size dependant)$4-10/lb tails (Size dependant) • Sell to wholesalerSell to wholesaler • ProcessProcess – Remove headRemove head – HACCP certification requiredHACCP certification required – Market IQF or block frozen productMarket IQF or block frozen product
  46. 46. Culture of Marine Shrimp By Leonard Lovshin Department of Fisheries and Allied Aquaculture Auburn University, AL 36849 USA
  47. 47. Major Culture Species Pacific white shrimp Peneaus vannamei Pacific tiger shrimp Peneaus monodon
  48. 48. Native Range P. vannamei P. monodon
  49. 49. Pacific white shrimp biology Food habits – benthic organizms, detritus Preferred water temperatures – 25 to 30o C Preferred salinity – 15 to 25 ppt Sexual maturity - 1 year
  50. 50. Life Cycle Adults spawn at sea, the eggs and larvae drift to inshore estuaries where the juveniles grow. Adults move back to sea to spawn.
  51. 51. Marine shrimp have been harvested from coastal waters, processed and shipped as frozen product for many years. Shrimp farmers took advantage of the infrastructure to market cultured shrimp.
  52. 52. Shrimp postlarvae can be captured from the wild Push nets
  53. 53. Shrimp postlarvae can be produced in hatcheries Nauplii stage Zoea stage Mysis stage
  54. 54. Mature adults for spawning in hatcheries are captured from the ocean or raised in captivity. Ocean captivity broodstock
  55. 55. Wild and hatchery produced postlarvae are stocked into earthen ponds for grow-out
  56. 56. Ponds should be built on salt flats, which are covered during high tide twice a month. Mangrove forest should be preserved. Mangroves are flooded daily by the high tides
  57. 57. Ponds are 5 to 10 ha in area, water depth averages 1 m and bottoms are flat and slope to a drain to aid shrimp harvest.
  58. 58. Ponds are filled with saltwater pumped from estuaries into canals that distribute water to every pond. diesel pumps
  59. 59. Drain structures are “monks” or sluice gates which control water level, top or bottom water release and keep shrimp from escaping the pond.
  60. 60. Shrimp can be cultured: 1.Extensively 2.Semi-intensively 3.Intensively
  61. 61. Postlarvae enter the pond with the tide or are stocked at < 4/m3 . Sometimes the pond entrance is screened to limit entrance of predators. Water is not fertilized and shrimp are not fed. Extensive culture
  62. 62. Semi-intensive culture Postlarvae are stocked into ponds at 15 to 25/m3 and are fed daily. Some water exchange is practiced to maintain water quality.
  63. 63. Shrimp are fed sinking pellets which are distributed over the pond surface. Feeding trays are sometimes used to help determine shrimp appetite.
  64. 64. Intensive Culture Shrimp are stocked at 35 -250/m2 in tanks and small ponds with heavy aeration and water exchange.
  65. 65. Ponds are fed daily Shrimp are sampled weekly to check growth rate Intensive Culture
  66. 66. Expansion of pond area leads to poor water quality and high shrimp mortality Water intake pipes and effluent release in Taiwan
  67. 67. Diseases have reduced the shrimp harvest in many countries. Black-spot disease Taura virus
  68. 68. Shrimp are benthic animals and live on the pond bottom. Pond bottoms should be dried to oxidize organic matter in pond mud before stocking shrimp. Reducing organic material improves water quality.
  69. 69. Shrimp are harvested as they pass through the sluice gate during pond draining.
  70. 70. Yields are: 1.Extensive – 500 kg/ha/crop 2. Semi-intensive – 1,000 to 1,500 kg/ha/crop 3. Intensive – 10,000 to 20,000 kg/ha/crop
  71. 71. Shrimp are transported to processors that freeze the whole or deheaded shrimp in blocks of water by size.
  72. 72. Most cultured shrimp is exported to the U. S., Europe and Japan.
  73. 73. capture 74% aquaculture 26% 3,081 mmt 1,087 mmt The harvest of marine shrimp by wild capture and aquaculture in 2000
  74. 74. World harvest of farmed marine shrimp in 2000 was 1,087,111 MT Ecuador 81000 MT India 73,000 MT China 114,000 MT Thailand 204,000 MT Indonesia 98,000 MT
  75. 75. The East produced 90% of the world farmed marine shrimp while the West produced 10 %.
  76. 76. Harvest of marine shrimp in the U. S. in 1999 was 2,098 MT, less than 0.2 % of world harvest.
  77. 77. Excellent markets and ease of culture has made shrimp one of the fastest growing aquaculture industries during the past 20 years. THE END

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